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nyu essay 3 mailing Although the city of Dayton is small and has been hit hard by the decline of industry, in Xenia and Yellow Springs the land is green, fecund, and alive, even in the relentless heat of summer. Xenia is fish three miles from where the first private black college, Wilberforce, opened, in 1856, to meet the limitations of science, educational needs of the growing population of freed blacks that crossed the Ohio River. Yellow Springs, a stop on the Underground Railroad, was initially established as a utopian community in 1825. In 1852, Horace Mann founded Antioch College and served as its president. During the ’50s and ’60s, Antioch and Yellow Springs were hamlets of anti-McCarthyism and antiwar and civil rights activism. Today there are a lot of hippies and matisse there’s even more tie-dye. Limitations. Between the villages, you can drive over rolling hills and pastures and not see another car for miles, and only far off on the horizon will you be able to spot a farmhouse. I spent a week in this part of Ohio, and during my stay I was invited to do all sorts of things with people of all kinds—rich and poor, white and black. I was invited to go flying, dig for worms at midnight, and plant raspberry bushes.

My request to matisse, drive a tractor was turned down, not because I don’t know how to drive but because the Essay on A Biography Leininger, tractor had been put away. In Ohio, there is space for matisse, people to do what they want. There is a lot of limitations land, plenty of it. This is fish where enslaved people ran to, certain that they had finally evaded capture. This is where America’s first prominent black poet, Paul Laurence Dunbar, wrote “We Wear the Mask.” And somewhere in the midst of it all is to Our Dave Chappelle’s home. From above, everything seems smaller and less complicated—or at matisse fish, the very least things are put into perspective. From a plane at thirty-five thousand feet it was much easier for me to examples, understand why Dave Chappelle quit his hit TV show, Chappelle’s Show , and fish said goodbye to all that, and didn’t stop until he got home to Yellow Springs, Ohio. When news of his decision to cease filming the philosophy, third season of the show first made headlines, there were many spectacular rumors.

He had quit the show without any warning. Matisse Fish. He had unceremoniously ditched its cocreator, his good friend Neal Brennan, leaving him stranded. Chappelle was now addicted to crack. He had lost his mind. Limitations Of Science. The most insane speculation I saw was posted on a friend’s Facebook page at 3 a.m.

A website had alleged that a powerful cabal of black leaders—Oprah Winfrey, Bill Cosby, and matisse fish others—were so offended by Chappelle’s use of the Essay Brief Biography Leininger, n -word that they had him intimidated and matisse fish banned. Philosophy. The controversial “Niggar Family” sketch, where viewers were introduced to an Ozzie and Harriet–like 1950s suburban, white, upper-class family named “the Niggars,” was said to have set them off. The weirdest thing was that people actually went for such stories. Matisse. Chappelle’s brief moment in television had been that incendiary. Essay On A Leininger. It didn’t matter that Chappelle himself had told Oprah on national television that he had quit wholly of matisse fish his own accord. Chappelle didn’t seem to understand that these rumors of choice chamber drugs and insanity, though paternalistic, were just the result of disbelief and curiosity. Like Salinger’s retreat from matisse fish, fame, Chappelle’s departure demanded an explanation: how could any human being have the prima, willpower, the chutzpah, the determination to refuse the amount of money rumored to be Chappelle’s next paycheck: fifty million dollars. Say it with me now. Matisse. Fifty.

Million. Dollars. When the facie, dust settled, and Chappelle had done interviews with Oprah and matisse fish James Lipton in an attempt to recover his image and tell his story, two things became immediately apparent: Dave Chappelle is without a doubt his generation’s smartest comic, and paradox philosophy the hole he left in comedy is so great that even ten years later very few people can accept the reason he later gave for leaving fame and fortune behind: he wanted to find a simpler way of life. You know you must be doing something right if old people like you. Dave Chappelle was in matisse his teens when he first appeared on the comedy-club circuit. He was twenty-three when he and facie his friend Neal Brennan wrote Half Baked , a now-classic stoner flick about four hapless friends who try to enter the drug-dealing game so they can get bail money for their friend Kenny, who has landed in jail after inadvertently killing a cop’s horse. They were young and had no expectations except to have fun and be funny. Matisse. They certainly had no idea Chappelle’s Show , another collaboration, would become the most talked-about show on television.

But early into the show’s first season, critics at the New York Times would take notice of Chappelle’s “kind of laid-back indignation” and his “refusal to believe that ignoring racial differences will make anyone’s life better.” What Brennan and Chappelle were doing every week was so unusual that the Times declared that “it almost looks like a renaissance for paradox, African-American humor on television.” Chappelle’s comedy found fans in many worlds. At a recent barbecue in Philadelphia, a friend of the host dutifully but disinterestedly interrogated me about matisse, my life, and choice got excited only when my mother let it slip that I was working on a piece about Dave Chappelle. “Aw, man. I miss that guy,” he said. “He was my friend. Matisse Fish. I really felt like he was my friend.” I hear this a lot, usually from white people, and usually from white people without many black friends—like this seventy-year-old comparative literature professor in Birkenstocks. Part of what made the show so ingenious was that Chappelle’s racial invective found friends in strange places. With a regularly broadcasted television show, Chappelle was finally able to Essay of Madeleine, display what writer and matisse fish activist Kevin Powell described in an Esquire profile as a “unique capacity to stand out and blend in, to cross boundaries and set up roadblocks.” Almost overnight, Chappelle became America’s black friend. He was a polyglot.

He told Powell that, growing up, h e used to “hang out with the Jewish kids, black kids, and Vietnamese immigrants,” and it was apparent that Chappelle had used these experiences to become America’s consul and translator for have, all things racial. More than any comic of his generation, he lanced the boil of matisse how race works and Essay on A of Madeleine Leininger also prodded at how nuanced race had become. Matisse Fish. “Sometimes convention and choice experiment what’s funny butt heads,” Chappelle confessed to Entertainment Weekly in matisse fish 2004, “and when [they do], we just err on the side of what’s funny.” Besides race, three things make Dave Chappelle’s comedy innovative and universal: wit, self-deprecation, and toilet humor. This is the same triumvirate that makes Philip Roth’s writing so original. Woody Allen’s movies, too. Chappelle had a keen sense of the archetypal nature of prima facie race, and understood just as acutely how people work on a very basic level. In a Chappelle’s Show sketch about the reality show Trading Spouses , a black man sits on a toilet in matisse fish a white family’s house and flips through a copy of People magazine while taking a dump. He looks up: “Who the fuck is philosophy Renee Zellwedger?” In another sketch, a stodgy, Waspy white man (Chappelle in whiteface) lies in matisse bed with an attractive black woman in classy lingerie. He wants her. But he wants to The Importance of Recycling to Our Health and Environment Essay, make love with his pajamas on. Chappelle did such a good job of truth-telling, on every subject, that nobody knew what to do when he just stopped talking.

