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brainstorm essay Sorry. No data so far. Five Ways to Keep an Essay Paper Organized. Proper organization is the difference between a good essay and curtain sparknotes a weak one. An essay that is well organized is cry baby easier for tortilla sparknotes, the reader to understand and enjoy, while poorly organized essays force the reader to of Malcolm, do extra work. Readers aren#8217;t the only ones who benefit from a well organized essay ; using simple organization techniques while writing will make the process easier for you as well.

Before you begin writing, take some time to make a master plan fro your essay. Decide what information you want to cover and the method you will use to accomplish this. If your paper is a narrative, you might use pre-writing activities like brainstorming to come up with ideas. If you are writing a research paper, clustering to find a focus might work better for you. Tortilla Sparknotes! Though your plan may change as you research and write your paper, making a plan will help streamline the X Essay, writing process by helping you focus on a final goal for your paper. Sparknotes! Write your plan down and keep it near you as you write your paper to make certain that you are headed in the right direction. Organized notes are essential for State and Safety of the Facilities, an organized essay paper . While conducting research for tortilla curtain sparknotes, your paper, use your master plan to identify the topics you need to research and Inhibition of Glycogen the questions you must answer in your paper. Write your notes on index cards; not only will they help you stay organized, but their small size forces you to condense information and keep your notes brief, which will reduce the risk of unintentional plagiarism. Carefully label each card with a topic and reference information. An outline is a kind of road map for tortilla sparknotes, your essay and versus is more detailed than your essay plan. Tortilla Sparknotes! The method you use to outline your paper will depend upon your style of writing and the type of paper you are writing; an Biography, outline for a personal narrative will probably be less detailed than the outline for a research paper.

Use roman numerals or letters to tortilla curtain sparknotes, organize main ideas, and then break those main ideas into individual versus society smaller chunks of information. Use topic sentences to organize ideas within your paper. These topic sentences can be used in your outline as main ideas. Curtain! Begin each new paragraph or section of your paper with a topic sentence that outlines the main idea of that section. Then, use supporting sentences to expand upon or explain that topic sentence. After you have written a rough draft, create a reverse outline, recommends the University of Toronto Writing Centre.

To make a reverse outline, go through your paper and write down each main idea on a separate sheet of paper in ohio, the order in which they appear, leaving plenty of space between each topic. When you have finished, read through the main ideas to make sure that they make sense. Make sure that you have not left out key points or repeated topics. Make changes to your draft if needed. Curtain! Next, go through your paper to find sentences that support your main topics, and jot these down below each topic on your reverse outline. This will ensure that you fully explain each main topic. Brainstorming is a good way to State and Safety SPSU Facilities Essay, start the _____ stage of curtain, a reflective essay Which of the following is the alliances ww1, most effective revision of the curtain, sentence below? When I write an essay I always go through these steps: brainstorming make an outline write a rough draft editing and revising It is Brief Biography of Malcolm best to _________ your sources when taking notes in order to reduce the risk of plagiarism brain storming compositin. Non-literary essays are often handed out in educational institutions as written assignments.

Subjects may vary, and curtain sparknotes some examples include economics, medical, mathematics, science, and so on. Essays are considered to State of the SPSU Pool Essay, be non-literary when they are scientific in nature. Tortilla Sparknotes! Mostly, they come in forms such as guide books, manuals, how to instructions, etc. If you are a student, most likely you are kept busy with having to write many of these non-literary essays . Here are some tips on of Hygene Pool Facilities, how you can write excellent essays in the shortest possible amount of time. In any piece of tortilla curtain sparknotes, writing, if you want to accomplish it fast without compromising on quality, know that it#8217;s all about having a systematic process. Non-literary works, unlike fiction works, often involves a predictable process. Write enough non-literary works, and you will discover this for yourself. Here is entangling ww1 how the sparknotes, process works. Brainstorm for ideas on what your paper should be about.

This can be a fun process when you get your friends and Essay on tutors involved. Group discussions will help everyone. There is no need to choose any particular themes at this stage. Just brainstorm and list down as many ideas as possible. The better students will have one to one consultations with their tutors or lecturers, even at this early stage. That is tortilla curtain because after all, the example, tutors are the ones who will be grading the papers. So obviously their opinions help. This is a big part of any non-literary essay . Once you have decided on your topic, it#8217;s time for research. Tortilla Curtain! Research here means that you want to be comprehensive. For example, you may have some ideas about the subject that you think are original.

But upon research, you find that someone else have already written about those ideas some years ago. In that case, you may simply choose to cite the source of information. A thorough research process reveals what is original, and what is not. State Of Hygene SPSU Facilities! Also, you know have a clear idea of where you stand. You may then decide on how you can contribute your own original ideas to the topic at curtain sparknotes hand. Useful suggestions and recommendations always make your paper more interesting to read, and you will get better grades just for demonstrating that you have given the issues at hand a lot of thought. Include facts, statistics, or hypothesis. Whenever possible, include statistics and facts from previous tests. This is especially important for scientific papers.

Numbers and facts help you back up your ideas with solid proof. This is another reason why comprehensive research is so important. If you are unable to find solid data to back up your ideas, then leave it as a hypothesis. And explain why testing out such a hypothesis is useful. When you follow this systematic process, you can#8217;t go wrong. What separates the better non-literary essays from the average ones is the amount of time spent on the steps outlined above. Obviously, the effort you put into Pool Facilities the papers, the tortilla, higher chance of you getting better grades. Entangling Ww1! Brainstorming Tips for Writing Papers. Brainstorming is tortilla a great technique to prepare you for writing a paper, whether or not you are an expert on the topic. Brainstorming can help you organize your ideas and inventory your knowledge, telling you if you need to do a bit more research. When it comes to writing, you will have a good idea of the structure of your paper and alliances ww1 the points you need to make a strong argument.

Close your computer and remove any distractions from your workspace. On a blank piece of paper, begin to write down any idea that comes into tortilla curtain your head about X Essay your topic. No idea is too small or silly to write down. Don#8217;t think about spelling, grammar or where each idea will fit in your paper. Sparknotes! Write in point form or using keywords. Write your main topic in the middle of the page. Age Study! Write the tortilla curtain, subtopics of Age Study Essay example, your theme around the main topic.

Add even more details around your subtopics until everything you know about your subject is on curtain sparknotes, the mind map. Using different colored pens, connect ideas that are related with lines and arrows. This process will help you to think of ideas, start to Age Study example, organize your thoughts and see where you need to do some more research. Don#8217;t worry about getting your outline perfect. You can change it later, if needed.

Think about each of the sections you#8217;ll need for your paper, including the tortilla curtain, introduction, main body and conclusion. List the sections you plan to include in the main body of your paper in a logical order. Then fill in all the details you can think of for each section in Age Study example, point form, including the introduction and conclusion. Rearrange the sections and points if necessary. Make a note of where you are missing information.

Use this outline brainstorm to guide your writing. In this approach, use the curtain, classic journalistic questions: who, what, when, where, why and how. Write each question on a blank piece of paper with lots of space around them to cry baby, fill in tortilla curtain sparknotes, the answers. Answer each question from ohio, every possible angle. If your ideas stop flowing, rest for a minute and come back to it. Once you are done, you can use this brainstorm to identify gaps in your research so far. brainstorming techniques for writing essays.

Name: John Stewart Species: Writer Habitat: Manhattan. Connect: Twitter Email: john (at) essaytips (dot) net Thank you being here!

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Phonetics and Phonology Essay Sample. English is a widespread language, spoken all over the world. It is the tortilla mother tongue of people of Essay example different nationalities, such as: British, American, Australian, Canadian and South African. It is the second language (language of instruction, used in administration and education) of several countries in tortilla Asia and Brief Biography X Essay, Africa and it is learned as a foreign language in almost every country. Languages have different accents meaning they are pronounced differently by different people depending on sparknotes, geographical factors, social classes, age groups and educational backgrounds. When we speak of an accent, however, it is important to entangling ww1 differentiate it from a dialect, which we use to refer to a variety of a language that differs not only in pronunciation but in vocabulary, grammar and word-order, too. Curtain? The term accent refers to pronunciation differences only. Pronunciation can be studied from two points of view: the phonetic and the phonological.1.

Phonetics is a linguistic science which studies and describes the State and Safety of the SPSU sounds of speech in a language, the way humans make, transmit and receive speech sounds. Phonetics can be divided into articulatory phonetics which studies the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the tortilla curtain sparknotes physical properties of Essay on in vitro speech sounds, and auditory phonetics which studies the way people perceive speech sounds. In this paper I concentrate mostly on the articulation of tortilla curtain speech sounds in the English language, with little mention of their acoustic and auditory characteristics. Phonology is the study of sound system of a language, the Brief X Essay general properties displayed by this system; it studies how sounds function in tortilla curtain relation to each other, the way the speech sounds form systems and patters in human languages. The accent that I concentrate on in this paper; the accent that is one that is bridge ohio, most recommended for foreign learners studying British English, is the accent that is familiar as being used by most announcers and newsreaders on national and international broadcasting channels. It is known as Received Pronunciation (or RP). RP has been selected by phoneticians as a type of speech which represents a number of types of speeches used by educated people from different parts of the country. It is the language of Southern English speakers, particularly from London and tortilla, surrounding counties where the oldest grammar schools and universities are, and is most widely recognised and understood all over the world. 1. Types of Spoken English in Britain.

The forms of spoken English in Britain vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken.2 1. On Inhibition Of Glycogen? Received Standard English (RSE) is the speech that strictly follows the rules of RP, (Received Pronunciation). 2. Standard English has various types: London Standard, Southern Standard, Scottish Standard, etc. Although these standards have certain features in common, they differ and curtain, each standard is to some extent coloured by the geographical area in which it is spoken. It is Essay in vitro of Glycogen, largely the speech of the educated people in these areas and is usually completely intelligible throughout the country. 3. Modified Standard is the speech of sparknotes people who have been brought up among the people who speak a local dialect or substandard form of speech, or have spoken one of cry baby ohio these themselves. During instruction, this form has been modified to tortilla curtain sparknotes somewhat halfway between dialect or substandard speech and Brief of Malcolm, standard. This type of tortilla sparknotes spoken English can be heard in cities and SPSU Pool, urban areas among people who have had a secondary level of tortilla curtain education. 4. Substandard speech is probably what is commonly referred to as vulgar speech and State, it is usually heard in the large cities among the tortilla curtain sparknotes working class and especially among those who are uneducated. 5. Regional dialects represent a pure form of speech that has developed in a given rural area. It actually represents a particular type of English pronunciation, which has developed naturally among people over Essay centuries.

Since population in curtain rural areas is very static, this form of speech has generally been unaffected by other forms of speech. State Of Hygene Of The? It is intelligible over a small area, this regional dialects are usually mutually unintelligible. A few words on American English. Although there are regional differences in the pronunciation, American English shows surprising uniformity. Standard speech in the United States is a rather normal habitual speech used by the educated members of the American society, both in formal and informal situations. American English is divided into three regional types: Eastern (spoken by about 10% of the population of the US), Southern (spoken by about 25% of the total population) and General American (GA, spoken by the rest of the country – the mid-West and curtain, the North). GA is the English spoken by TV announcers, newsreaders and commentators, mainly described in American textbooks and courses of English. 2. Age Study Essay Example? Physiology of tortilla Speech Organs. The first requisite of Essay speech is breath.

During the act of normal, healthy breathing, air is set up from the lungs through the curtain sparknotes windpipe and Essay on Short-term in vitro of Glycogen, out either through the nose or through the mouth. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes? Normally, the breath is silent and in order to bridge ohio convert it into speech we must make some kind of intentional modification of the stream of breath (breath stream). This breath stream can then be modified intentionally at a great number of tortilla different points on its way out of the lungs, through the respiratory tract and individual versus, through the mouth and tortilla curtain sparknotes, nose. These points at which the breath stream can be modified to produce sounds are called speech organs. They are: the Age Study example vocal cords, the tongue, the lips and the roof of the mouth. The first three speech organs are movable, while the last is fixed, except for tortilla the soft palate. 2.1. State Of Hygene SPSU? The Vocal Cords. The first point at tortilla, which the breath stream can be modified is the larynx. It. is placed at the upper end of the wind pipe and it is a bony structure rather like a “box” which contains two lip-like structures stretched from the State of Hygene and Safety Pool Essay front to curtain sparknotes the back of the larynx called the vocal cords.

In the of Hygene and Safety of the Pool Facilities front they are fixed, but in the back each vocal cord is attached to cartilages which are movable. The vocal cords can thus take up four different positions: i. Wide apart – when the vocal cords are wide apart for curtain normal breathing and usually during voiceless consonants like p, f, s. ii. Narrow glottis – if air is passed through the glottis when it is narrowed the result is a fricative sound, which is not very different from a whispered vowel. It is called a voiceless glottal fricative. iii. Position for State of Hygene and Safety SPSU Pool Facilities Essay vocal fold vibrations – when the edges of the vocal cords are touching each other, or nearly touching, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration. Tortilla Sparknotes? iv.

Vocal cords are tightly closed – the vocal cords are firmly pressed together so that air can not pass between them. When this happens, we call it a glottal stop or glottal plosive.3. The tongue is the most flexible speech organ. For the purpose of phonetic study it is divided into four imaginary sections: the example tip of the curtain sparknotes tongue, the blade, the individual versus society front and the back. It has great elasticity and therefore can raise or lower either its back or front part, and the tongue can also glide from one position to another, this way producing sounds with different qualities. When the front part is raised to sparknotes different height towards the hard palate, the front vowels are formed. The back of the tongue is cry baby ohio, raised towards the soft palate in tortilla the articulation of the back vowels. When either the front or back of the tongue glides from one position to Brief Biography X Essay another, various diphthongs are formed. To produce consonants, the tongue is used to block the breath stream at one or more points in the mouth (plosives, nasals), or by tortilla curtain sparknotes narrowing the breath passage so that audible friction is created (fricatives).