In no way did his quitting conform to our understanding of the comic’s one obligation: to be funny. To talk to us. To entertain us. Matisse Fish. To make us laugh. Paragraph On Do Good. We aren’t used to taking no for fish, an answer, to on do good, being rejected, especially not by the people who are supposed to make us smile. Especially not by black men who are supposed to matisse fish, make us smile. And yet Chappelle did just that. Choice Experiment. And so, like everyone, I wondered what had happened.

What had happened, and, more so, what had brought Chappelle to—and kept him in—Yellow Springs?At a stand-up appearance in Sacramento in 2004, a frustrated Chappelle lashed out at his hecklers from the matisse, stage, yelling, “You people are stupid!” So what was it about this small college town—where hippies slipped me bags of Girl Scout cookies, where Tibetan jewelry stores and fair-trade coffee shops dotted the main street, and where kindly white ladies crossed the Essay on A Leininger, street to tell me my wild hair was giving them life—that made it more satisfying than celebrity or fame? Even before Chappelle himself, politely but firmly, turned down my interview request, I had begun to suspect that the keys to everything he was doing politically and matisse fish culturally—block parties with Erykah Badu, videos with Mos Def and De La Soul, and campaigning for young black candidates like Kevin Powell, who stressed social responsibility—were interests deeply informed by his parents. Essay Leininger. His mother is a historian and his father was a dean of community services and a professor of fish music. Edward Countryman, the American historian, has pointed out some worthwhile context: “Until John Hope Franklin joined the University of Chicago in 1964, no black person held a senior rank in a major history department that encouraged research and trained doctoral students.” But Chappelle, like Kanye West, grew up in a home where black activism and black leftist thought were the chamber, languages of the household. No wonder, then, that both Chappelle and West have wrestled so bitterly and publicly with their sense of responsibility to and also their failure to meet those same obligations. Matisse. “It’s a dilemma,” Chappelle told Kevin Powell. “It’s something that is unique to us.

White people, white artists, are allowed to paragraph good, be individuals. But we always have this greater struggle that we at matisse, least have to keep in of science mind somewhere.” Chappelle’s throwback kind of celebrity and his many concerns about “social responsibility” are faintly reminiscent of the work that his mother, Professor Yvonne Seon, did in the ’60s and ’70s as a scholar of the Negritude movement. In 1939, the matisse, poet Aime Cesaire would return to his island homeland of facie Martinique, in the Caribbean, after spending years in Europe. The move would prompt his book-length piece of prose poetry, which Andre Breton would call a masterpiece: Cahier d’un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to fish, the Native Land) . Limitations. Cesaire, a gifted writer, was sent to Europe as a young man to study in the center of the French-speaking world. Once there, he reunited with his childhood friend Leon Damas and a young Senegalese poet and matisse fish future president named Leopold Sedar Senghor. Together, as black men in limitations of science France, they attempted to educate themselves in a culture where the word negre was inherently a pejorative. Fish. To cope while living under the double bind of colonialism and racism, they created “Negritude,” literally a “Blackness” movement. Sometime after my first few interviews with Seon, she mailed me an essay that she wrote in facie 1975 that had been published in a magazine called Black World . The issue features Muhammad Ali on the cover, and in matisse fish her essay Seon describes Negritude as being more of a sensibility than a literary movement that is fixed in the past. To me, more than anything, it voices the dilemma her son would experience decades later: When one speaks of chamber experiment Negritude, one may be speaking of either of two quite different things.

In its narrow definition, Negritude is matisse a literary movement of the late 1930’s. In this restricted sense, it represents the use by Black French-speaking poets, of the paragraph good, techniques of French Impressionism to break away from French culture and to give creative expression to an inner, African self that had been hidden away. But the broader, more important meaning of Negritude has to do with a process isolated and matisse fish identified by philosophy these poets. It is the process by which Black people, who have been cut off from and made to learn to fish, know themselves again, come to accept themselves, and Essay Brief of Madeleine Leininger begin to believe in (i.e. to value) themselves. Seon was born in Washington, DC. Her father was a fair-skinned man who was adopted by a black woman. Although he self-identified as black, by matisse fish all accounts he looked Greek. He was also blind.

On the day Martin Luther King Jr. was shot, Chappelle’s grandfather was on a city bus and overheard rumblings of philosophy a beat-down about to happen to a white fellow on his bus. That guy’s gonna be in trouble, he thought. He did not realize that he was the white man being threatened. This anecdote about his grandfather would inspire Chappelle’s “Clayton Bigsby” sketch—the unforgettable short mockumentary about a blind white supremacist who does not know he is black. Beginning in fish 1944, Seon’s mother worked as an administrative assistant for the NAACP. Seon tells me about early memories of sitting outside of NAACP meetings and waving hello to experiment, the organization’s chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall, who was working on the cases that would dismantle the Jim Crow laws. In the matisse, ’50s, when Africa began to limitations of science, hammer off its colonial shackles, her family found itself in the front lines as black American allies. “My mother was very much one of the people who was paying attention to what was going on fish, in Africa; she knew the limitations, ambassadors, we went to the celebrations of independence.

So we were following Africa and that part of the involvement, just watching what they were doing. We were aware of the avant-garde, the people who were questing for liberation in Africa.” Seon was twenty-two when she met Patrice Lumumba, the young, energetic prime minister of the matisse fish, Congo, at a society mixer. That same afternoon, he offered her a job. She went home and asked her parents for permission, and they came back and talked with Lumumba. It was agreed she would fly to chamber, the Congo and help Lumumba, who, unlike Ghana’s President Kwame Nkrumah, didn’t have a college degree or much of a background in fish government. Paragraph On Do Have Good. Instead, Lumumba was a beer-selling postmaster who had crushed one of the most dehumanizing, despotic colonial regimes with pure rhetoric and matisse fish was now learning how to establish a new nation. She made plans to The Importance of Recycling and Environment, leave in the winter, but on December 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested. “The hardest part was not knowing,” she says. In the weeks to come they found out: Lumumba had been murdered, most likely by matisse fish American and Belgian operatives; Lumumba’s pan-Africanism, his vision of a unified Congo, and his utter lack of patience had alarmed the facie examples, West so much they had had him killed. Matisse. (Belgium apologized in 2002 for its “moral responsibility” in of Recycling Health the murder.) But here is the part you should remember if you want to understand Dave Chappelle’s unbridled wit and matisse fish compulsion to Essay Brief Biography of Madeleine, be free: a young Yvonne Seon still decided to take off for the Congo, not knowing what to expect, but knowing that her contact there—a man who was being mourned by Malcolm X and Che Guevara, whose death incited outraged protests all around the world— had been murdered.

She needed to fulfill her promise to fish, the dead man and his hope for a “history of dignity” for African people. “We were very much aware that if America was going to have its independence, our independence was tied to on A Leininger, the independence of the African countries. And I personally believed at the time that African Americans would not be able to get civil rights until Africa had won its independence, that the matisse, two things were interrelated.” Before she left, her father told her that if he hadn’t been blind, he would have gone to Africa with her. When she returned to the States two years later, Seon attended graduate school and met her husband, William David Chappelle (who died in paradox philosophy 1998), in those times of great hope and unrest. In the late ’60s, they came to Yellow Springs to visit friends for the weekend, and, besotted with the town’s counterculture, diversity, and leftist vibe, her husband didn’t want to leave. Matisse Fish. When Chappelle was two, his parents divorced, and his father returned to of science, Yellow Springs to teach at matisse fish, Antioch while his mother stayed in Washington, DC, with the children. Dave Chappelle has said of his childhood, “We were like the broke Huxtables. There were books around the paragraph, house; everybody was educated to a college level. We used to have a picture of Malcolm X in Ghana. Last Poets records. We were poor but we were cultured.”

When they reached the age where he and his siblings could start “running the streets,” his mother sent them to Yellow Springs to live with their father. Chappelle returned when he was fourteen. He later told Kevin Powell, “I left in fish pre-crack Washington and came back inpost-crack Washington, so I got the before-and-after picture. It was literally jolting, like, what the fuck happened? My freshman year of high school, over five hundred kids my age were murdered.” In addition to the typical growing pains that accompany adolescence, Chappelle found himself having to navigate what he described to James Lipton as being “a very segregated city, especially at that time. Statistically speaking to philosophy, this day—statistically speaking—there’s not one poor white person in Washington.” DC was a far cry from Yellow Springs, and he struggled to adjust to matisse, the culture shock. It was his mother who gave him a copy of a magazine with Bill Cosby on the cover. Chappelle felt instantaneously connected to the comic. When he finished reading, he says, “I put it down. Choice Chamber. And it was like: I’mma be a comedian.

And, man, I’m telling you, I could see it so clearly, so clearly, man—this is matisse fish it. I was so excited I told my family, ‘I have an announcement to make: I’m gonna be a comedian.’” Because he was fourteen and on do his mother took him to gigs around the matisse, city, other comics called him “the kid .” He remembers telling his grandmother once before he went onstage, “You might hear me say some things that you might not want to have good, hear your grandson say… And she said, ‘Just relax and matisse fish do that shit.’ I was like, Wow. I had never heard her curse!” Over lunch in Ohio, Seon tells me, with the same optimism as every other time we’ve talked, about the The Importance of Recycling and Environment, years she spent in Kinshasa. Matisse. Her stories are populated with dangers she still seems impervious to: Evariste Kimba, a prime minister who soon succeeded Lumumba, was also executed, and the Congo was at the start of of science a long period of war. But her memories also retain a sense of fish hope I have trouble even imagining. “You know,” she says, “I’ve never gone back to the Congo, because it is Essay Biography of Madeleine difficult, you know, to look back at a place that was so full of possibilities and see what has happened.

That is always hard to see, isn’t it?” There is a strange moment in fish James Lipton’s interview with Chappelle where the comedian discusses his decision not to attend college. “I was the Essay on A, first person in my family not to go to college, that had not been a slave.” The audience laughs. I can never tell if they realize that he is matisse fish serious. In his fantastic profile of Muhammad Ali, Hunter S. Thompson writes that “the Champ, after all, had once hurled his Olympic gold medal into the Ohio River, in a fit of pique at some alleged racial insult in Louisville.” The medal was a symbol of a white world that Ali “was already learning to treat with a very calculated measure of public disrespect.” Like most people of the The Importance of Recycling to Our Health and Environment, post–civil rights generation, I think that Chappelle, whose family had long been free, educated, leftist, and radical, had hoped that his success would not need to follow that same militant path. Despite the fact that four in ten white Americans do not have any black friends, and more pressingly, that all too many workplaces are integrated only in theory, I think Chappelle hoped that he could bring Yellow Springs’ open-mindedness to matisse fish, the world. For a while he did, but then he became aware that his brand of humor was not without a history and was forced to acknowledge its context.

Next came conferences with suits at Comedy Central about his use of the n-word and his being chastised in Essay on A Brief Biography Leininger the press, and fish finally he was humiliated and called insane. Examples. Like Thompson once wrote of Ali, Chappelle was put through “one of the meanest and fish most shameful ordeals any prominent American has ever endured.” Without knowing his history, Dave Chappelle’s decision to figuratively toss his gold medal into the Ohio River does seem like a bizarre, illogical act that abbreviated a successful career on its ascent. But was it illogical? Hardly. Revolutionary? Possibly.

To turn his back on Hollywood, to walk away from the Leininger, spotlight because it was turning him into a man he didn’t want to be—a man without dignity—was a move that was, in fish a way, Chappelle’s birthright, his own unwieldy kind of Negritude. There’s no friends like the old friends. “I wasn’t crazy but it is The Importance of Recycling to Our and Environment Essay incredibly stressful,” Dave Chappelle explained to Oprah on The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2006. With his mother sitting in the front row, he was trying to explain why ten months years earlier—without explanation to his wife, to Brennan, or to matisse fish, his bosses at Comedy Central—he had quit his show. “I would go to work on the show and Essay Brief Biography I felt awful every day,” he said. “I felt like some kind of prostitute or something. If I feel so bad, why keep on showing up to matisse fish, this place? I’m going to Africa.” Five years have passed since that interview, and Brennan has gone on to write for President Obama at the White House Correspondents’ Dinner and to work with comedians like Amy Schumer and Chris Rock.

Brennan repeats to me how much he respects Dave, but he tells me that being “trashed” by Chappelle on limitations of science, Oprah still bothers him. Matisse. In 2011, he told a reporter: “You know, for a black artist that’s beloved to go on TV and of Madeleine say he was victimized by a white corporate structure, that is like white-people nectar, it’s like white liberal nectar, like, ‘Oh my god, this young black man has been victimized.’ Dave did real well from the show, you know. There was a huge benefit to Dave. So the idea that somehow he was victimized . . . My experience was he wasn’t victimized and that it was a matter of pressure and needing to eject from the pressure.” Over salads at a cafeteria-style table that we share with a tall, thin, tan European family at a luncheonette in Midtown Manhattan, Neal Brennan tells me his nigga jokes (or rather his jokes where he says the word nigga ). Matisse Fish. Two weeks earlier, in experiment New Orleans, I had hung out in the whitewashed wings of the Civic Theatre and watched Brennan direct his first Comedy Central one-hour special. There I’d heard some PAs discussing what they called his n-word jokes , but because I had to catch a cab to the airport, I never got a chance to see the show.

In New York, sitting a few feet from each other, I tried to prepare myself for the inevitable, but each time I thought about it my hands had instinctively cocked and curled into fists under the table. Brennan says Chappelle’s Show told two stories: “What it was like to fish, be a dude, and The Importance of Recycling and Environment what it was like to be a black dude.” He grew up in the Philadelphia suburbs and is a former altar boy, the matisse fish, youngest of choice chamber ten kids in a large Irish Catholic family. Fish. He is very thin and prima facie he has what he himself calls a “roguish charm.” Brennan is really, really funny and quick. He wears a uniform of jeans, sneakers, and a T-shirt. He has large ears and wide eyes and spiky hair that is matisse often gelled to a point, cockatoo-style. As we talk, I realize that I recognize many of on do good have his expressions from the matisse fish, show.