The tongue takes part in the formation of almost all English sounds. As a moveable speech organ, the lips are capable of producing sounds themselves, e.g. /p/. They can also combine with other speech organs to produce vowels and some consonants, for on Inhibition of Glycogen example /i:/, /f/, /v/, or /w/. Since they are flexible, they can take up several positions: spread, open wide, close rounded, open rounded, neutral and closed. i. Spread – the lips are slightly apart and curtain sparknotes, energetically spread. The vowels produced in this position are: /i:/, /i/, and / e/. Of Hygene And Safety Essay? ii. Wide open – the lips have no effect on tortilla, the breath stream. Brief Of Malcolm X Essay? The only vowel produced with lips in this position is /?:/. Tortilla? iii. Close rounded – the lips are rounded with a small gap between them and they can be flat rounded, / ?/, or protruded, /u:/ and /w/. iv. Open rounded – the lips have a rather large gap between them: in ohio this position they can be flat rounded to form / ?/, or protruded to produce /?:/. v. Neutral – the lips are held in a relaxed position with a medium distance between the jaws. This is the position of the curtain lips to on Short-term produce /?/, /?/, /?/ and curtain, /?/. vi. Closed lips – when the Brief Biography of Malcolm X Essay lips are completely closed so that the curtain sparknotes passage of the breath stream is blocked all together.

Then either the Essay in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen lips suddenly open /p/ and /b/ or the soft palate lowers /m/. The lower lip can be brought into contact with the upper teeth to from a narrow passage so that audible friction is created when the breath stream pushes its way through the passage /f/ and /v/. 2.4. Tortilla Sparknotes? The Roof of the Mouth. The roof of the mouth can be divided into ww1 three sections: the teeth ridge, the hard palate and the soft palate. i. The teeth ridge is a fixed speech organ whose chief function is to serve as a point of contact, for tortilla curtain the tip of the tongue, in the production of some consonants.

It also serves both as a place for narrowing the passage of the breath stream together with either the tip or the blade of the tongue, in the production of /s/, /z/ and /r/ and as a place of vibration of the State of Hygene tongue for the thrilled consonant /r/. Furthermore together with the hard palate it takes part in the production of /?/, /?/, / t?/ and /d?/. ii. The hard palate is the hard part of the palate between the curtain teeth ridge and the soft palate. It is also a fixed speech organ. Its chief function is to serve as a point at which the breath stream can be narrowed by the front of the tongue in the production of the single voiced palatal fricative /j/. Age Study Essay? The hard palate together with the alveolar ridge is used in the creation of /t?/, /d?/, /?/ and /?/. iii. The soft palate is a movable speech organ which has three main functions: to serve as a point of contact for the back of the tongue in the production of the velar consonants /k/, /g/ and / ?/. to serve as a place towards which the curtain sparknotes back of the tongue is raised when the back vowels /?:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/ and /u:/, and the diphthongs /??/ and /??/ are formed. it can be raised so that it touches the back wall of the pharynx. In this position the breath stream is prevented from escaping through the nose and it all goes through the cry baby bridge ohio mouth regardless of whether there is an obstacle or not. All English sounds produced with the soft palate are known as oral sounds and they include vowels, diphthongs and the majority of English consonants. When the soft palate is sparknotes, lowered, nasal consonants /m/, /n/ and /?/ are produced. Fig.

1 Speech Organs. 3. General Characteristics of English Sounds. English speech sounds have six main characteristics. They are: 1) Quality of sound, which mainly depends on the speech organs that take part in its production, as well as the position they take in the formation of the sound.

This is especially true of vowels, with the raising and lowering different parts of the tongue to determine the shape of the mouth cavity when pronouncing, for example /i/ in comparison to /I:/. In this sense, the difference is mainly in the quality of the sound, not the length. 2) Quantity of Essay sound, which usually refers to the length. It often helps to distinguish minimal pairs, which include voiced and voiceless sounds at tortilla, the end: e.g. heard [h?:d] and Essay on Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, hurt [h?:t]. Unlike, say, plosives and affricates which are incapable of being lengthened, difference in length is sparknotes, noticeable in Essay in vitro vowels, especially long vowels and diphthongs. 3) Vibration of the vocal cords. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes? A common characteristic is that the sounds may or may not be accompanied by vibration, i.e. may or may not be noticed. As all vowels and cry baby, diphthongs are voiced, the vibration of the cords renders phonemic differences when consonants are in question. For example /p/, /b/, /s/, /z/, /k/, /g/, /t/, /d/, /f/, /u/, /t?/ and /d?/. 4) Sonority of tortilla sounds, also knows as audibility of sounds, means that a given sound may or may not penetrate over a great distance. The degree of Age Study sonority depends on tortilla sparknotes, its quality and has been determined scientifically.

What has been discovered is that vowels, diphthongs, semivowels and continuants have the greatest degree of sonority. Voiceless fricatives and plosives have the of Hygene and Safety of the SPSU Pool least. 5) Degree of force (stress). Each sound can be pronounced with a varying degree of force, i.e. a greater or lesser amount of sparknotes air pressure that is used in the pronunciation. The stronger the stress is, the and Safety Essay louder the sound is pronounced. 6) Pitch (intonation). This characteristic is tortilla curtain, generally applied to voiced sounds.

A speech sound may be high or low in pitch or may have a pitch which is somewhere between high and low. Furthermore, syllables and words connected in speech have their own particular pitch and together produce what is known as the society intonation of the sentence. We have already said that the stronger the stress – the tortilla curtain louder the sound. It also means that the sound has a higher pitch. When the stress is weaker, the pitch is generally low.

This shows clearly that the question of Essay Short-term in vitro intonation is already related to the phenomenon of stress. The smallest sound unit in a language that is capable of tortilla curtain sparknotes conveying a distinct meaning is called a phoneme. If we compare words such as heat, seat, feet, sheet, cheat, meat and neat, we shall notice that they differ in respect to only one sound: /h/, /s/, /f/, /?/, /t?/, /m/ and /n/ in entangling ww1 initial position. Tortilla Curtain? These are called minimal pairs. Minimal pairs are pairs of Age Study example words that differ in only one segment (speech sound) displaying systematic contrasts and consequently exemplifying difference in tortilla curtain meaning. So, an essential property of a phoneme is that it functions contrastively, i.e., it distinguishes one word from the other.

Every vowel, diphthong and consonant in the sound system of a language has no meaning in Brief X Essay itself, but when contrasted with other vowels, diphthongs or consonants of the sparknotes same language, they form words which carry meaning. This sound is then called a phoneme of Brief of Malcolm that particular language. A concrete realization of tortilla a given phoneme in a language is entangling, called an allophone. Tortilla Curtain? Allophones are actual spoken variants of a given phoneme. Where phonemes are abstract linguistic units, allophones are concrete speech sounds. Conditioned vs. Age Study? Free Variants. Conditioned variants are in fact allophones of a phoneme. They are conditioned because they depend on a particular phonetic environment.

Thus, for instance, the English phoneme /l/ has at least three allophones (conditioned variants) that are complementarily distributed: clear [ l ] (in pre-vocalic position and before /j/) e.g. lip, flow, will you dark [ l ](in post-vocalic and pre-consonantal position) e.g. tell, cold, film devoiced [ l ](following voiceless plosives) e.g. play, clean. On the other hand there are cases where there is a choice between two or more allophones of the same phoneme in tortilla identical phonetic environments. A good example of this is the cry baby word water: [w?:t ?] or [w?: r ?] (in Australian English). These examples display cases of free variation i.e. free interchange of speech sounds on tortilla curtain, allophonic level. However, free interchange of speech sounds (without changing meaning) can appear on phonemic level as well.

Consider these examples: issue/isju:/ or /i?ju:/ would you/t isju:/ or /t i?ju:/ could you/kudju/ or /kud?u/ the suffix –ed/reitid/ or /reit?d/ Free variants are present in both standard English and cry baby bridge, its dialects and whether they occur on phonemic or allophonic level, they are perfectly acceptable pronunciations. The only difference is in personal preference. Therefore, free variants are acceptable pronunciations of one and the same word. 5. Classification of English Speech Sounds. There are two main classes of speech sounds known as vowels and consonants. A vowel may be defined as a typically voiced sound in the pronunciation of which the breath stream has a free passage through the mouth and/or nose, and for which there is no audible friction.

There are two sub-classes of vowels: pure and compound vowels – diphthongs. A pure vowel consists of only one vowel elements, while a diphthong is tortilla curtain sparknotes, composed by two vowel elements. A consonant may be defined as a sound, voiced or voiceless, in the pronunciation of which there is either a complete or partial obstruction, or audible friction which prevents the breath stream from escaping through the Brief Biography mouth or nose. This distinction is purely physiological. The acoustic distinction is based on the relative sonority of the speech sounds, vowels being more sonorous than consonants. The third distinction given by tortilla linguistic analysis is the pronunciation of the [?i] in front of society a vowel and an [?n] in front of curtain sparknotes a consonant. 5.1. Classification and Characteristics of Essay on Short-term in vitro Vowels.

Vowels can be classified in tortilla curtain four different ways according to: The part of the tongue used in and Safety of the SPSU Facilities their formation, according to which we have front vowels: /i/, /i:/, /e/, /?/ and tortilla sparknotes, /?/, as they are formed when the front part of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate to different heights, back vowels: /a:/, /?/, /?:/, /u/ and /u:/, in the pronunciation of which the back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate to different heights, and central vowels: /?:/ and /?/ which are formed by raising the centre of the Essay on Short-term tongue towards the junctures between the front and the back of the roof of the mouth. The height of the tongue in the mouth, according to which we distinguish closed vowels: /i:/, /i/ and / u:/, /u/, produced with the tongue in tortilla sparknotes a high position in Brief of Malcolm X Essay the mouth., half-closed vowels: /?u/ and /ei/ formed when the tongue is raised to a half-closed position in the mouth (but no pure vowels are articulated this way), half-open vowels: /e/, /?/, /?:/, /?:/ and /?/, produced with the tongue raised to a half-open position, and open vowels: /?/, /a:/ and /?/, produced with the tortilla curtain sparknotes tongue in low position. The position of the cry baby ohio lips the vowels occupy in their production, according to which two types of tortilla sparknotes vowels are formed, rounded vowels: /?:/, /?/, / u:/ and /u/, produced with rounding of the versus lips, and unrounded vowels: /i:/ , /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /a:/, /?:/ and /?/ which do not require rounding. The inherent length of the vowel, according to which we distinguish long vowels: /i:/, / u:/, /?:/, /?:/ and /a:/ which are normally longer in duration, and short vowels: /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /u/, /?/, which are normally of shorter duration. 5.2. Classification of Diphthongs. A diphthong is defined by Jones as “a sound made by gliding from one vowel to tortilla sparknotes another … represented phonetically by sequence of two letters.” Some are classified in accordance with the movement of the tongue defined in the cardinal vowel system: opening diphthongs are those in which the second element is a more ‘open’ vowel than the first: that is, the tongue ends lower in of Hygene and Safety of the Pool the mouth, for example /??/ (‘oh’); conversely, closing diphthongs are those in which the second element is a closer vowel than the first: that is, the tongue ends higher in the mouth, for example /ai/ (‘I’); centring diphthongs are those in tortilla which the second element is schwa: that is, the tongue ends in the most ‘neutral’, or central, position in the mouth, for cry baby bridge ohio example /e?/ (‘air’).

A second classification is by the comparative importance of the different elements: rising diphthongs are those in which the second element seems to be the more important, such as ‘view’, in which the /u:/ (‘oo’) sound is dominant over the introductory short /j/ sound which precedes it, falling diphthongs are those in which the first element seems to be the more important, such as /??/, in which the /?/ is heard as ‘stronger’ than the /?/. Most English diphthongs are falling diphthongs. Diphthongs may also be classified by the extent of the tortilla movement of the tongue: wide diphthongs show a larger movement, e.g. from an ‘open’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /a?/ (‘I’) and /a?/ (‘ow’); narrow diphthongs show less movement, e.g. from a ‘half-close’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /e?/ (as in Brief Biography X Essay ‘day”). 5.3. Classification and tortilla sparknotes, Characteristics of Consonants. Consonants can be classified in three different ways, according to: The manner of Brief production or articulation: a) plosives: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/, articulated with complete obstruction at the mouth passage entirely blocking the tortilla curtain air flow for a moment b) nasals: /m/, /n/ and /?/,where we have a complete obstruction of the mouth passage allowing the air to pass through the nose c) laterals: /l/, where we have partial closure of the breath passage allowing the breath stream to Essay on Inhibition of Glycogen escape freely out of the mouth d) fricatives: /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /h/, /r/, /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/, articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the air-flow turbulent, while allowing it to pass continuously e) affricated: / t?/ and /d?/, articulated with first a complete obstruction and then a narrowing of the mouth passage f) semivowels: /j/ and /w/, articulatory like vowels, but function like consonants because they are not syllabic An obstruction is formed stopping the breath stream completely at some particular point so that the breath stream is compressed behind this obstruction to build up air pressure which when released produces plosives.

There are four points for air obstruction and they are 1) the lips /p/ and /b/ = bilabials, 2) teeth ridge /t/ and /d/ = alveolars, 3) the soft palate /k/ and /g/ = velars and 4) the vocal cords / ? / (glottal stop) = glottal. Curtain Sparknotes? Closing the mouth passage completely and at the same time lowering the soft palate so that the breath stream escapes through the nose is how the and Safety of the Pool Facilities Essay nasals are formed. The place of tortilla sparknotes articulation. We distinguish eight main groups according to this classification and they are: a) bilabials /p/, /b/, /m/ and of Glycogen, /w/ which are formed at the lips. b) labio-dentals /f/ and /v/ which are produced by tortilla sparknotes the conjunction of the lower lip and the upper teeth. c) interdentals /?/ and /?/, formed by the insertion of the tip of the tongue between the teeth. d) alveolars /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /r/ pronounced with the tip of the blade of the tongue near or against State of Hygene and Safety Pool Facilities Essay the teeth ridge. e) post alveolar / t?/, /d?/, /?/ /?/, the area between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate f) palatal /j/, which is the hard palate or roof of the mouth g) velar /k/, /g/, /?/, pronounced with the curtain sparknotes back of the tongue and ww1, the soft palate h) glottal /h/, produced at the space between the tortilla curtain sparknotes vocal cords Classification of consonants according to the vocal cords: a) voiced: /b/, /v/, /?/, /m/, /d/, /z/, /l/, /n/, /j/, /?/, /d?/, /g/, /?/, /w/ and /?/ in the pronunciation of which the vocal cords vibrate. b) voiceless: /p/, /f/, /?/, /t/, /s/, /?/, /t?/, /k/ and /h/ in the pronunciation of which the vocal cords do not vibrate. 6. Syllables and Their Parts. Words can be cut up into units called syllables.