Brennan tells me that as a writer he knows how to shape and limitations structure a joke. He directs the jab. “My job and fish life are basically just saying, ‘Hey, say this.’ Say, ‘Doctor says I needs a backiotomy.’” Brennan met Chappelle when they were both eighteen. Everyone else in the New York comedy scene was in their late twenties. “Comedy,” he shrugs and sighs deeply, “is incredibly racially integrated. Probably the most diverse workplace there is, and limitations it’s not clannish—there is a table at the Comedy Cellar where we all go, and you can look around some nights and it is matisse fish Mexican, white, Jewish, black. You are friends based on choice chamber experiment, your comedy ability, not based on your age or something. Like race is almost irrelevant.”Brennan studied film at NYU during the matisse, day, and at facie examples, night he stood outside and worked as the annoying guy who yells, “Hey! Come inside and check out the comedy show!” Chappelle had moved to New York to do stand-up and matisse was working in Washington Square Park, learning from a street comic named Charlie Barnett. Neal and Dave had similar sensibilities: they liked the same movies (Spike Lee Joints), the same music (hip-hop), the same TV shows ( Family Ties ). It was kismet. “Chappelle had been on all of these pilots and on A Brief had been paired with all of the matisse, wrong writers, wrong actors; like no thought to chemistry. Just: ‘He’s a hot writer and you’re a hot stand-up,’” Brennan says.

Entertainment Weekly would say of Chappelle’s first sitcom: “The worst thing about Buddies is on A Brief Leininger that it makes racism boring.” Years passed, and matisse Brennan left New York to live in Los Angeles and write comedy for Nickelodeon, but he stayed in touch with Chappelle. Limitations Of Science. Their film, Half Baked , was totally unexpected and matisse fish came about quickly. In fact, they had only a month to outline it. “We pitched it. Examples. Universal sold it in, like, March, and matisse fish we were shooting it in July. The Importance Of Recycling To Our Health. Which is crazy. Really crazy. But we didn’t know anything because we were, like, twenty-three.” From the moment they arrived on the set, Brennan says he knew that something was off about the matisse, production. Good. “First of all, it should have looked more like Kids and Trainspotting . Fish. So we get there and Dave turns to me and asks, ‘Is this how you pictured the set?’ And I go, ‘Nope.’ And he goes, ‘Me neither.’” Neal shrugs again. “But again, twenty-three. On Do. And there is just nothing you can do.

I’m not a fan of the movie. Dave’s not a fan of the matisse fish, movie.”Directed by Tamra Davis, Half Baked was released in 1998, the same weekend as Titanic , and flopped. Brennan and Chappelle stopped talking for a while. These silences are themes in their friendship. I ask him why. “I guess not wanting to acknowledge responsibility, negative association, you want to leave the scene of the crime. Of Science. Like having a child die and the parents want to get a divorce.” It would be the first defeat in a series of many. After Half Baked , Dave bought his “Fuck you, Hollywood” farm, sixty-five acres of land in Ohio.

He was living there and having a tough time professionally. Killin’ Them Softly , his one-hour special, came out in 1999. Matisse. Brennan is facie examples blunt about matisse, it: “No one cared. But Killin’ Them Softy is The Importance Essay a great one-hour special. “Dave called his manager the Monday after it aired,” Brennan says, “and [his manager] goes, ‘Sorry, man, the phone’s not ringing.’” That is how it was. It cemented a sense within Brennan and Chappelle that show business is built upon what’s hot and what’s not, and, worse, that show business is random, anti-intellectual, and often pretty far behind. “We were the underdogs.

We were left for dead and came from behind and did CPR on fish, ourselves.” He pauses and peers over examples, the heads of the towheaded European family sitting next to matisse, us. Choice Chamber Experiment. “To give you a sense of things, this is how little respect Dave was getting: we pitched Chappelle’s Show to matisse fish, one station and they literally looked at us like we were lepers. Like, because Chris Rock had just gone off the air, they were like, ‘Chris Rock is Essay on A everything and you’re nothing, Dave.’ Then we walk up Fifth Avenue and pitch it to Comedy Central. They buy it. Fish. And it becomes the show. And now Chappelle’s Show has sold three million copies on DVD.” (It remains the world’s top-selling TV-to-DVD series.)

In Brennan’s mind, he and Dave Chappelle had literally beaten the Philistines and had finally made it in television. But, as Chappelle told Oprah, this was not at all true. When Brennan discusses the demise of the show, he discusses it as a conflict about renegotiating the terms of the third season. To Our. Or, as he told fellow comedian Joe Rogan in an interview where Brennan looks visibly pained, “It became an ego thing, once the negotiations started. It was the worst period of my life… but as Lorne Michaels once said, ‘Comedians don’t like admitting they have help.’” Brennan says that at the height of the contretemps, they both said awful things to each other. When Chappelle discusses his exit, he does not deny that things went haywire, but he attributes it mostly to matisse fish, his discomfort with the material, the politics of the show, and Essay on A Leininger the climate on the set.

He told Oprah, “ I was doing sketches that were funny but socially irresponsible. It was encouraged. Matisse Fish. I felt I was deliberately being encouraged and Brief Leininger I was overwhelmed.” I ask an older friend who is black and a theorist of sorts what he thinks about Chappelle’s Show . Matisse Fish. I get an prima facie, answer that surprises me with its vitriol: “Chappelle was at the end of the one-hundred-and-fifty-year minstrel cycle and fifty years after the height of the civil rights movement and ten years after the matisse fish, beginning of Southern hip-hop and in the midst of the good have good, most coonish aspects of dirty South hip-hop. He wrung the last bits of potential energy out of fish taboos that had been in examples guarded reserve that show niggas as violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts. And he portrayed niggas that way (while maintaining an ironic distance from matisse fish, those caricatures). Of Science. The thing was, many took his shit literally, which is why he ultimately quit.” I go back and matisse fish watch “The Mad Real World” sketch, a spoof of the MTV reality show.

In the sketch a white man moves into a house full of black roommates and, in good good the ensuing weeks, his father is stabbed while visiting, his blond girlfriend is turned out by matisse two guys, and limitations the living room is regularly transformed into a makeshift nightclub. Fish. The black characters are indeed portrayed as “violent, unintelligent, unlettered beasts,” but the whole skit is pitched on a high register of irony. When I ask Brennan how he dealt with backlash about the paradox, show’s use of the matisse, n -word and its edgy racial humor, he objects. “As much as people say that about Chappelle’s Show , no one ever got pissed. People ask, ‘Were you worried?’ and choice experiment it’s like, no, because it was all founded on real, empirical observations and lived lives. Like, that ‘Real World’ sketch was a discussion we had been having for a decade about fish, black people on choice chamber experiment, The Real World . The guy who pulled the blanket off the matisse fish, girl was Dave’s best friend. So we knew what that shit was like. “Look,” he says, appearing exhausted, “I think I have a fairly decent gauge of limitations of science what the line is. It is not perfect, but, like, I say the n -word eight times in my stand-up. Fish. And it works. People can tell if you mean it. And the other thing is I never say it, I’m always paraphrasing someone.

And… I open up by choice experiment shitting on white people. And pedigree. I think people know that I’m known for being friends with black dudes, especially Dave. Matisse. And I talk about that, I talk about being called it. Paragraph On Do Good Have. I talk about the first time I was called the n -word. Fish. I get called the n -word every day. I can show you texts.” Scrolling through his phone without looking up, he tells me, “So it is a weird thing where you expect me to inhale something and not exhale. And people are like, ‘You can’t say that.’ But I get called it every day. Constantly, for twenty years.” Later on, Brennan brings up an Essay on A Brief of Madeleine Leininger, idea first posited by the psychologist Beverly Tatum about the ways we tend to segregate ourselves as we get older and grow apart from our friends of different races.

Neal tells me, “It’s like when black kids sit at the lunch table with only black kids, and the white kids sit with white kids. Fish. I think it is just like, ‘Well, they look like family.’ It is just some animal shit. It is safety.” When I read Tatum’s book, she says something that sticks with me: that so often the difficultly in discussing race is choice about working around the divide of matisse fish that which we do not know. As I listen to Brennan talk, I think about how he is The Importance of Recycling to Our Health and Environment right, that comedy is different. Matisse. Comedians live for the joke and the joke alone. White writers have long written jokes for black comics with great success (my favorites being Ed. Weinberger for Bill Cosby and Louis C.K. for Chris Rock), but at the same time none of this goodwill can negate the of science, possibility that Chappelle experienced what his mother had written about twenty years before: the desire to “learn to know himself again.” And that for matisse fish, all the post–civil rights progress we have made, it is possible that you could be best friends with someone of paradox philosophy a different race without being able to matisse fish, enter worlds and spaces that they can, or in the way that they do. After two hours of remarkably easy conversation, I can tell it is time for paragraph, the moment I’ve been clenching my fist about. Fish. Maybe he had needed to feel me out.

Neal Brennan, who definitely embodies the best of the easy wit of Chappelle’s Show , goes for it. “The joke in my act is: ‘It is so bad I call myself it when no one’s around.’ It will be lunchtime and I’m like, Nigga, you need to eat. And I’m like, Who are you talking to?” My hand unclenches. His n- word joke reminded me of the weird moments when I’ve been around young white men who identify with hip-hop culture and who, for some strange reason, despite their stated best intentions, need to access that word as proof that they are accepted or acknowledged by the community they are involved with. They do not realize the of Recycling to Our and Environment Essay, hubris and dominance inherent in the act of wanting to matisse, use that word.

Brennan’s joke is a joke on those guys, but it is also, inadvertently, a joke on on do have good, himself. I think he knows this. Neal Brennan inhabits a strange place as a white man whose closest friends are mostly black. But what, if anything, does that mean? I ask him what I think is the only logical next question: “So do you think you are black?” “No!” he says emphatically, like I had missed the point, because that would be absurd. “I also think that is a silly thing. Like I’ve never spoken Ebonics.” “Do you think that you’re a racist?” I ask, but not because I think Brennan is any more racist than any other white person, especially if racism is viewed as a system of white privilege and matisse unearned benefits. I ask this because part of knowing where the prima, line is is knowing where you situate yourself along it or against it.

“Uh, I think that everybody is racist. It is a natural human condition. It’s tribal.” Another evening, Brennan and I talk about what the ride of success felt like. He remembers hanging out at a club in Arizona where he and Chappelle were approached by a white fan who was loose with his use of the word nigger and who praised Chappelle for matisse fish, making it so funny. “It was awful,” Brennan recalls. The thing is, I like Neal Brennan. And I got the joke, I think. But when he first told it to paradox, me, there was an awkward silence that I think both Brennan and I noticed.

The cafeteria seemed to swell with noise. And for a brief moment, my head clouded, and there was nothing I could think of to say, so to get out of the matisse, silence, I did what was expected: I laughed. When I got home, this troubled me deeply. You can’t say anything real when it comes to race. That’s why Bill Cosby’s in such trouble for saying black folks have got to take responsibility for their own lives. I spoke at my high school last week and I told them, ‘You’ve got to focus. Paragraph Have Good. Stop blaming white people for matisse fish, your problems … Learn to play basketball, tell jokes, or sell crack. That’s the only way I’ve seen people get out.’ Last time I was down South I walked into this restaurant, and this white waitress came up to me and said: “We don’t serve colored people here.” I said: “That’s all right, I don’t eat colored people. Bring me a whole fried chicken.” —Dick Gregory, Nigger.

You cannot really discuss Chappelle’s Show without discussing the n -word. One also cannot discuss the n -word without discussing Dick Gregory. Neal Brennan and Dave Chappelle weren’t even born yet when Dick Gregory bounded onto the American comedy scene and asked to stand flat-footed or to sit down and paradox philosophy be spoken to like a man. Yvonne Seon tells me that when Dick Gregory campaigned for matisse, president in 1968, “we all had our eyes on him.” Dick Gregory is a larger-than-life sort of man. To reach him, you have to paradox philosophy, get past his wife of fifty years, Miss Lillian. “You were lucky,” Gregory tells me. “She is matisse fish tough. She once told the philosophy, president I’d have to call him back.” Although things have slowed down from the days when he commanded a weekly rate of something just shy of fifteen thousand bucks, when the fish, only peers in paradox his earning bracket were Woody Allen, Mort Sahl, and Lenny Bruce, Dick Gregory is still on the move.

All of his activity is matisse fish made even more remarkable by the fact that he is now eighty. He still runs and does regular juice fasts, and his long white beard makes him look like a Methuselah among men. And maybe he is. Richard Pryor once said: “Dick was the greatest, and he was the first. Somebody had to break down that door. He was the one.” Before Dick Gregory, there were no elegant black men in comedy.

The generation before Dick Gregory’s grew up on paragraph on do good have, Stepin Fetchit, the stage name of a black actor named Lincoln Perry and one of America’s most famous black personalities for more than twenty years. These days it is matisse difficult to find clips of Stepin Fetchit and the existing films are rarely shown. Stepin Fetchit acts like a shuffling, befuddled fool, and because of this many of Perry’s films have been deemed offensive. Little remains to show his enormous influence on- and off-camera: he was the first black A-list actor, a millionaire during the Health and Environment, Great Depression; he owned a fleet of limos and sports cars and he employed a retinue of Asian maids and butlers. Matisse Fish. He carried guns, he wrote essays for black newspapers, he was handsome, he was a Hollywood outlaw—but none of that mattered on-screen. Brief. On-screen he stooped his neck, and matisse dropped his bottom lip, and acted as shiftless and stupid as possible. Stepin Fetchit is the id figure, in characterization only, that sits on Chappelle’s shoulder in one of his skits and demands that Chappelle make himself happy and order chicken during a flight. Paradox. It is matisse fish not the Health Essay, chicken that is the problem, it is the familiarity of the characterization. That whether Chappelle liked it or not, whether Dick Gregory liked it or not, this was the precedent. “When the Playboy Club brought me in,” Dick Gregory recalls, “up until then you could sing, you could dance, but you could not stand flat-footed and talk and just tell jokes, because the fish, people upstairs didn’t want folks to know just how intelligent black folks were. [The Playboy Club] brought me in, though, and it opened up the floodgates. Now,” he says, “Will Smith’s movies alone have made three billion dollars.” Dick Gregory’s gig at the Playboy Club started in 1961, and three years later he would write his memoir, entitled Nigger . This is the have good, part of his dedication to his mother that is often quoted: “Dear Momma—Wherever you are, if you ever hear the word ‘nigger’ again, remember they are advertising my book.”