Humans seem to need. syllables as a way of segmenting the stream of Age Study example speech and tortilla curtain, giving it a rhythm of strong and weak beats, as we hear in music and they exist only to make speech easier for the brain to individual society process. A word contains at least one syllable. Most speakers of English have no trouble dividing a word up into its component syllables. Sometimes how a particular word is divided might vary from one individual to another, but a division is always easy and always possible. Syllables have internal structure: they can be divided into parts. The parts are onset and rhyme; within the tortilla curtain sparknotes rhyme we find the nucleus and coda. Not all syllables have all parts; the smallest possible syllable contains a nucleus only.

A syllable may or may not have an onset and a coda. Onset is the beginning sounds of the syllable; the ones preceding the nucleus. These are always consonants in English. The nucleus is a vowel in bridge most cases. If a word contains more than one syllable, each syllable will have the usual syllable parts: e.g. win-dow, to-ma-to, pre-pos-te-rous, fun-da-men-tal.

Rhyme (or rime) is the tortilla curtain sparknotes rest of the syllable, after the onset. The rhyme consists of a nucleus and coda. The nucleus, as the Biography term suggests, is the core or essential part of a syllable. A nucleus must be present in order for a syllable to tortilla curtain sparknotes be present. Syllable nuclei are most often highly ‘sonorant’ or resonant sounds that can be relatively loud and carry a clear pitch level. In English and most other languages, most syllable nuclei are vowels. The English “liquids” [ r , l ] and the nasals [ m , n ] can be the nuclei of syllables under certain conditions. [ r ] can be a nucleus as easily as a vowel, in individual society any position: the words ‘bird’, ‘word’, ‘her’, ‘fur’; there is no vowel in the pronunciation of these syllables, even though they have one in the spelling. Tortilla? [ l ] and the nasals [ m n ] become syllable nuclei when they follow an alveolar consonant in Biography of Malcolm X Essay the last syllable of a word. This happens in the relaxed or casual rather than very formal articulation of the word. Compare casual vs. formal pronunciations of ‘button’, ‘bottle’, ‘bottom’. 7. Stress and Intonation. There are two kinds of stress: words stress and sentence stress.

In English, one or more of the syllables in tortilla curtain sparknotes each content word are stressed. In some words, where more than one vowel is stressed, one vowel receives great. stress or accent (primary/main) marked with ? where the other stress vowel gets secondary stress marked with ` e.g. Individual Versus? resignation linguistics stress is contrastive in English and essential in cases where it is used to distinguish between nouns and verbs e.g. subject (noun) subject (verb) When words are combined into curtain sparknotes phrases and sentences, one of the syllables receives greater stress than all of the others, only one of the vowels in a sentence/phrase receives primary stress (or accent). All the other stressed vowels receive secondary stress. Primary stress is placed on an adjective followed by a noun when the two are combined in a compound noun, but when they are not joined in this way it is the noun that receives the main stress. e.g. example: tightrope tight rope Intonation Intonation is important because it shows syntactic differences example: Josh is going. (statement) Josh is going? (question) A written sentence which is ambiguous may become unambiguous when spoken by use of intonation e.g. Age Study Essay? Josh left direction for Ana to follow. – if Ana is to follow Josh, the rise in pitch would be on the first syllable of the word “follow”, followed by a fall in pitch follow – if Ana is to follow the directions Josh left, then the pitch comes on the second syllable of the word “directions” di rections.

8. Aspects of Connected Speech. In most of the discussion so far, we have been describing speech sounds separately, in syllables and words as if they are always going to be pronounces carefully and deliberately. But normal, every day speech isn’t like that, especially when spoken by tortilla curtain a native. Cry Baby Ohio? Most of native speakers’ talk is fast and tortilla, spontaneous and it requires the articulators to move rapidly from one sound to another without stopping. However, the individual process of producing “connected speech” affects the pronunciation of certain segments; some segments have a tendency to run together, extra segments may be inserted to ensure smoothness of speech, some segments adopt a less defined phonetic form and some completely disappear. 8.1. Assimilation. When two sound segments occur in sequence and some aspect of one segment is taken by the other, the process is curtain sparknotes, known as assimilation. This process happens because it is quicker, easier and more efficient for entangling our articulators as they do their job. Consonants and vowels alike are subject to assimilation. Curtain? The phrase have to, for example, is very often pronounced [h?ft?], informally even written “hafta”, because the adjacent sounds influence each other to become more alike.

In the Essay in vitro of Glycogen phrase I have to go, the sound /v/ is influenced by the following sound /t/ in a way that in connected speech we produce a voiceless version of /v/ resulting in what sounds more of tortilla sparknotes a /f/, showing the assimilation from a voiced to Brief Biography X Essay a voiceless sound. The vowels /i/ and /?/ in isolation are pronounced without any nasal quality. However, when we say the word pin or pan in everyday speech, the anticipation of forming a final nasal consonant will make it easier to go into the nasalized articulation in advance and as a result the vowel sounds in these words will be nasalized. Elision is the process of eliminating sounds in normal, rapid pronunciation. Elision mostly occurs where clusters of consonants exist. Take the word government, for example, /g?v?m?nt/, mashed potatoes /m?? p?teit?uz/, next day /neks dei. etc. Who syllables may be elided, in words such as library /laibri:/, and some words are simply prone to curtain sparknotes elision, such as of before consonants in cup o’ tea, lots o’ people, and Essay example, others such as gonna and wanna, from going to and want to, respectively.

A sound may be introduced between words or syllables to help them run together more smoothly. A primary example of this is the pronunciation of word-final /r/ in RP. RP speakers pronounce /r/ is such words as clear and mother when they are followed by a vowel, e.g. clear answer /kli?r/, but /kli?/ in tortilla sparknotes clear question. The intrusive “r” is also very present with native speakers of RP, who regularly link adjacent vowels with an “r” even when there is no ‘r’ in the spelling ( example a) as well as with open back vowels (example b). e.g. a) media interest /mi:di?(r)intr?st/ b) law and cry baby bridge, order /l?:(r)?nd ?:d?/ There are two sub-disciplines in linguistics which deal with sound and they are phonetics and phonology and in order to understand the sound system of the English language, its various accents and how these sounds combine and pattern together, we need aspects of both. Phonetics provides objective ways of describing and analyzing the range of sounds humans use in their languages. More specifically, articulatory phonetics identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in producing the different sounds of the language.

Those sounds are then transmitted from the tortilla curtain sparknotes speaker to of Hygene and Safety of the SPSU Pool Facilities Essay the hearer, and acoustic and auditory phonetics focus on the physics of speech as it travels through the air in the form of tortilla curtain sparknotes sound waves, and Age Study Essay example, the effect those waves have on a hearer’s ears and brain. While phonetics deals with the production, properties and perception of the speech sounds, phonology, deals with the sound patterns of the particular language, and in what speakers and hearers need to know to be speakers of that language. Phonologists investigate which function a sound has in a language and which sounds can be combined; which sounds can follow each other, and which can not. Unlike most European languages, English is not a phonetic language: words can have identical vowel letters and be pronounced in different ways, e.g. great, treat, and threat; vice-versa, words with phonologically identical vowels may have different spellings, as in sea, seize, and precede, hence, the importance of teaching both pronunciation and spelling. Nowadays, everyone is expected to tortilla curtain speak a bit of English, but trying to find someone in Italy who can speak it ‘clearly’ – intelligibly -, without mangling it, is no easy task at all. That is where phonetics and phonology comes in, and Brief X Essay, it is a fascinating subject and essential for any student wanting to learn (and understand!) a foreign language – especially English! Is this the perfect essay for curtain sparknotes you? Save time and order Phonetics and Phonology.

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Yea or nay: Checking your kids' homework? We all want our children to succeed, but is it necessary to check your children's homework every night? Or should you just do it when a parent signature is tortilla, required, or if your child has brought home a less-than-satisfactory response? When is it okay to just trust that your kids are getting their work done to ww1 the best of their abilities? Absolutely. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes? I think it helps to ensure they are understanding the material and shows you have an interest in what they are doing. Essay On In Vitro Inhibition? Also,it is tortilla, nice to ww1 have some time without tv or activity to check in with them. I have six children.

Some would do their homework down to curtain the last detail and then some. Some would do only what was absolutely required. Some would rather have a root canal. Some do all their homework and then never turn it in. We have regular homework time around the of Hygene SPSU Pool Facilities Essay dining/kitchen table where they can work on their homework, help each other and discuss what they are learning. Tortilla Sparknotes? I provide snacks and supervision. Help when asked. Each child excels in different subjects and the group study allows them to use those strengths to of Hygene and Safety SPSU help each other. The older children tutor the younger because it reinforces what they have already learned.

Often there are arguments, complaints and tears. Curtain Sparknotes? However, my children are learning that everyone has their strengths and Biography of Malcolm challenges. They are learning to tortilla curtain sparknotes be patient with each other (and definitely me with them). Yes and no. I've always checked my kids homework and a couple of SPSU Facilities months ago I decided leave them alone for a couple of weeks to see how they do on their own. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes? To see if they really are understanding the Essay example work or if I'm carrying them through school.

My third graders grades stayed the same and tortilla curtain my fifth graders dropped. It seems it's good to check their work but be careful how you are doing it. Make sure they understand it and can do it on Essay on Short-term of Glycogen, their own but don't help too much or they'll just start depending on you too much. They also need to curtain learn their own way of doing homework and studying. Alliances? If you are constantly helping them do this they will be slow to sparknotes become independent or worse they won't become independent at Essay Short-term in vitro all! Well that's what I thought when my son was younger, now he is tortilla curtain sparknotes, 14 years old i decided to check his homework everyday because he lies about it, most of the time. nah.i don't have any homework. If he doesn't do it I take away what he likes the most, play station, computer. o absolutely yes! especially when one's child has a techno gismo happy teachers. in this environment, NOTHING is Essay Short-term, taught. just surfing websites. one must be on top of children's reading writing, and mathematics homework. and yes, one must teach correct spelling of words and ideal penmanship. Curtain? writing by on Short-term of Glycogen hand stimulate one's critical thinking skill. Tortilla Curtain? so happy parenting. let's hit the books together! as you check your kids' homework every night, you will be aware of the cry baby child's strength and weaknesses. and tortilla improve their grades gradually. less stress at teacher-parent conferences. Definitely check it! My oldest is Essay on Short-term in vitro Inhibition, 11 and just last night I checked his advanced math homework and he did half of his math homework wrong. Curtain? If I didn't check it he would have failed that paper and numerous others.

He just needed a little more explanation as to how to get the answer. How are you supposed to really know if your child is understanding the material? It is State and Safety of the Pool, also a great opportunity for tortilla, one on entangling alliances ww1, one time and some great conversations. :) As a teacher and a parent, I would say that parents should check their child's homework. However, be careful how you are checking it. Don't give answers, but definitely try to explain it.

If you don't understand the assignment, then please email your teacher! Definately check their agenda to see what they have been assigned for HW. My daughter is in grade 5, it is curtain sparknotes, a very useful tool to communicate with the Teacher as well, and if you stay on top of it, you can assist your child in building skills that will carry forward into adulthood. Age Study Essay? I do not believe in doing the HW for my child, if I can assist by showing or explaining a concept then I do, if she still does not grasp the concept and cannot draw her own conclusion or answer, then I send her back to her teacher to ask for additional explanation in order to understand her work, ultimately, I will not be there with her to hold her hand during tests. Tortilla Curtain? I also insist on reading for a half hour each and every evening, as strong reading skills as essential. I do check it. I don't make corrections, but I check it. Oh my ! all those parents that think it's best for their children to check everything just makes me sick. how would you feel when someone checks everything you do ? Your children believe they don't even trust you and of Malcolm that can really damage their thoughts about you all. Tortilla Curtain? just really sad, because my parents do it too and I don't even want to Brief of Malcolm live here like this anymore ;) think about what the fuck you are doing to your kid. eventually they probably don't like you anymore and be like, 'i'm doing everything you want am i not good enough for you?' cause that's what i feel like. Absolutely, I check my kids' homework. Tortilla Curtain? They complete it on Biography, their own and then I check it for neatness, following directions and tortilla curtain sparknotes correct application.

If not, they erase and redo. Parents are a child's first teacher and we need to reinforce what is learned in the classroom. If he is doing it wrong, I don't tell him the answer but do my best to explain or reteach the concept. So far, so good! :) I have 2 boys in school right now. The rule is, as soon as you get off the bus, its homework time. My oldest doesn't fight at all about it. Essay Example? He does all of his work and then goes about the rest of his day. And his grades prove to me that he knows what hes doing (he maintains an A-B average). My youngest however will lie about his school work.

I trusted him to finish it but then I started getting letters from the teacher stating he was not completing his work. And his grades were starting to suffer because of it. The last 2 years he was a straight A student but this year his grades have dropped. So now, every day when he gets home, I have to check his backpack before he heads to tortilla curtain his room with it. I hate doing it because I'm admitting I don't trust him. But after being caught hiding the work so he doesn't have to cry baby bridge do it, I don't have an option. I have tried taking his favorite things from tortilla curtain sparknotes him, but that has not worked. He goes right back to lying. I give my 2nd graders homework a little once over, but I'm not going to individual society change any of her work, bc I know I know how to do it, but does she?? Plus her teacher is amazing, and would let her and me know if she wasn't doing something right.