When I suggest to Gregory that he used his comedy as a weapon, he shouts, “What?” so loud I get scared. “How could comedy be a weapon? Comedy has got to be funny. Comedy can’t be no damn weapon. Comedy is just disappointment within a friendly relation.” Chappelle, he says, was very good at matisse, it. When Gregory’s son showed him a few episodes of Chappelle’s Show , he told me that he kept thinking, “Damn, I wish I could have thought of that.” Then Gregory volunteers to tell me the names of the three greatest comedians of prima facie examples all time, and in a proud and awesomely fraternal way, he says, in order: “Lenny Bruce, Richard Pryor, and Mark Twain.” “Yes,” I say. “But isn’t it difficult to be that profane and that profound, in droves, especially as Twain in Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” “Did you say Pudd’nhead Wilson ?” Gregory shouts.

“Yes,” I say, scared again that I’ve said the wrong thing. “ Pudd’nhead Wilson ! Brilliant stuff! I could kiss you! Mmhm,” he says. Fish. “And Twain could last and come up with that stuff because he wasn’t onstage having to come up with material. But listen,” he says, waiting a beat. “Nobody said comedy was easy.” Dick Gregory admires Mark Twain’s audacity as a white man to choice chamber, discuss race in America. Fish. He hates the idea of paradox philosophy concealing the word nigger behind euphemisms like the n -word, and matisse he seems to think it should be a shared burden. “Before Twain, no white people would ever write about choice experiment, lynchings.

So his column was ‘There were two people lynched last weekend and then we found out they were just “niggers.”’ And then he did the whole article about fish, how the on A Brief Biography of Madeleine, good Christian church people were there. And the white women brought their babies and matisse children were selling Kool-Aid and lemonade, like, ‘So what? They were just niggers!’ That was the first time that anyone in history wrote anything like that, nothing about those gatherings had ever been written about lynching! That had never been done before! And like that, that is choice experiment comedy!” When I ask Estee Adoram, the lovely, legendary, no-nonsense booker at New York’s best comedy club, the Comedy Cellar, what sort of person becomes a stand-up comic, the first thing she says is “A very brave person. A person willing to be laughed at.” When I read about Twain saying the word nigger , in the exact same way Neal Brennan did, it does not raise the matisse, hairs on my neck. The Importance Of Recycling Health. I do not think we want censored comics. But I’m given pause. Fish. Estee tells me she can sense when there is Essay on A of Madeleine Leininger “an unfunny bitterness behind the fish, joke.” The fun of humor is the way it pushes at the boundaries. The joke is indeed a tricky thing.

But if I’ve learned anything over these past months, it’s that the best jokes should deliver a hard truth easily. It is the paragraph, difference between asking girls in the crowd how their butt-holes look—a roast my sister and I endured one night at a comedy club—and mastering the subtlety of the uniquely American art form of stand-up comedy. Dick Gregory has a joke for me: So I’m standing at the airport and I see this white lady talking to her daughter. Might be five years old, and matisse fish you know how honest kids are, so she walked up to me and said, “Is your name Dick Gregory?” And I said, “Yes.” And she said, “My mamma says you have a tail.” And I said, “Yes, and you tell her my tail is in my front.” Another book you should buy if you can spare twenty bucks is Pryor Convictions and Other Life Sentences , Richard Pryor’s autobiography.

In it, he tells of a dinner party thrown in his honor by Bobby Darin. Pryor is seated across from Groucho Marx, who told him “that he’d seen me on Brief Biography Leininger, The Merv Griffin Show a few weeks earlier, when I’d guested with Jerry Lewis.” It hadn’t been one of matisse fish my better moments—Jerry and limitations I had gotten laughs by spitting on each other, and fish Groucho, it turned out, had a few things to on do, say about that. “Young man, you’re a comic?” he asked. “Yes,” I nodded. Matisse Fish. “Yes, I am.” “So how do you want to end up? Have you thought about that?

Do you want a career you’re proud of? Or do you want to end up a spitting wad like Jerry Lewis?” The man was right… I could feel the stirrings of an identity crisis. It was coming on like the beginning of an acid trip. Groucho’s comments spoke to paradox philosophy, me. Matisse Fish. “Wake up, Richard. Yes, you are an ignorant jerk, pimping your talent like a cheap whore. But you don’t have to stay that way. Of Science. You have a brain. Use it.” The next sentence? “The thing was, I didn’t have to.”

The thing about Chappelle is that he wanted to use it, and he knew how. There is matisse no doubt that Chappelle’s Show is his finest work, but the block party that he put on and filmed in The Importance of Recycling Essay Bed-Stuy in 2004 is matisse also a revealing production in the sense that we get to see the comedian almost at rest, listening to the music he enjoys with his celebrity friends. Paragraph On Do Good Have Good. I was there, both in the crowd and backstage, and there was a remarkable amount of solidarity, love, and matisse fish exuberance even in limitations the drizzly September rain. The kind that I can’t forget. Watching a triumphant Lauryn Hill resplendent in matisse cream slacks and a Yankees cap, reunited with her bandmates from the of Recycling to Our and Environment Essay, Fugees. Matisse Fish. Looking down from a nearby roof, I believed anything was possible—for them, for us.

Chappelle was the kind of paragraph have good celebrity who wanted to reach out to matisse, fans who looked like him, and it was clear that as much as he aspired to universality, he realized that “the bottom line was, white people own everything, and where can a black person go and be himself or say something that’s familiar to him and not have to explain or apologize?” So sometimes it was very nice to The Importance Health and Environment Essay, have, as the comic himself said, “Five thousand black people chillin’ in the rain,” like a Pan-African Congress right off of Putnam Avenue. When I ask Yvonne Seon what she thinks about the n -word and how easily it is used these days in matisse fish hip-hop culture, she says, “There has always been a tendency to try and rehab a word that has been used as an epithet for of science, you. Fish. It’s a way of claiming something that hurt you, hoping that you can say, ‘Now this word won’t hurt me anymore.’ It’s a part of the attempted healing. When James Brown sang, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ that is an example of how he tried to rehabilitate that word. Because there was a time when I was growing up when you didn’t call anybody black unless you wanted to get knocked into next week. There was too much shame involved.” “Do you think—” I start. And she laughs and cuts me off with a question. “Do I think, like, ‘I’m black and I’m proud,’ ‘I’m a nigga and I am proud!’ could exist?” We both laugh at the absurdity, and of science also the very real possibility, of fish that song. “Hm,” she says. “I have trouble with the word nigga . I associate that word with lynching, violence, and paradox philosophy hate, and matisse I don’t associate the word black with that. But I do associate the word nigga with that history. So it’s not a term that I could ever use easily or encourage the paradox philosophy, use of. There have been articles written about teaching this history, and we’ve discussed them in my black studies class, but what usually happens is that the class eventually decides that they’re going to matisse, be part of the movement against the word nigger . Of Recycling Health Essay. Once they understand what the matisse, history is and what the word means, they stop using it and they encourage their friends to philosophy, stop using it.” “It is about choices,” I say, feeling guilty for a lot of reasons before she demurely stops me.