If she asks for help, Of course I'll help a bit, but I WON'T do it for tortilla curtain sparknotes, her. As an cry baby ohio adult who hasn't yet finished their education (grade 12) I really now understand why my mom used to tortilla make me buckle down and not go play till ALL my homework was done no mater what even if it was an easy test or the hardest test ever. And you know with me having gone back to school i really really wish i can get an agenda so then i can tangebly see when i have stuff due and what is completed. Entangling Ww1? So yes I would say Yea for curtain sparknotes, checking my children's hw. as then this way they have a better chance at Biography of Malcolm their schooling than i did. i think that kids homework should be checked by tortilla curtain a parent or a responsible adult. Example? I check my sons homework everynight, guarantee he is sparknotes, only in first grade, but he is getting a's and b's. I had my homework checked when i was in Essay, school by tortilla sparknotes my parents and it didnt hurt me.

i also agree with the comment below that you need to let them do it themselves, that way they know how to do it. Every day the child's back pack should be checked, go through it with them see what they need what they don't need the Agenda the school gives is GOLDEN so we know what's due when.. Entangling Alliances Ww1? Successful works in our home.. I have an A-B student.. We're VERY PROUD! I do think it depend on the child and the age of the child. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes? When I check my child's home work I don't always correct it. I want to make sure he understands what he is doing or know that he maybe having trouble with a subject. He appreciates me just being there to Brief help him if he need it.

I don't think I can make recommendations on this - I know if I had the time to check homework nightly, I would. Because like my own mother I have controlling tendencies. Yet at tortilla sparknotes the same time I wonder, what use would it be? Same things that bewildered me when I was at cry baby bridge ohio school are bewildering me now - and in truth I'm not convinced that homework has any positive effects. How about curtain Dad's. why is it always about X Essay mom's. of sparknotes course you need to check and review your childs homework, it's your responsibility. Yes definitely, just so you know that they have done it and done it properly. I checked my sons' homework until they were in 7th grade. At that point, I told them that they were old enough to entangling alliances be seriously invested in sparknotes, their education, and that they should feel responsible for entangling alliances, their learning and want to do well. I believe in it until they are in tortilla, High School.

Then it's time to teach them to responsible for themselves. We won't be there to check if there homework is done in college or if there work is adequate for their boss at cry baby ohio their first job if they go straight into the workforce. i check my childrens homework once a week. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes? everyday i remind them to Brief Biography of Malcolm X Essay do it though :) No because it can seem like you don't trust them to tortilla curtain the child. I'm a guy, but not a dad of individual versus society a school aged child. I myself was raised very strictly and my homework was being checked by my dad for about 30+ minutes every night while I was in my early grades. Sparknotes? My dad sometimes would place a watch next to State of Hygene and Safety me and tell me I got 12 minutes to solve the math formula (at age of. 7-9) or I would get belted badly. Tortilla? Guess what? All I did was watch the minutes flow by and was unable to concentrate to resolve the formula.

Then I would take the individual versus society belting and my butt would have sausages on it from extensive belting. The math remained my most hated subject in school as I was frequently belted. Never learned anything. Even if my grandfather was paying for after-school teachers for my math lessons, I learned zero, zilch, nada. All those years. So when I was 10 my father died and my grandfather took over at request of our dad. Sparknotes? My grandfather was more thorough with checking my homework. It wasn't checking, it was multi examination experience every single night for 4 to 6 hours.

Once he came back after work at around 5 to 6 PM, the grandfather would check my homework and examine me every single night until 10-11 PM. So after school I had to bridge do my home work from say 3 PM to 6 PM, then another 5 hours of exams. And so for tortilla curtain sparknotes, many years. After I graduated the high school, my grandfather wanted to also check my University homework, but I said no, thanks. Individual Society? Did I graduate? No. Tortilla Sparknotes? I hated anything to do with exams. I quit. I didn't even pursue my favorite career. I was exhausted.

I do not recommend checking child's homework, especially for many hours. Let the child be self-sufficient. Let them fail and pick up from there. Of Hygene Of The SPSU? You may help the child if they ask you or you may inquire about their grades or even check for a second what they're doing, but NEVER expose your child to examination stripping them of their childhood. Some guys would revenge to their own kids what they've been done to; I wouldn't. Tortilla Curtain? I would let my kids be independent in Essay on Short-term, doing their home works. Parents! Please do not torture your kids with homework examination. Yet in tortilla curtain, the USA the kids are so entitled and out of control. You need to find a golden middle in individual, your child's education. P.S.

Only 10 years after graduating from high school and doing variety of jobs I found myself doing something I could relate - a business. I am a good speller and sparknotes am good at arithmetics and Brief Biography X Essay geography - this is what good teachers taught us, not parents. Every child, every person is tortilla, different, and needs a different approach. If you're not sure, let the child discover themselves. I made up my mind to State Facilities Essay be someone when I was 12 yet I was pressurized to become someone different, thus I failed to tortilla do both.

Never push your child to Essay on Short-term of Glycogen do what they may not become when they are adult. Let them choose their own path. I always check my daughters homework, because I like to make sure she gets a good understanding of what she's learning. yes without fail. It depends on tortilla sparknotes, the age of the child. Mine is individual society, only starting first grade. I make sure to find out what his homework is, and sparknotes sit down at the table with him. Entangling? I don't do the work for him, but I do make sure he reads and understands the tortilla sparknotes directions. As he gets older, he may be able to of the SPSU Essay do more independently, but I will still make sure he is doing it daily. I remember my mother sitting with me and quizzing me for history tests and proof reading my term papers in curtain, high school. Participating shows that you put a value on what they are doing, just be sure you are making them think and not giving them the answers.

I am in Australia and I have 1 child in of Glycogen, prep whose homework is all mum involved. Also 1 in tortilla, the last year of primary school and yes I still check his homework and will say either yes your homework is correct well done or no this question or that is individual, wrong and then we will discuss why it is wrong. If it is a math question question I will make up another question using similar principles and we sit down and go through that so he understands where he went wrong and making sure he understands every step of the process involved to solve the problem. Then he will go back and correct the tortilla curtain incorrect questions. Age Study? If he is unsure of what he needs to sparknotes do he knows he can come and ask and I will help him understand what is required but i refuse to do it for him. absolutely - I check it every night.. That way, my son and I are on the same page.. and if I feel that there are any problems - I can contact his teacher and we are able to talk about it. Yes, parents should. It helps to Essay in vitro of Glycogen ensure on all parts(parents teacher and child) that everyone is doing thier part. I like being a part of childrens education and making sure what they were taught in school is tortilla curtain, being absoorbed.

Plus I prefer it when my kids are doing their best and I am there supporting them and encouraging them. I don't really think any specific one of these responses is necessarily better than the other. Entangling? I think it all depends on your child or children and how they do in sparknotes, school. I have 2 daughters (age 9 10, 4th 5th grade) and up until the middle of last school year I reviewed and checked their homework every day. I realized as long as I could check their progress and grades that they are getting in school on a regular basis (thanks to technology and Age Study online access) then I could see what they are struggling in. They are also really good with asking for curtain sparknotes, help or telling me or their teacher when they don't understand something. Both my children bring home pretty decent grades and I always told them I like good grades but the most important thing is bridge, that they did the best and communicate when they have trouble. So far their grades and curtain reports from their teachers has shown that this is State and Safety, what works for us. This also teaches independence and trust. So as I said previously I think it depends on each child and what works for your family.

I have to tortilla sparknotes check my child's homework. her teachers certainly don't. They check to see if it is done but NOT to see if it is society, correct. I check my child's homework so I can explain why things were wrong and sparknotes how to fix it. Example? It does NO good for her to be doing all these worksheets if she doesn't know how to do them correctly. Practice makes perfect, but I don't want her PERFECTING the wrong answers. I mis-spoke, sometimes they do correct it but NOT most of the time. They grade test, which they do just before report cards. Curtain Sparknotes? Their reports cards are based on the end of the year expectations. I'm glad to see a lot of posts saying YES. I know a lot of parents who don't, It's the teachers job to teach but thats not true.

Parents are supposed to Age Study Essay example be teachers too, we're the curtain sparknotes first teacher and the most important. I help my Kindergartener with his homework and I go over my 2nd graders homework. I will let him know if something is wrong so he can fix it but I don't fix it for him. There have been times where I didn't check his homework and cry baby he had some and sparknotes he was very upset when he didn't have it to cry baby turn in the next day. Curtain? Trying to teach them responsibility without it hurting them grade wise. i think we should check their homework everynight to keep track on their that way we can find and help them in the areas which they find difficult. I definitely check their homework every night.

I suppose there will be a time when some of their math or science homework will be beyond my knowledge, but I still would want to make sure they're completing the individual assigned work from school and doing their part. My kids are in 1st and tortilla curtain 3rd grades. My 1st grader very rarely has homework except to read a story once a week. My 3rd grader has math homework once or twice a week. I check it, let her know which ones she missed, and she corrects it. I have a 6 year old in 1st grade. First of all, the teacher sent home a note telling parents that the homework they receive is practice for what they are learning in school adn that we should go over it.

Even if that wasn't the case, I go over his homework with him and I belive it helps make us closer and is, hopefully, a beginning so he will share it with me as he goes through school. He is by no means happy when I mention that something is entangling, wrong, but I believe in the end, he'll realize im interested and will support him always! Yes, I need to check his homework everynight. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes? He has Dyslexia and I help him with his writing assignments. I have him look at whatever he writes and he will notice sometimes on a 2nd or 3rd time letters or numbers that he has transposed. Example? Plus, I sit and he reads to me for 20 minutes everynight. Sparknotes? He is an Essay Inhibition of Glycogen A / B student. We have provisions in place at school for him because of sparknotes his Dyslexia but it is important for State of Hygene and Safety Facilities Essay, him to tortilla curtain be able to see were he makes his mistakes so he can learn to fix them. Age Study Essay Example? It is helpful that his teachers are working with him and the Dyslexia teacher that is sparknotes, helping to retrain his brain.

I think we should have to check homework and sign off on it. Sign up for Biography X Essay, Circle of tortilla Moms and be a part of this community! Membership is just one click away. How do you make your child do their homework without it being a hassle? How do I get my child to focus on school work? What should I do to a 17 year old who is flunking the 10th grade for Brief Biography of Malcolm, the 3rd time? What are your thoughts on Private vs.

Public Schools? Do your middle schoolers have homework? Mine does not and. Ok- I teach hs language arts. My 1st grade daughter came home with 19 pages of. Too Much Homework. - My daughter is in second grade and tortilla curtain sparknotes I. My daughter is in second grade and Age Study I am becoming more and sparknotes more frustrated with the. What should you do when your child tells you he/she doesn't. Should I punish the child? detention-what to do?? - my 11 year old son with ADHD got.

my 11 year old son with ADHD got detention on friday for not doing his homework. i. 2017 POPSUGAR Inc. • Insanely Addictive™ • PopSugar • PopSugar Living • PopSugar Moms.

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Abortion and tortilla curtain, Religions Essay Sample. The dictionary definition of of Hygene and Safety of the Essay abortion is; the premature termination of a pregnancy that may be induced or spontaneous. An induced abortion is a surgical, pharmaceutical or another medical way of ending a pregnancy . A spontaneous abortion is tortilla sparknotes a natural loss of a fetus, usually before 20 weeks, this is called a miscarriage. In 1967 the Abortion Act was put into place,this did not legalise abortions but rather provided a legal defence for those carrying them out. It also meant that abortions could be carried out under certain conditions. Essay On Short-term In Vitro Inhibition! One condition is tortilla curtain that the continuance of the and Safety of the Pool Facilities Essay, pregnancy would cause more physical or mental problems to the mother than a termination. Also the women#8217;s foreseeable future environment like her home may be take into account. Abortion is allowed up to twenty-four weeks and is also allowed if there is curtain a risk that when the child is born, it would suffer from physical or mental abnormalities or be seriously handicapped. It must be permitted by Short-term Inhibition two doctors unless it is an emergency abortion where it can be decided and carried out by just one. Abortions must also be carried out in a government approved hospital or clinic. Abortion and Religions.

Although abortion is legal it is not accepted among many people Abortion may be seen as murder depending on when people think that life begins. The Roman catholic church believe that a child is formed at the moment of conception therefore abortion is wrong as it is killing a child, that is murder and murder is wrong. And so if murder is illegal, why isn#8217;t abortion? However they accept that a pregnancy may end as a result of an ectopic pregnancy and tortilla curtain, therefore double effect, if the women has the child she and Biography of Malcolm, the child must die, so an abortion may be the curtain, only sane way of making sure no deaths occur a Roman Catholic has an abortion they are excommunicated from the church. In Genesis (Bible) it says that #8220;life is alliances good#8221;, #8220;do not kill#8221; it talks about tortilla curtain consequences, through Adam and Eve#8217;s eating of the apple, and therefore implying that nobody and Age Study Essay, nothing is perfect. Tortilla Curtain Sparknotes! This relates to Brief Biography X Essay, abortion because if life is good who are you to abort a child#8217;s life and so that if they are born they will not have a good life? To kill is against the 10 commandments, therefore by having an abortion you are killing life or a future life and therefore it is wrong. Consequences of an abortion are rarely thought of due to the thinking of you are doing it for good however it may cause depression as what you have done dawns on you, example of this can be found with the tortilla, charity #8220;SPUC#8221;, Society for the Protection of the entangling alliances ww1, Unborn Child,#8221;Not a day goes by when I don#8217;t think of my lost child.

When I wake up in the morning I know I#8217;ve had an abortion. I would never wish this pain on anybody.#8221; Ruth (American SNM leaflet).The Roman catholic church also look at natural law (Bible). An example of natural law is that babies are gifts, so why not want a gift? We need to pro-create to tortilla sparknotes, develop the world. Natural law gives you freedom, with freedom comes sexual control therefore if you don#8217;t want children do not have sex. Also what principles are most important? The principle of of Hygene and Safety Facilities Essay giving life or the principle of killing it for your own selfish pleasures? Other churches that prohibit abortion are Jehovah#8217;s witnesses and the Evangelical Christian.

Churches that do not prohibit abortion but also do not agree with it are Russian and Greek Orthodox Churches, Orthodox Judaism and Hinduism. These churches believe abortion can only be justified to save the women#8217;s life. Churches like the Church of England,and Islam think that abortion is sometimes a #8220;necessary evil#8221;, and should not be used for trivial reasons. Buddhism, Sikhism and Quakers believe that there is no written law on abortion, they believe that abortion is a sin as they pregnancy increases but they do allow for abortion to be used to protect the health of the women and in other limited circumstances like rape. Humanists and the Methodist Church believe abortion is an individual decision.

They teach that you should have compassion for curtain sparknotes, women as well as reverence for life. They also say you should weigh up the pros and cons of abortion before making any decisions. The Sanctity of Life. The sanctity of life is a religious phrase that refers to example, the idea that life is tortilla curtain sparknotes sacred. It debates the moral ideas of abortion, and what makes a person how old do you have to be to be classed as a person?

Christian believe that all life is a gift from God and human life is special and sacred. Men and women are created in the image of God and therefore superior and different to all other forms of life. Since we are given domain over Age Study example, all other living things we can shape events like nothing else can. Since we were all made in God#8217;s image , we are all to tortilla, be nurtured, supported and protected. If a human decides to abort a life, they are rejecting God, and this person who is being killed does not get to be nurtured, supported and protected, therefore as well as rejecting God you are denying his will. (The Bible, Psalm 139 verse 13) says #8220;You created my inmost being, you knit me together in my mother#8217;s womb#8221;. Christians believe that God alone should determine a person#8217;s moment of Brief conception as well as their moment of death., not us. Methods of Induced Abortion. Suction abortion is tortilla sparknotes when the fetus is dismembered by a vacuum machine . This is the most common early abortion technique, it accounts for around 90% of abortions in England and Wales for up to twelve weeks of pregnancy. This technique is promoted as the individual versus, #8220;safe and tortilla sparknotes, early#8221; abortion, however the vast majority are performed on Essay in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen young, healthy women with no medical reason for abortion. Tortilla Sparknotes! Dilation and curettage is when the fetus/baby is dismembered with a loop bladed knife called a curette.

This procedure is cry baby bridge not that popular because it can leave bits of the body in the uterus and so a nurse has to check the dismembered body parts to see if they are all out. Also it can cause haemorrhage#8217;s and sepsis. A third method of induced abortion is salt poisoning. This is tortilla sparknotes when a concentrated salt solution is injected into the amniotic fluid, killing the baby by acute salt poisoning. It takes over an hour to kill the baby and the women has to give birth to the dead child 24 hours later. Also children have been known to survive from this treatment.

There are also pharmaceutical ways of Brief of Malcolm abortion for example the curtain, morning after pill. Many people do not see this as an abortion because it is a pill you take for up to 3 days after having unprotected sex. Development of a fetus in relation to abortion. You can have an Age Study Essay example, abortion up to curtain sparknotes, twenty-four weeks into a pregnancy. Here is how the baby develops over those weeks to help decide whether this amount of time is just. On the 21st day of conception the on, unborn babies heart begins to beat. Days twenty-eight to thirty-two the body takes shape with tiny arms forming, features of the mouth and nose take place and blood flows through the babies veins.

On day thirty-six the eye color develops. On day forty the baby can make their first reflex movements. On day forty-four tiny buds of milk teeth appear. Curtain Sparknotes! On day fifty-two spontaneous movement begins. The baby can now yawn, stretch and suck. At eight weeks old the baby is the size of a thumb.

And well proportioned. On Of Glycogen! At nine weeks genitalia become visible. At 10 weeks fingerprints form. Every person has different fingerprints, this means that these fingerprints are unique and tortilla, if printed could define the fetus, does this make the fetus human or not if only that fetus will have them fingerprints in the whole of the time and universe? At eleven weeks the baby practices breath and can urinate. Ww1! At this point they can smile. Between twelve and fifteen weeks the baby begins to swallow, has skin stimulation, makes distinct facial expressions, and nerve cells begin and continue for a month. At four months old the fetus or baby can suck their thumb, and develop sleeping habits. At four and a half months they can feel pain. At five months you can feel the baby move. Tortilla Sparknotes! At six months you can still abort the baby.

The bay will be staring to hear at this age The child sleeps and wakes, nestling in her favorite positions to sleep, and stretches upon waking up. Versus! This is the latest legal abortions can take place. Depending on the circumstance the baby can be aborted later than the sparknotes, 24 weeks, however these causes are very rare. Many people think that the abortion cut of on Inhibition of Glycogen date is too late, and should be cut down. Curtain Sparknotes! Some people think this because babies have been born at twenty weeks old and survived and therefore at 24 weeks a baby could survive if born so why should we abort it when it could be born and given up for adoption instead of terminating its life or future life. Facts and Figures. One in alliances three pregnancies will end in induced abortion. Curtain Sparknotes! Women aged 20 to ww1, 34 are most likely to have an abortion.

60% of abortions are carried out between 4 to 9 weeks. 63% of tortilla curtain sparknotes abortions are carried out by of Hygene SPSU single women. 95% of curtain sparknotes legal abortions are carried out due to the pregnancy involving greater risk than if terminated. Over six million children have been aborted. Is this the entangling alliances ww1, perfect essay for tortilla, you? Save time and order Abortion and Religions. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and on in vitro of Glycogen, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Abortion and Religions. Abortion can be defined as the “premature expulsion of the curtain, foetus from the Essay, womb” before pregnancy reaches forty weeks (full term). A miscarriage or spontaneous abortion happens naturally; up to#8230; Abortion Is Not an Option. Should a helpless child die because their parent doesn’t want them?

In many cases, a woman will abort because she is not ready, she doesn’t want the tortilla curtain, child for various#8230; Pro-Choice of Abortion. I.“The term #8220;abortion#8221; actually refers to cry baby ohio, any premature expulsion of a human fetus, whether naturally spontaneous, as in a miscarriage, or artificially induced, as in a surgical or chemical abortion#8230;. ?Abortion Should Not Be an Option. Are women being fully informed of the curtain, possible consequences of abortion? A child does not deserve to ohio, die because his or her mother or father were irresponsible. Abortion should not#8230; Pro-life and they believe that abortion is murdering an unborn child.

Abortion is an issue that impacts human society and tortilla, the world, because of the debate about Essay on in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen moral, religious, health#8230; Adoption vs Abortion. Tortilla Curtain! Eighty three percent of all pregnancies are #8220;unexpected.#8221; By that I mean the parents were not trying to get pregnant. Biography X Essay! When experiencing an unexpected pregnancy there are three basic options;#8230;

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Still talking: a review of Lubaina Himid’s “Invisible strategies” Modern Art Oxford, 21 January- 30 April 2017. Lubaina Himid’s solo exhibition at Modern Art Oxford brings her most contemporary projects to the public amongst a survey of work from the last thirty years. The new pieces, thematically placed, engage in the same issues of race, gender and cultural identity that have underscored the tortilla sparknotes artist’s work since the ww1 1980’s and curtain sparknotes appear no less pressing or relevant in their presentation today. Most specifically Himid’s career has been engaged in the task of attaining visibility and acknowledgement for black women in the art world.

A champion of the British Black Arts movement and a formative player in its second-wave generation of Essay in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen artists and curators, Himid was responsible for organizing such ground-breaking exhibitions as Thin Black Line (1986) and Black Woman Time Now (1983). 2017 perhaps marks a break-through moment in tortilla curtain sparknotes, Himid’s more personal battle for recognition: Invisible strategies coincides with another Himid solo show at Spike Island, Bristol and the artist’s inclusion in the large group exhibition The place is here at State and Safety of the Nottingham Contemporary which is a reassessment, and celebration, of how Black artists and thinkers have contributed to tortilla sparknotes the British art scene over the past decades. The first room of Invisible strategies is dominated by State SPSU Facilities Essay the monumental impact of Freedom and Change (1984) a re-invention of Picasso’s famous neoclassical image of Two women running on the beach (1922). Here two black women, clothed in colourful, mixed-media dresses, hands clasped together triumphantly, surge forward with an unstoppable force. Bold and dynamic and bearing not only historical but mythic significance in their size and solidarity, these towering female figures set the political and curtain exciting tone of the cry baby ohio exhibition. On the curtain sparknotes neighbouring wall two large oil paintings The Exchange (2016) and The Lock (2016) denote the most recent developments in Biography X Essay, the artist’s representation of the black figure. These genre-scenes, or history paintings, depict simplified, geometric interiors populated by groups of bodies casually interacting and yet theatrically staged: frozen in posture and time. Wreathed in a peculiar and ambiguous symbolism, the meaning of these works is heightened by the knowledge that the series is named Le Rodeure after a nineteenth-century slave ship. Beyond the room in curtain, either painting is a vision of the ocean lapping against the external wall.

This high-level choppy water, engulfing the outside world, seems to pose a danger and a threat. Whilst the presence of the sea and the associated iconography of bridge vessels and tortilla journey-making recurrent in Himid’s work no doubt makes reference to her own early-life experience of society relocation from Zanzibar to England, it also resonates with a more collective and sinister memory: the Transatlantic slave trade. The artist confirms that the “narratives about/by people being taken forcibly from west-coast Africa to the coasts of America on trade ships to be later used as slaves” had a decided impact on her painting career and her formulation of an art-type closely related to black diaspora identity. Whilst the artist describes herself not as “a painter in the strictest sense” but rather “a political strategist who uses a visual language to sparknotes encourage conversation, argument, change” the medium of paint remains central to her process, her weapon of choice. What is striking is the way that Himid has reclaimed the heroic expressiveness of paint and the grand-scale narrative figure for her own – snatched from the jaws of twentieth-century modernism which had positioned both as the product of individual male subjectivity.

For Himid, in fact, paint had always belonged to women: “paint is ours, we have always used pigment and colour on surfaces. On the outside and inside of our homes and on our bodies, on fabric.” The closeness of paint with feminine expression comes to the fore in the second, more intimate room of the exhibition. Here a recent range of curtain sparknotes works reveal the inspiration of the individual Kangas (the everyday cotton garments made and worn by women in East Africa) and which invoke its richness, texture, colour and pattern on paper. Some include the graphic texts of Swahili sayings or aphorisms devised by tortilla the Abolition and Essay on Short-term Inhibition Civil Rights Movements. The Source of the tears has long run dry (2016) is powerful in its simplicity and energy, notably tinged by the emotions of curtain anger and frustration. This is a frustration often voiced by Brief Himid who states revenge as a natural response to cultural mourning. This revenge, however, is not borne of violence but through the act of insistence when it comes to black women making art: a refusal to fade away, the mantra: we are still here, we are still talking and we are still committed to change. Sharing the final room of the exhibition are two multi-piece projects undertaken by Himid in the last decade: Negative Positives (2007-ongoing) and Swallow Hard: The Lancaster Dinner Service (2007). Curtain! Negative Positives displays a collection of archived material from Brief Biography X Essay, The Guardian, specifically pages that reveal images of black actors, politicians, athletes and celebrities which are accompanied by some form of negative editorial or news story text. Tortilla Curtain! The project traces their perceptibly routine connection as symptomatic of implicit racial prejudice in the British press and the (mis)use of black bodies as signifiers.

Himid responds by painting over sections of the newspaper- normally beginning on the periphery and encroaching inward- with vibrant, geometric patterns and symbolic African imagery, attempting to highlight and bridge reframe the contents shown. Viewed by the artist as a kind of tortilla curtain sparknotes visual research and at Biography of Malcolm X Essay the same time an intervention, the project is an “attempt to reclaim the tortilla sparknotes portrait of the person and restore the balance” in a visual media culture which both visualizes and renders silent black individuals. Swallow Hard: The Lancaster Dinner Service follows with an equally poignant attempt at reclamation. This large selection of English willow-pattern bone china has been overpainted with portraits of slaves, market scenes, caricatures of wealthy white traders and other images which attempt to map Lancaster’s historical entanglement with the slave trade (it was the fourth largest slaving port in the country). This piece was originally intended to furnish the city’s historic Judges Lodgings museum as part of a series of projects marking the 200 th anniversary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act (1807). As a product of of the extended research, this piece is seen by tortilla curtain Himid as “an intervention, a mapping and an excavation. It is a fragile monument to an invisible engine…” This is about the ohio conscious exposure of colonial histories and the literal superimposition of curtain sparknotes those voices and those narratives that were lost or hidden as its consequence. Versus! It is, like Negative Positives , an invitation for tortilla curtain the viewer to Brief Biography re-see and tortilla sparknotes transform objects already circulating in the world, to of Hygene SPSU Facilities Essay give them new and self-critical meaning. Most importantly, I think, these pieces serve to fuel the fire that keeps dialogue and discussion about curtain sparknotes, uncomfortable truths alive, truths that would be easier but unforgivable to let “go out”. Indeed, if anything is clear from the contemporary works that bring Invisible Strategies up to date with the Essay Short-term Inhibition world of today, it is the message that our most vital conversations about curtain, identity, history and heritage are far from example, exhausted: there is still much to said and still much at curtain sparknotes stake in how these things continue to affect us in our day to day lives.

© 2017, Kat Isaac. All rights to written content reserved. In the shadows of individual versus society WWII: Civilian stories in Britain and Spain. The arrival of large-scale modern warfare at the turn of the 20th century, and the new levels of brutality that ensued, left artists wondering how to respond to the subject which had since the genesis of the “story-telling” historia genre been at the thematic heart of painting. The terrifying and unprecedented nature of this new warfare required a complete break from traditional war images and the notion of the tortilla commemorative “battle-scene”, instead leaving artists to conceive of a new language of representation, one that reflected an increasingly visible anti-war agenda.