“Yes, it always is,” she says, “about choices.” Just being a Negro doesn’t qualify you to understand the matisse, race situation any more than being sick makes you an expert on medicine. Tamra Davis, the director of of Recycling to Our and Environment Essay Half Baked , is feeding her children, so she can’t say out matisse, loud the paragraph on do good good, last lines of the movie she directed. These are lines she had to fight for, and, along with Brennan and Chappelle, she had to try to convince fifteen studio executives that they deserved to be in the movie. She tries to matisse, talk around the lines, but finally she whispers, “I love weed, love it ! Probably always will! But not as much as I love pussy!” She giggles. There are probably worse things than hearing your mom talk about the movie she directed with Dave Chappelle. Tamra Davis is nonchalantly cool, despite having the Essay on A Biography of Madeleine, distinction of having directed the early movies of Adam Sandler ( Happy Gilmore ) and Chris Rock ( CB4 ). She grew up in California and has been around comedy all her life. Matisse Fish. Her grandfather was a comedy writer for Redd Foxx, Sammy Davis Jr., and Slappy White.

She understands comedy instinctually, and knows that the difference between a writer and paradox a comic is the energy and matisse fish love a comic must bring to the stage, to limitations of science, the audience. Like everyone I speak to, Davis thinks exceedingly wonderful things about Dave Chappelle. The man has a hagiography; I hear it from everyone: from Neal Brennan to a former executive of Comedy Central, who tells me, “I have so, so much respect for Dave. He is a great guy.” For all the bridges he has supposedly burned, Dave Chappelle is beloved. Tamra Davis is the most direct. Fish. “I just really think his voice is an important voice to be heard. I’ve spent my life working with young people who all of a sudden get launched into paradox an incredible position of matisse celebrity and paragraph good fame and it’s very, very difficult to handle. Matisse Fish. And people handle it in different ways. And so I’m glad that he is around, you know, because many other people would be crushed by that. Having to paradox, have that inner dialogue in your head, knowing that everybody is fish talking about chamber, you.

It’s a very difficult thing to fish, have to navigate.” What separated Dave Chappelle not just from Neal Brennan but also his fans is that he was suddenly vaulted into The Importance of Recycling Health the awkward position of being the world’s most famous interlocutor in matisse fish a conversation about race—the one conversation no one likes having. Yes, it is hard to look back. But it’s easy to understand why Chappelle was done with being misread, tired of explaining, finished talking. As Brennan, and then everyone else, told me: the experiment, man turned down fifty million dollars.

You will never get him to speak with you. “Beware, my body and my soul, beware above all of crossing your arms and assuming the matisse, sterile attitude of the spectator, for life is not a spectacle, a sea of griefs is paradox not a proscenium, and a man who wails is not a dancing bear.” —Aime Cesaire, Notebook of a Return to the Native Land. When a chance came to visit Yellow Springs, I had no expectation that Chappelle would be there. But I wanted to see it. In Yellow Springs, I met Yvonne Seon. We had a good time. We discussed my wedding, we discussed Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow , and fish she introduced me to her family.

It was a lovely day. Idyllic, even. To Our And Environment Essay. On my way out of matisse fish town, I felt tired, so I stopped for some coffee at a local coffee shop. As I was paying, I saw a few guys out back in philosophy the garden, talking, and then I saw Dave Chappelle, in a weird white tank top that strained to contain his muscles. Matisse. No longer lean. Well-defended. So at a cash register in Yellow Springs I stood and watched as the person I had so badly wanted to on A, talk to walked toward me.

But when he said hello, I made a decision that—until my plane ride home—I kicked myself for. Fish. Moving on pure instinct, I simply said hello, turned and finished paying my bill, and left. Did I mention that the light is beautiful at dusk in Yellow Springs? The people walk the streets, going to the grocery store or looking at the theater listings. There is a cafe that was once a house on the Underground Railroad that now serves delicious Reuben sandwiches and plays disco music. People say hello in passing, kids with Afros zip by on scooters. Limitations Of Science. It is matisse small-town America, but with hemp stores. I didn’t want to chamber, leave, because it seems like an fish, easy place to live. Not without its problems, but a place with a quiet understanding that conversation is the minimum for living in a better world.

You know, simple things. At a memorial for on do, his father a few years back, standing next to his mother at the podium at Antioch College, Dave Chappelle ended his speech by thanking the community of matisse Yellow Springs. Chamber Experiment. “So,” he said, “thank you to you all for matisse, giving my father a context where he could just exist and be a good dude, because to be a good dude, as many good dudes have shown you before, is just not a comfortable thing to paradox, be. It’s a very hard thing to aspire to. And so thanks for honoring him, because sometimes it is a lonely, quiet road when you make a decision to try to transcend your own demons or be good or whatever he was trying to do here.” In my car’s rearview mirror, it doesn’t seem strange to matisse, me at all that I am watching America’s funniest comic standing in a small town, smoking cigarettes and shooting the shit with his friends. Like everyone else on the street, one friend is Essay white, the matisse fish, other is black—the only paradox philosophy, difference being that they are with Dave. But here Dave is fish just Dave.

Totally uninterrupted, unheckled, free to limitations of science, be himself, free to have a family, and land, and time to recover. Matisse. Time to of Recycling to Our Health Essay, be complicated, time to be a confessed fan of fame who one day decided that it was important to learn to be himself again. Chappelle took a drag on his cigarette, and laughed, and it was apparent that he was doing what he said he wanted most in matisse life: having fun and being funny. So, for better or for worse, I took this to be my answer.

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The Goldfish, Henri Matisse

Advertising/Advertising Critique term paper 6061. A critique on the impact of advertising in our society. Consider visuals and verbal or written language. (1000 words) The impact of advertising on our society is a fiercely debated topic, and matisse, has been ever since the conception of advertising in good have good, its most basic form. There are negative and fish, positive social and economic impacts upon society from advertising in its various forms. For instance, advertising promoting public welfare has a positive social impact upon society, whereas advertising portraying women as sex objects has negative social impacts. There are also positive economic impacts on society such as providing funding for on do good have good, the media and stimulating an active, competitive economy. There are a number of proven ways to persuade the consumer that he or she needs the product being advertised. These methods of persuasion, instead of concentrating on matisse the actual product, usually concentrate on the benefits that will be brought to the consumer. These benefits may include the hope of more money and better jobs, popularity and experiment, personal prestige, praise from others, more comfort, social advancement, improved appearance, or better health. For example, an automobile advertisement, as well as mentioning the mechanical attributes of the car, would most likely focus on the excitement, prestige and social advancement it may bring the buyer. This social advancement is matisse fish very often sexual, or involving attraction of the other sex so the car advertisement may also mention the glamorous women/men that the Essay, consumer will attract with his/her fancy car.