WWII artists focus on the severity and scale of the consequences of modern war which, for the first time, included the versus society mass killing of civilians in their home cities via aerial bombings. Sparknotes! Painting the reality of these civilian lives, so far from the frontline and State of Hygene SPSU Essay yet still in the fire of the “collateral damage”, have helped artists to emphasis the vast scope and indiscriminate nature of the destruction that was caused. British artist Clive Branson takes as his subject scenes of curtain sparknotes a desperate London during the Blitz, which, living in Battersea at the time, he witnessed first-hand. In his painting “Bombed Women Searchlights” (1940) we see a haunting and surreal image which is confusing and unsettling visually. There are dramatically foreshortened and oversized objects in the foreground (a broken wooden chair, the red and white road barrier which almost pierces the picture plane, a cigarette box lying on its side) which disrupts any continuity or rational ordering of the composition. The backdrop to the scene is a sickly grey-green sky, split violently by the “X” of the two searchlight beams and ww1 filled by the monstrous forms of the barrage balloons – known at the time as “blimps” – which were used to protect the city from the Luftwaffe. The blimps would tangle low flying aircrafts in curtain sparknotes, the metal cables and nets which were suspended beneath as well as obscuring the pilots’ lines of vision, especially dive bombers, forcing them into higher airspace where anti-aircraft fire could dispose of them. The broken cables hanging down here show that the German air force has already struck, and a temporal aspect is added: we are looking at the end of a sequence of events, the aftermath. However the danger does not seem to have passed completely, fire can be seen in the distance between the buildings and the red-white stripes of the road barrier also signals “danger ahead.” The two central women are presumably rescuing their possessions from a bombed out residence, but have they got somewhere safe to go?

In the painting, many different types of surface bear their own images like a collage. There is an over-sized poster on the wall, a named shop and factory front, graffiti scrawled across brickwork, a cigarette packet advertising itself. State Of Hygene And Safety SPSU Facilities Essay! The mixture of slogans: “Dig for sparknotes Victory”, “Smile and say victory”, “Vote Joyce for Essay example Peace” relate to a number of opposing narratives which “draw attention to the tensions in British Society”[1] at tortilla the time and also highlight the difficulties involved with deciphering truths within an overload of information, most of which is propaganda. The confusion of alliances ww1 surfaces, scales and contrasts leaves the viewer disoriented, looking in on a chaotic and claustrophobic dream-like vision. However there is also a faint message of curtain sparknotes hope and reassurance here. A woman in the middle-ground wields a broom, undeterred by State SPSU Essay events, ready to get stuck into the cleaning up effort.

The closest figure, that looks directly at us, is gripped with resolve and empowered in her action: determinedly marching forward with her stone grey face, gritted teeth and broad shoulders straining forward. (This is perhaps a portrait of the curtain sparknotes artist’s wife, Noreen Branson). The painting suggests the task of the women “back home” in Age Study Essay example, London, maintaining order as best they could and keeping the flame of the British spirit alive, is just as vital a duty as that of the curtain sparknotes soldiers, albeit a very different one. In this way Branson has cleverly depicted not only the horror of the bombing aftermath, but in the same composition, the “bouncing back” of the ohio British civilians, their tenacity, their jumping to action, even after catastrophe has hit. Another British artist who featured scenes in London during the Blitz is Henry Moore, who in 1940 was appointed as an official War Artist. Moore had taken cover from an air raid in sparknotes, Belsize Park underground station and, deeply moved by the sights he had seen there of people sheltering together, made a series of monochrome drawings from memory, done with graphite, ink, wax and versus watercolour on paper.

In “Tube Shelter Perspective” (1941) we see a long dark tunnel, disappearing into the distance. Just as in “Bombed Women Searchlights” there is a resounding atmosphere of foreboding within the painting, the sense that danger is close by. This drawing takes a high perspective viewpoint, looking down upon two long rows of bodies which are lying horizontally on the floor. The tall walls loom over them, in tortilla, one sense enclosing the example people but also leaving a vast, cavernous space all around. As the drawing moves into the distance the curtain contours of the bodies become increasingly blurred, melting into Essay Short-term of Glycogen indeterminate lines and shadows, no longer individual figures, but one solid mass. Like a group of resting animals, livestock perhaps, there seems to be a sense of strength in numbers, in solidarity: human beings sharing in each others plight. The materials Moore has chosen create a great depth and darkness, the shadows are impenetrable, reminding us that there is no natural light deep under the earth. White chalk is used on the wall and tortilla sparknotes the floor but does not suggest light, rather glistening moisture and damp surfaces. Splashes of bright yellow suggest beams of of Hygene and Safety SPSU Pool Essay artificial light, falling in, but it does not reach far down the tunnel.

The National Gallery Catalogue of 1941 summarises this drawing as “a terrifying vista of recumbent shapes, pale as all underground life tends to be pale; regimented as only tortilla sparknotes fear can regiment; helpless yet tense, safe yet listening, uncouth, uprooted, waiting in the tunnel for the dawn to release them.” Whilst it is certainly a frightening image of a dark and entangling damp place which seems barely fit for human inheritance, what is most significant is curtain, that the people are “safe”, they are surviving. Moore presents not only a dingy tunnel but a sanctuary, a hiding place, a moment of respite, which thus gives the painting a hopefulness. In a similar way to Branson then, this image is also about the stoic resistance of the British people, quietly doing what they must, adapting to their environment and making-do. If British artists were effective in communicating the fear that civilians during WWII faced, and the drawn-out resilience they had to show in the face of uncertainty, Spanish artists perfectly captured the sudden, horrific violence that civilians were now also exposed to. Spain in fact, in the grips of a turbulent internal conflict between the Republicans and the Nationalists, can be seen as perhaps the most severe example in entangling alliances ww1, Europe for the brutality that non-combatants faced during the years of WWII. “Black Aeroplanes” (1937) by tortilla curtain Horacio Ferrer and the world-renown “Guernica” from the same year by Pablo Picasso both depict scenes from the Spanish Civil War which raged between 17 July 1936 and 1 April 1939; specifically the aerial bombings of alliances ww1 civilian cities that were carried out by tortilla sparknotes Fascist forces under the individual society direction of General Francisco Franco.

In Ferrer’s painting, as in the two already discussed, none of the perpetrators of the conflict are present, the black aeroplanes that the tortilla curtain sparknotes title refers to are excluded, but the still-smoking landscape and the rubble all around leaves no doubt of the that has just occurred. Ferrer focuses on four women: three with their children of different ages, and an elderly lady who is bent over and clasps her hands together in despair. This cross-section of figures shows how the cry baby bridge ohio tragedies of war encompass all generations and none are left unaffected. Each of the women’s faces are contorted into sparknotes extreme grief, fear or indignation. The woman in the middle with a raised arm reveals her exposed breast, and this reinforces not only the powerful movement of her gesture but also her role as an “innocent” mother: a child-bearer and life-giver who should not be perpetrated by violence in this way. Cry Baby Bridge Ohio! Her bare breast and clenching fist might also perhaps refer us back to tortilla sparknotes the very famous female symbol of liberty in “Liberty Leading the People” (1830), a French painting by Eugene Delacroix from a century earlier.

This commemorated the July Revolution in which the of Malcolm X Essay monarch Charles X was overthrown. Here the figure of tortilla curtain Liberty, holding the tricolour, leads the people heroically onwards over the bodies of the on Inhibition of Glycogen fallen, in a painting of nationalistic pride and spirit. In “Black Aeroplanes” this figure seems to replicate Liberty’s gesture linking this ordinary Spanish mother to the icon of curtain sparknotes struggle and sacrifice, but here we see Liberty in reverse – a parody of the empowerment seen in Delacroix’s painting. This woman is far from the bringer or wielder of State of Hygene and Safety SPSU Pool political change, she is the opposite, crying out in anguish because of her powerlessness and the injustice of suffering through events far beyond her control. This larger than life-size figure, with her strong profile and muscular neck, is enhanced by the strong relief and tortilla realism of State SPSU Facilities Essay Ferrer’s painting technique, which renders the bodies with sculptural solidarity. Light is cleverly used, for example illuminating with photographic quality the face of the sparknotes grieving elderly woman, every line and crease of her tragic expression is visible and thus heightening the emotional intensity of the image. The small portion of individual a destroyed house in the background is symbolic of tortilla sparknotes many. These aerial bombings that fascist forces under Franco’s orders had carried out on several Spanish cities in Republican areas, affecting thousands of civilians, were seen by many to represent ‘ a benchmark atrocity for individual society humankind, ’[2] the tortilla curtain exemplar of a new kind of warfare which was more senseless and criminal than any that had gone before. Anyone and everyone could become a target, unsuspecting woman, children and Biography of Malcolm elderly people in their own homes. Guernica (1937) by Pablo Picasso takes the tortilla sparknotes same subject of an aerial bombing, specifically the complete ruination of the Basque country village of Guernica which took place on the 26 th April 1937.

It could be said that Picasso’s image marks the apex of Short-term in vitro of Glycogen all anti-war sentiments in 20 th century painting. The event of the bombing of Guernica quickly gained a wider political significance amongst the Spanish people; the tortilla sparknotes utter destruction of a peaceful community became symbolic of Fascist brutality in cry baby, a universal sense.[3] The event particularly resonated within the Spanish consciousness because the town of Guernica embodied the heart of Basque culture, a historic place which represented ‘ the tortilla sparknotes very spirit of their ancient pride and freedom. “ [4] Picasso’s painting from the outset, therefore, was confronted by the huge task of cry baby bridge doing justice to the magnitude and horror of this event. He chooses to communicate it, in the same way as Black Aeroplanes , by focusing solely on the innocent lives that were destroyed. The paintings sheer scale (3.5 x7.8 m) and the very raw nature of the emotion it conveys becomes almost overwhelming.

Its monochrome scheme of black, white and shades of grey obtains the curtain sparknotes immediacy and impact of newspaper images and seems to share the objective of photo-journalism and X Essay war reportage in documenting the truth and the facts of the sparknotes event. The painting features a number of characters: a bull, a horse, a cockerel, a mother and child, a dead soldier, and several other women, all of which are frozen in horror, mid-action, with tortuous often screaming expressions of grief. The figures are set within an interior, although this space is not easily recognizable and it has been flattened, distorted and entangling terminated in many places, appearing more like an amalgamation of overlapping shapes and planes in a surreal, cubist vision. This is a type of painting which sees forms and tortilla curtain sparknotes spaces literally shattered apart, just like the place and the people it is trying to capture. We can make out the Essay on in vitro of Glycogen setting by its few recognisable features; an arc lamp on the ceiling ‘which presides like an all-seeing eye, complete with bulb pupil’[5] and tortilla emits rays of light in sharp teeth, a small window in the top right hand corner and what seems to be an open door, through which a figure emerges holding another lamp. Brief Of Malcolm X Essay! This roughly implies the dimensions of the room and the shadow in which it is cast; a blackness which encloses the figures and engulfs them on all sides. it is hard to sparknotes tell where one body figure ends and another begins, which are dead and which are still alive. The bodies and limbs and splayed out, sometimes entirely disconnected. The animals have suffered the same terrible fate as the humans; the body of the horse in the centre of the canvas, its legs flailing wildly in different directions, seems to be pierced by individual versus a spear and shows a large diamond shape wound on its side. It opens its mouth to reveal a pointed conical tongue, as if emitting a piercing, primordial howl. Similarly audible is the screaming woman beneath the window, her hands thrown in sparknotes, the air, surrounded by triangular shapes which suggest encroaching flames.

To the of Malcolm X Essay left, a ghostly face appears to sparknotes float through the top of the door frame; her expression struck with horror at what she sees. Directly beneath another woman seems to stagger forward dragging her arms and legs, in the process of keeling over. The most tragic character of all is the mother on the far left side who, with head flung back and mouth open wide, screams over her dead infant child. Both “Black Aeroplanes” and Picasso’s “Guernica” use the image of women and children in pain to render an emotionally charged, outraged image of ‘the fatherland ravished by the fascists’ .[6] They operate as specific political statements against Franco and his army but also can be viewed as universal comments about the evils and senselessness of war; the suffering that mankind is capable of inflicting upon itself. Whilst in on, Britain Branson and Moore also explored anti-war feelings in terms of sparknotes representing the trials and hardships that civilians in London endured, they chose subjects, or moments, which were more detached. (Perhaps Britain had no cultural equivalent to the loss of Guernica for Spain). Individual Versus Society! The British painters rather stress a gritty acceptance of events, and the feelings of anxiety and dread in both paintings are soothed only by the smallest flicker of hope which is found in the resilience of the curtain human spirit. All four artists coincide in the realization of the inconceivably destructive potential of modern warfare, the ohio terrible things already accomplished, and tortilla curtain what might be still to come.

[2] K Brunner, Picasso: Rewriting Picass o, London: Black dog publishing, 2004, p. 76. [3] R Arnheim, The Genesis of a painting: Picasso’s Guernica , Los Angeles London: Berkeley, 1962, p. Entangling Alliances! 19. © 2016, Kat Isaac. Curtain Sparknotes! All rights to written content reserved. Frida Kahlo and the Gendered Body. Frida Kahlo has in recent decades become somewhat of a feminist icon, her life and work providing a focal point for conversations in on Short-term in vitro, feminist art criticism.

Central to this interest in Kahlo is the open, frank and empowering way in tortilla curtain sparknotes, which she has treated female sexuality and Age Study Essay example the female body in her paintings, at tortilla curtain a time in bridge ohio, the early 20th century when such treatment can be considered revolutionary. Her representation of gender necessarily differentiates her from the contemporary Surrealist movement with which she has often been grouped. The surrealists closely linked eroticism with the tortilla transgressive and irrational type of alliances behaviour which was at the heart of their creative process, and viewed the sexualized body as a route of access to this “heightened” mental state. Thus they treated female sexuality as a means to an end, in stark contrast to Kahlo for whom it comprised an tortilla curtain sparknotes essential part of her self-identity and self-expression. Perhaps Kahlo’s most striking and positive representation of the gendered body is in the painting “Roots” (1943). This is a self-portrait like the vast majority of the artist’s work, in which Kahlo depicts herself as a monumentally large figure in Essay on Short-term in vitro Inhibition, a fiery orange dress, the sole occupant of an extensive, earthy landscape. Her face follows the motionless, expressionless model characteristic of her portraits, which conceals the externalization of emotion as if it were a mask and bestows Kahlo with a refined and solemn air of curtain sparknotes authority. There is no suggestion that she is trying to idealize her portrait, conform to conventional beauty standards, or appear more enticing to the viewer. Although she is reclining she is bridge ohio, propped up on tortilla sparknotes her elbow, remaining alert and assertive, confronting our gaze with her own.

Kahlo is, unlike traditional reclining females that are nude, fully covered by her traditional dress in a way that deflects any sense of eroticism. Her sexuality is still apparent but in and Safety of the SPSU Pool Facilities Essay, a different way; it is not related to the outward appearance of her body but originates internally and is coupled to the vitality of her spirit. Curtain Sparknotes! As Whitney Chadwick has written this sexuality is “a life force, identified with creativity, more emotional and psychological than genital”. The symbolism or motif of the roots that we see here in fact occurs recurrently in Kahlo’s paintings, and is a part of a wider vocabulary of symbolism the alliances artist employs which refers us back to Mexican folk-art traditions and retablos type images. This symbol of roots does not always take its literal form as a green and leafy plant structure, as Hayden Herrera (the artist’s principal biographer) suggests, the curtain idea of roots is X Essay, also used metaphorically and curtain sparknotes is interchangeable with other kinds of connecting pathways or “ life-lines” which represent psychological and spiritual bonds. In “ Family tree” (1936) for example, this bond is individual versus society, a red ribbon held by the infant Frida which splits into branches and connects her to the portraits of curtain her parents and grandparents; a scarlet ribbon which shows the “bloodline” of Essay on in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen her ancestry and ties her into sparknotes her family roots. In “Henry Ford Hospital” (1932) red strings issue forth from Frida’s abdomen area as if they were multiple umbilical cords, binding her to symbolic objects (such as a snail, a foetus) which float about her body to alliances signify the various painful experiences that have made up her life. In “ Two Frida’s” (1939) there is tortilla, a snaking artery that connects the hearts of the two self-portraits, one which is broken, exposed and Brief Biography of Malcolm X Essay bleeding and the other, still beating, provides its literal life-line. This suggests how – in tortilla sparknotes, the darkest of times – Frida drew strength from herself. In “Roots” this symbol of the life-line is SPSU Essay, bought to fruition. Tortilla Curtain! Kahlo is connected to the ground upon Biography X Essay which she lies through the intersecting stems of plants, clumped in tortilla curtain sparknotes, her chest cavity and wrapped around her legs, with large flat green leaves sprouting from them and alliances culminating in a network of small red capillaries splaying outwards.

It is as if blood were passing in sparknotes, and out of her body to the soil, making it an extension of the earth. In this way Kahlo has not only entangling ww1 become a part of the natural cycles but is connected to the mythical powers of her native Mexican landscape. She becomes “rooted” within her ancestral homeland which provides not only a sense of belonging but the nourishment of her body, spirit and tortilla sparknotes soul. Brief Of Malcolm X Essay! As Lucy Lippard described, “Roots” illustrates Kahlo’s “ longing for a connection with an anthropomorphised earth mother” . Whilst the symbolism of roots in Kahlo’s iconography can largely be seen to sparknotes denote positive, life-affirming connections either by joining living organisms to nourishing soil, or symbolically joining people together and uniting them with the memories and experiences which make up their past, at the same time roots can be read as having a negative connotation, suggesting entrapment and cry baby ohio immobility. To Kahlo this must have had particular resonance, for after being involved in tortilla sparknotes, a streetcar accident in 1925 she was left bed-ridden for months and Age Study Essay example incurred severe life-long injuries to her spine, legs and abdomen, a consequence of which was that she could not bear the children she desperately wanted. This might bring new meaning then to the painting “Roots”, in which Kahlo is lying, tied down, stoic and still, there is tortilla, no sense of or potential for movement. Kahlo is rather bound to her specific experience of the world and Age Study Essay example unable to escape both in a physical and emotional sense from her lived reality. Despite this sense of suffering being apparent in all Kahlo’s work due to the trials of her personal life, and although much of this pain was gender specific (caesarean operations, miscarriages and haemorrhages), Kahlo’s femininity – linked as it is sparknotes, with the Essay on Inhibition of Glycogen greater cycles of nature and curtain the primordial, ancestral forces she feels inside her – seems to remain an ongoing source of strength rather than weakness; of will to endure rather than to Inhibition of Glycogen surrender. The empowered way Frida Kahlo has presented her body in “Roots” can be contrasted to a painting completed a year later by a male European surrealist artist, Paul Delvaux’s “Sleeping Venus” which also features a reclining female figure in a surreal landscape. Here Venus, the Roman goddess of love – who has throughout the ages appeared in art as the embodiment of eroticism and beauty – is employed as a recognizable focal point for tortilla curtain the eye, a gravitational centre for the gaze. Calm, serene and undoubtedly beautiful she provides a moment of visual respite amongst the dark dream vision of obscure and agitated figures. (A landscape which responds to Brief of Malcolm X Essay the feelings of anxiety implicit to the Belgian context in when it was painted – during the bombing of Brussels in 1944.)

Venus has been appropriated for the function she serves here. In contrast to Kahlo’s portrait, the face is not looking at us but is turned away, seen in profile. She is asleep, passively and unknowingly inviting us to look at her. The way her arm is raised above her head with her right hip angled towards us and by her positioning upon a formal, luxurious looking couch, the figure is rendered explicitly “on show”. The classical deity has therefore become vulnerable and tortilla exposed, submissive within the gendered power exchange of seeing and being seen.The tall figures looming over her, especially the skeleton figure of personified “death”, increase this feeling of Venus’ vulnerability and objectification.

So although Delvaux might intend to cry baby bridge glorify beauty and womanhood by tortilla curtain sparknotes giving his surreal figure a classical treatment in the name of Venus, he also perpetuates a long tradition of sexualized and submissive feminine nudes in ohio, the history of tortilla art. Moreover, Venus conforms to the surrealist notion that the erotic female body was primarily a tool to facilitate irrational, instinctual mental states in the creative male mind. This directly juxtaposes Kahlo’s vision of a female sexuality which originates from within, from the natural order, and operates independently from alliances ww1, both the male gaze and the surrealist agenda. It is also interesting to compare the compositional structure of curtain these two paintings. Delvaux invokes a sense of of Hygene Facilities Essay seclusion; although the couch is placed in an open-air courtyard, it is fenced in by the surrounding temple like buildings, the looming columns of their facades, and the black mountain peaks which tower ominously in the distance. This setting is reminiscent of the eerie atmosphere of De Chirico’s paintings and their sense of oppression and foreboding. Here again, Delvaux’s vision directly contrasts to Kahlo’s, whose figure, despite being bound by roots and perhaps immobile, occupies a landscape that extends to infinity under a clear blue sky. Delvaux’s strange consciousness of the relationship between exposure and enclosure seems to have a gendered significance, Venus is “on show” to us and the figures encircling her, but also in a secretive, hidden courtyard which is fenced in on all sides and cast in a dark night which bears only a thin slither of a crescent moon.

Kahlo meanwhile – even if not physically – can be seen as sexually and spiritually liberated in the open, panoramic and bright landscape of sparknotes her motherland, the promise and hopefulness of which becomes incorporated into example the artists vision of herself. In summary, Frida Kahlo’s painting “Roots” conveys through the use of symbolism the potency of female sexuality and curtain womanhood by connecting them to the cosmological forces of ohio nature and its regenerative powers. Sparknotes! As in entangling ww1, all her paintings Kahlo expresses her identity in relation to her personal lived experiences, and despite the suffering that entailed, the Frida that is presented to us remains adamant and strong, filled with an tortilla sparknotes unshakable spirit. Whilst in Delvaux’s “Sleeping Venus” the State and Safety of the SPSU Facilities idea of female form is also given a universal and mythological significance, this is woven into the function of the sleeping nude as a sexualized and erotic vehicle for the male gaze which follows a long tradition of “Venus” models in painting. Placed within this role of Venus, Delvaux’s female is curtain sparknotes, not a real woman in Biography X Essay, the real world, but an abstract, intangible and sexualized ideal. Consequently the painting makes no attempt to tortilla curtain offer, as Kahlo does, any genuine account of the feminine identity or experience.

Kahlo’s representation of the gendered body is only one way that she is fundamentally set apart from the male-orientated Surrealist movement, and after all – as she said many times – how could she be a surrealist when it was the waking truths of her reality, not dreams, that she revealed in her painting. © 2016, Kat Isaac. All rights to individual versus written content reserved. Chadwick, W. (1991) Women artists and tortilla sparknotes the surrealist movement , London: Thames Hudson. Herrera, H. (1991) Frida Kahlo: The Paintings , New York: Harper Collins. Garber, E. ‘Frida Kahlo: A comparison of feminist and non-feminist voices’ Art Education , Vol. 45, no. 2, (1992), retrieved 27 October 2012, JSTOR database. Friis, R. ‘The fury and the mire of human veins: Frida Kahlo Rosario Castellanos’, Hispania, vol. Biography! 87, no. 1 (2004), retrieved 27 October 2012, JSTOR database.

Damien Hirst: commodity and curtain the readymade. “The physical impossibility of death in the mind of someone living”, which is the extravagant title that Hirst gave to his shark in a tank of Age Study example formaldehyde, has become one of the artist’s most notorious statements. Tortilla Curtain! Alongside other high-profile pieces such as Tracey Emin’s bed, the shark has become emblematic of the alliances ww1 90’s BritArt movement and its ethos. The initial shock factor of the artwork, especially when seen in its original context at the 1992 Saatchi exhibition of Young British Artists, might have made it seem like a radical and exciting, if controversial, novelty. Conceptually however, as is usually the tortilla curtain case, it was not without precedent.

In employing a prefabricated object (in this case a shark) Hirst emerges at the tail-end of the readymade tradition in 20th century avant-garde art. Since Duchamp’s urinal first provoked outrage when he attempted to society exhibit it in 1917, artists have been exploring the potential of the readymade object as a critical tool, pushing the boundaries of what we call “art”. Curtain! We can think back to Minimalists such as Carl Andre with his piles of bricks stacked on gallery floors, to Pop Art in the 60’s with Andy Warhol’s Brillo boxes and rows of Brief Biography of Malcolm soup tins, even to Jeff Koon’s balloon animals and displays of household objects in curtain, the 80’s. For many decades artists have been asking the same question: what separates art objects from other objects in on Short-term in vitro of Glycogen, the world? Hirst upholds the tradition of the readymade, but with one noticeable change. Where previously artists had used ordinary, commonplace, often industrially produced objects, Hirst uses the opposite – extraordinary objects, such as the shark. Curtain! By substituting the likes of a cardboard box for the frightening, visceral melodrama of a 13ft long tiger shark in a glass tank, suspended as if it were still swimming, still alive and dangerous, Hirst has brought a new dimension to individual the avant-garde device of the readymade.

That is to tortilla curtain say, he has transformed it into a spectacle. This is hardly surprising. For the YBA’s, who can be thought of as the versus first superstars of the art world, spectacle was everything. Curtain! It was intrinsic to of Malcolm X Essay their image and concept. “Sensation” was the title of their 1997 group exhibition because this is what they caused; in curtain, the press and in the media, in the dusty citadels of arts institutions, in the casual-gallery-goer public who loved to hate them. The spectacle is especially important to Hirst, it is the common denominator in all of Essay on Short-term in vitro Inhibition his work. This spectacle is not something derived solely from the objects he chooses – although as we have seen with the shark, this is always part of it – but is generated from the tortilla curtain sparknotes aura of media celebrity which belongs to the artist himself, his artistic status which he has made into bridge a brand. Backed by advertising guru Saatchi, the YBA’s became experts at selling their art as a projection of themselves; a luxury commodity with a price-tag to curtain sparknotes match. It is this clever commodification process which makes Emin’s bed, not much more exciting than the one you woke up in this morning, worth ?2.2 million. It is what makes Hirst’s diamond encrusted skull (which the artist himself played no part in making) dare to ask a price of ?50 million. The much inflated value of these readymades, of what are essentially still just objects (albeit in the case of the jewelled skull, valuable ones) is bridge ohio, symptomatic of what Marx described as the fetishization of commodity. Marx warned of losing the real value of human labour as a by-product of the estranged economic relations we experience within a capitalist consumer society.

It is tempting to curtain sparknotes use Hirst’s skull to illustrate his point. In regards to the shark, however, the spectacle is not quite as shallow or straight-forward. One of the elements that makes it an alluring and desirable object (or product) is the strange title Hirst has given it. A title which perhaps becomes the shark’s most evocative aspect. It is beautiful and poetic in its clumsiness: “The physical impossibility of death in the mind of someone living”. The phrase is simple and chimes with the infallible truth, revealing in a second the folly that underscores the State and Safety Essay human condition: that we are born to die and can never come to terms with that fact. For me the title transforms the curtain creature, no longer a fear-inspiring monster it becomes sad and forlorn. Isolated and State of Hygene of the Pool Facilities remote and trapped there in death till the end of time (or at least until it rots away and has to be replaced, as in 2006, but the sentiment stands). The theatrical cruelty of the object is no longer the tortilla shark as an agent of death, but that of death itself, of the promise of death.

And as we look at the shark in this new light it becomes almost heart wrenching to behold, engendering that feeling of pathos which Hirst will later perfect with another of his formaldehyde projects: a cow and its calf in separate tanks and severed in half entitled “Mother and Child (Divided).” In these “Momento Mori” works we realize we are not just looking at animals in tanks but at ourselves, at our own mortality. The artist has shamelessly and individual brilliantly brought the nihilistic glamour and tragedy of death – as a timeless, universal and sublime truth – into tortilla curtain his spectacle. In Hirst, it seems, anything and entangling alliances ww1 everything can become part of the commodity. To Hirst’s staunchest critics he is merely a savvy player of the tortilla contemporary art game with no real or authentic talents to of Hygene of the SPSU Pool Facilities speak of. Curtain Sparknotes! It is certainly true that he is a far cry from that romantic artist prototype – the inspired, misunderstood genius labouring his whole life for little reward – he is rather a businessman and an entrepreneur. But maybe we should stop to wonder if this is Age Study Essay, not just a natural consequence of tortilla curtain sparknotes our times, a reflection of the increasingly materialistic world artists must negotiate, a world which beckons its own kind of artistic genius. In this context that question which has hung around since the dawn of modernity, that question of “what is art”, has become even more problematic. Whilst no one has held back on Biography their criticism of Hirst over the last decades (he has been variously named a con-artist, a fraud, and just simply bad) this has done nothing but help bolster his exposure and consequentially add to sparknotes spectacle of his personality and entangling alliances ww1 his art, cementing works like “The physical impossibility of death in the mind of someone living” into the history books of the future. © 2014, Kat Isaac.

All rights to written content reserved. Memory in postmodern architecture: A study of the Jewish Museum, Berlin. Since the Cold War period there has been a surge of sparknotes interest in memory discourse and increasingly anxious debate regarding the suitability of versus society long-established and outdated commemorative methods. Traditional types of war memorial have not only proven ineffective (for example in preventing the recurrence of war in sparknotes, Europe after WWI) but can also be seen to have played a role in example, manipulating collective memory and endorsing militaristic rhetoric of colonialism, dominance and power – the same ideologies which drove fascism and other totalitarian regimes to curtain commit atrocities during the 20th century. Artists and architects are now therefore faced with the society challenge of conveying memory through new channels, no longer creating memorials which propagate glory, heroism and prestige but ones which are principally non-triumphalist, apologetic and conscious of their own meta-language and its political connotations. Tortilla Sparknotes! Good examples of such memorials are Maya Lin’s “Vietnam Veterans Memorial” (1982) in Washington or Peter Eisenman’s “Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe” (2003-4) in Berlin. These are not so much monuments as they are counter-monuments; subverting the normal enactment of memory and its rituals. The same question of how to articulate memory has arisen in architecture; although here memory must be assimilated into a language which is primarily functional and serves a structural purpose.

This is the case with the Jewish Museum, which resides adjacent to the Old Kollegienhaus in southern Berlin. Its function is to display both permanent and temporary exhibitions educating its visitors on the rich cultural heritage of the bridge ohio Jewish people and their historic presence in Europe, however equally the design of the building serves as a visual metaphor for sparknotes the trauma inflicted by WWII and the Holocaust on the Jewish community. Thus the museum not only houses memory through its exhibits and artifacts, but becomes itself a symbol of national remembrance and self-understanding. When the building was proposed in Essay, 1988 by the Berlin government it presented a number of tortilla challenges in terms of of Malcolm its conceptual specifications. Tortilla Sparknotes! Even the basics had to be carefully considered: was the new building to be attached or separated from the already standing Berlin museum within the Kollegienhaus, if they were joined together might it denote an cry baby unwarranted sense of reconciliation, and would keeping them apart perpetuate damaging notions of racial segregation? Furthermore how can a museum go about providing a material presence, a “home” for sparknotes the Jews within a city and a nation from which they have been so violently displaced, which is essentially marred by their absence.

Daniel Libeskind won the commission for the building and his design (finally completed in 1999 and opened two years later) was the embodiment of this theoretical dilemma. It is representative of a Deconstructivist style architecture characterized by fragmentation and unpredictability which breaks from conventional forms and planning methods, in Brief, an attempt, perhaps, to express the inexpressible. The building is 15000 square metres arranged in a dramatic zig-zag shape which has been said to be reminiscent of an abstracted Star of David. The plan is composed of two parts, the architect states, “one is curtain, a straight line, but broken into many fragments, the other is a tortuous line, but continuing indefinitely.” The first line, also referred to as the Axis of Continuity, cuts through the second, which is the serpentine body of the on Inhibition of Glycogen building itself. At the intersection where these lines cross “voids” rising vertically from the ground to the roof about curtain sparknotes, 20 metres tall, cut through the Biography building. The presence of the voids (one of which is filled at its base with Menashe Kadishman’s “Fallen leaves” sculptural installation – 10,000 coarse iron faces representing Jewish lives lost) disrupts any sense of continuity within the structure. This cavity running through the Jewish Museum has become symbolic for the Holocaust itself, a visible, shadowy rift in the nation’s history. In formal terms it becomes the silent eye of reflection at the heart of the maelstrom building. The museums exterior takes on a fortress like appearance, sharp and angular; its windows penetrate the walls randomly at tortilla sparknotes different orientations.

A thin layer of zinc coats the Age Study facade, which will oxidize and turn colour as it weathers and gives the building the look of an industrial factory-like edifice which radically departs from its surroundings and the customary stone-clad buildings of Berlin. When viewed from above it leaves an open grey wound on the landscape. To get into the museum you must enter through the main Berlin Museum’s Baroque wing and travel through an underground tunnel, descending into a cold dark space which invokes a sense of anxiety. Tortilla! Then the visitor is met with a crossroads of tunnels, the Three Axis which underwrite the museum’s purpose. Individual Versus Society! The first as already mentioned is the Axis of Continuity, which represents the path to the present day and to tortilla sparknotes uncertain times ahead, this line runs from the Kollegienhaus entrance and leads up a long stairway (with looming concrete supports overhead) into the exhibition spaces. The exhibition rooms and galleries are sometimes closed off or exhibit-less, pierced by intersecting walls or voids, again emphasising the versus society irrational fragmentation and splintering of spaces. The second Axis Of Emigration connects the Museum to the outside Garden of Exile, via a corridor which is uneven and grows progressively narrower. The Garden itself is a land sculpture which is elevated at tortilla sparknotes a 12 degree gradient and Brief Biography filled with rows of forty-nine close together concrete columns which the tortilla visitor must try to negotiate through, olive branches sprout from the cry baby bridge ohio top representing peace and hope, but from the ground these seem remote. It acts as a memorial for tortilla sparknotes all the Jews forced out of Germany and into exile; a stagnant and ww1 sorrowful place which speaks of the sort of tortilla curtain sparknotes uneasy purgatory a refugee faces. The final underground Axis is that of The Holocaust which leads to a dead end; through a heavy door is the Holocaust Tower, which is Essay, a 24 m tall empty concrete silo lit only by a narrow split in its roof and forms a foreboding, dark, claustrophobic chamber which remains cool and damp all year round. These three underground tunnels leading in different directions act to put the emphasis on each individual visitor’s experience, asking them to make their own choices and tortilla sparknotes tread their own path.

Like other postmodern monuments, such as the “Vietnam Veterans Memorial” or the “Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe” the memory here is not prescribed or otherwise mediated, but rather enacted through the spectator and through their personal interactions with the space and its meanings. The Jewish Museum seems to me to signify the anxiety which is deeply embedded in the modern human condition regarding how we should preserve, retain and convey sensitive memories. Anxieties which are in this case crystallized by the fact that Germany’s void is one that is self-inflicted, and that the Age Study example memory of the Holocaust carries not only pain but guilt and tortilla sparknotes responsibility. Libeskind’s building can provide no resolution to this crisis – only offer a reminder of how difficult it is to manifest the past not only conceptually, but, in Short-term in vitro Inhibition, the wake of revisionist and tortilla curtain sparknotes post-structural theory, also practically; after appraising traditional commemorative forms what are we left with to effectively communicate memory today? The Museum attempts to address that question, in X Essay, offering a refreshing glimpse at tortilla the potential of architecture which, once all the conventional paradigms of monumentality, symmetry and order have been overcome, reveals itself as a forcefully expressive and self-critical memorial site capable of of Glycogen holding a mirror up to the complexity of history rather than simply telling it. © 2014, Kat Isaac. All rights to written content reserved. Exhibition review: Saatchi’s “Pangaea: New Art from Africa and Latin America” “Pangaea” refers us back some two hundred million years, when the young planet was home to a vast super-continent in which Africa and South America fit snugly together like two jigsaw pieces. It is this vision of a united prehistoric utopia – of transcendent global connections – which has inspired the latest exhibition at the Saatchi gallery, London. Of course these continents are now separated by nearly 3000 km of Atlantic ocean and any link between the tortilla curtain two contemporary cultures is ohio, no more established because this was once not the case.

Yet in seeking to draw some underlying parallels curator Gabriela Salgada makes an important point about the tortilla curtain sparknotes increasingly globalized and Age Study example ubiquitous nature of the art world and its audiences; an sparknotes art world which no longer concedes to national or even continental boundaries. The exhibition consists of 15 artists, some already well known and others not so, who are diverse and exciting in their approaches but linked throughout by recurring themes and often returning as in the following examples, to versus society questions of civil war, migration, colonial pasts, political unrest and tortilla curtain sparknotes socioeconomic inequality. The exhibition’s initial showstopper is Rafael Gomezbarros’ “ Casa Tomada “, a giant ant installation comprising of 440 insects each half a meter long, which swarm and cluster upon the gallery walls in the first room. The spectator, suddenly dwarfed by the experience, might be initially alarmed, delighted, even amused by of Hygene and Safety of the Pool Essay the sight. Yet on closer inspection the ants are not what they seem; their bodies are made from casts of human skulls bound together with bandages, their splayed legs wiry and skeletal, the tortilla combination of entangling alliances materials used (fiberglass with coal and resin) give them a rusty, decaying yet tough and resilient appearance. Gomezbarros in fact employs the tortilla sparknotes ant as a metaphor for the migrant worker. Ordinarily the ant is Essay, viewed as a pest but can also be understood in terms of its strength and tenacity as a species (they are able to carry many times their own body weight and labour in order to support large and complex colonies). Here as they swarm together, perhaps fleeing from danger in their erratic clusters, they represent the plight of curtain sparknotes millions of people who have been displaced from their homes, and specifically the refugees from Gomezbarros’ native Colombia, which has suffered from more than half a century of civil war.

The artist’s work draws our attention back to the suffering of asylum-seekers which goes largely ignored by the international community and by bringing these homeless, nameless individuals back into the public eye Gomezbarros attempts to make the invisible visible and give those that are silent a voice. Leonce Raphael Agbodjelou’s “ Demoiselles de Porto-Novo” series of Short-term Inhibition photographs are similarly loaded with meaning. His images of bare chested women, wearing traditional ceremonial masks and residing in curtain sparknotes, the doorways and Short-term Inhibition corridors of colonial-style 19th century African mansions, attempt to tortilla curtain reverse our expectations of the gaze and the Eurocentric understanding of seeing and being seen. As unashamedly naked and confrontational as the prostitute in bridge, Manet’s “ Olympia “, and as potentially treacherous as those in tortilla curtain sparknotes, Picasso’s “ Demoiselles d’Avignon”, the women in Essay example, these photographs are beautiful, elusive, alluring yet dangerous and disconcerting. They subvert notions of not only sexual, but racial ownership, and deconstruct the power relations embedded within a history of colonialism and slavery in the West African Republic of Benin. Ibrahim Mahama’s “ Untitled ” installation consumes a vast space with dirty, torn, sewn together coal sacks (commonly known in Ghana as Juke sacks). Like the ants, the size of this work has an almost debilitating effect, looming upwards one imagines being trapped in an oppressive, gloomy cave. Tortilla Curtain! The material looks like it could be leather, or skin; a gigantic flayed carcass. The sheer quantity and weight of the Biography of Malcolm sacks and sparknotes the compilation of so many, meticulously sewn, reminds us of entangling hard and grueling labor – the blood, sweat and tears – which remains in many parts of the world the beating heart of the economy. These Juke sacks, the staple of African market places, are imported by Ghana Cocoa Board but then reused for charcoal and to transport other commodities. Each bears various scrawled markings which tells the story of if its movements within the trade system and thus each becomes a material document for the chain of supply and demand amongst the people of Ghana.

Aboudia’s vast acrylic and mixed-media paintings, 7 of which are on show at “ Pangaea “, give contemporary political violence a historic and monumental scale. This piece “ Djoly du Mogoba ” responds to the 2011 electoral disaster in the city of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, when the presidential incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to step down after loosing the elections, and tortilla curtain sparknotes wide-spread violence ensued. The artist was forced to take refuge in an underground studio at the time. In this giant, frieze-like image, white faced soldiers stand in a row like ghoulish automatons equipped with large weapons. It is hard to cry baby bridge ohio tell but they might be children- the child soldiers who also fought and died in the Second Ivorian Civil War. They are interspersed by red faces with grimacing orange teeth, perhaps some kind of devil creature, or death masks, waiting ominously in the shadows for fate to take its turn. Aboudia’s painterly technique is cartoonish and child-like but with none of the corresponding naivety.

His brush marks are angry, red drips down the top part of the canvas like blood. As with Gomezbarros we get the tortilla sparknotes sense in this art work of the anguish and society the indignation of tortilla curtain those who watch their home nations get torn apart by civil war. However like the giant ants, Aboudia’s figures are also resilient, defiant, insistent on life even in the face of death. It is this which gives depth to Aboudia’s painting and in fact to all the artworks in this exhibition; through whatever hardship and adversity people are facing across the globe, the hopeful and tenacious human spirit remains. Overall the versus exhibition succeeds in presenting artists that, despite the variety of their work, are surprisingly in-sync and create a fascinating and dynamic dialogue with each other. Needless to say that has nothing to do with the mythical unison of a prehistoric super-continent, but rather down to a thoughtful and vibrant selection of curtain contemporary, international artists for whom geography now poses no limits.

“ Pangaea: New Art from Africa and Latin America ” is showing at the Saatchi gallery until the individual versus 2nd November 2014. © 2014, Kat Isaac. All rights to written content reserved.