Advertising has been blamed for a great variety of negative social impacts. One of the major criticisms received by advertising is that it forces people to matisse fish, buy things they don t really need, often by projecting negative emotions such as fear, anxiety or guilt upon the consumer. It is claimed that advertising plays with our basic human emotions and takes advantage of them, using them as merely another technique to sell goods or services. Advertising also encourages people to buy products by making them think that purchasing and consuming are the major activities of their lives. It is said to also evoke fears of inferiority upon the consumer by depicting the normal person as young, attractive, wealthy and successful. This may encourage a person to act on his or her desire for success and, for instance, go out and purchase that particular brand of make-up or deodorant hoping to emulate the seeming success of the Essay Brief Biography of Madeleine Leininger, person depicted in the advertisement. In opposition, advertisers state that the fish, public is examples intelligent enough to, and quite capable of, making up its own mind and will definitely not buy anything they don t want or need. People are not inclined to be swayed by false claims that they need a particular product, and will usually be very discriminating in what they take as being true, when it comes to advertising. Fish. In fact, advertisers would say that there are many positive social impacts on our society from advertising. Advertising can be used to increase awareness in society about particular issues, and in so doing, becomes a form of education.

Anti drug advertising such as It s OK to say NO, and drink driving campaigns are just two examples of how society uses the advertising industry as a means to promote public welfare. Other forms of socially positive advertising include those advocating safe sex, thereby considerably slowing the spread of deadly STDs throughout the community. As well as social benefits outlined in the previous paragraph, there are economic benefits experienced by society, as a result of advertising. Without advertising, the media, including newspaper, television, radio, etc, would be much less vigorous. Advertising provides revenue for commercial mediums which would otherwise need to be funded by the actual consumer of these mediums.

For example, a newspaper would cost up to paragraph on do good, three times as much money (since advertising provides two thirds of the matisse fish, revenue of the print media), or all television, bar government funded networks, would be pay-TV (since nearly ALL revenue for television is provided by advertising, while the choice chamber, consumer provides no financial support except for providing the service of watching the matisse, advertising messages). So we can see a major economic infrastructure based around advertising, in which the Essay Brief of Madeleine, big companies fund and fish, subsidise the commercial media by way of advertising. The price a consumer may have to pay to receive very cheap, or even free news and of science, entertainment may include sitting through a 30 second advertisement break while watching a prime-time television program, or flicking a couple of matisse fish extra pages in The Importance of Recycling, a magazine to move through the advertisements to matisse fish, get to the articles. The Importance Essay. The Internet is based very heavily around advertising, and this is fish one of the major incentives for individuals and institutions to The Importance to Our Essay, provide content online. Matisse Fish. Advertising is so important because it is extremely difficult and impractical to attempt to bill the consumer directly.

Security issues involving credit card fraud and the sheer inconvenience and Health, hassle surrounding minor financial transactions over the Internet have made it very undesirable for matisse fish, companies to charge the consumer for content. Some may argue that the economic drawback of advertising in our society is that it raises the paradox, price of goods and services. The basis of fish this argument is that, while companies subsidise the mass media with advertising, we, the consumer, subsidise advertising by paying a grossly increased price for heavily advertised goods and limitations of science, services. For instance, a box of Omo washing powder costs around two or three dollars to produce, but the consumer might pay around seven or eight dollars. A large proportion of the difference obviously supports the heavy advertising television and print media campaigns. In response to this argument, it can be said that advertising stimulates a much more active economy, with vigorous competition between institutions, and higher buying rates of products which leads to lower product costs for the consumer anyway. Matisse. The effects upon society brought about by advertising come in mixed forms, depending on the purpose and and Environment, execution of various campaigns. However, society as we know it is based very heavily upon advertising, and the negative social and economic impacts are not serious enough to outweigh the fish, many positive social and economic effects on our society. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Health Essay. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.

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40 mm OQF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and NI/I. Probably the best heavy MG AA weapon of World War II, Bofors guns of this type remained in service long after the war ended. This weapon was used on almost every major USA and UK warship of matisse fish World War II and was a very potent AA gun. The Germans used Norwegian-produced Bofors guns which they designated as the 4 cm/56 Flak 28 and the Japanese copied a British Army air-cooled Bofors captured at Health and Environment Essay Singapore to fish produce their 4 cm/60 Type 5. This weapon traces its roots back to paragraph on do good have good a 1918 Krupp design - the Bofors Company was partly owned by German interests until 1930 - but the finished product was entirely a Bofors design owing little or nothing to Krupp influence. Matisse? The first Bofors prototype was finished late in choice, the summer of 1930 and the first automatic shots were fired on 17 October 1930. These initial trials were unsuccessful and it was not until 10 November 1931 that automatic salvos were fired. Official trials for the Swedish Navy took place on 21 March 1932.

The weapon was further refined and the Model 1936 was adopted for production. The British Army first showed interest in these guns in matisse fish, 1933 and placed an paradox philosophy, order for 100 of them in 1937. First Royal Navy shipboard use of air-cooled guns was in late 1941 aboard the battleships Prince of Wales and matisse Nelson and on the cruisers Manchester and Erebus, although some ships had earlier been temporarily armed with Army air-cooled guns that had been rescued during the evacuation of the Norway invasion forces in 1940. The British water-cooled version was developed by copying the Dutch Hazemeyer mounting which had arrived in Britain in 1940 aboard the Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . The first issue of paradox philosophy locally produced water-cooled Bofors guns was to the Black Swan class sloop HMS Whimbrel in November 1942. The total number of fish air-cooled guns built by Australia, Britain and Canada is prima facie examples not accurately known but was somewhere between 2,100 and 2,800 plus about matisse, 200 to 400 guns supplied from the United States. Water-cooled guns are better documented with 442 Mark IV and 342 Mark XI in on do good have good, service at fish the end of the war plus 786 water-cooled guns supplied by the USA. These USA weapons had been sent to Britain as a part of Lend-Lease or else were installed on ships refitted in USA shipyards. The US Army was also interested in limitations, this weapon and fish tested a single air-cooled model in paragraph, 1937. In 1940 the matisse fish Chrysler Corporation agreed to begin manufacturing air-cooled guns utilizing British blueprints. The USN acquired many of these during the war, although the quantity used was far less than that of the of Recycling to Our Health and Environment Essay water-cooled guns. The US Navy had a good deal of pre-war interest in this weapon and matisse fish BuOrd purchased a sample of an air-cooled twin version from prima facie, Bofors in early 1940.

This arrived in New York from Sweden on 28 August 1940. During the matisse fish same month, the Dutch escort vessel van Kinsbergen demonstrated these weapons to USN observers in a test off Trinidad. BuOrd formally obtained Swedish licenses in The Importance of Recycling to Our, June 1941, although some manufacturing actually started prior to fish that time. Of Science? Terms of the license included $500,000 for the manufacturing rights plus $100,000 for two Bofors engineers to help set up production. The two engineers were never sent, so as a result this $100,000 was not paid. Matisse? Bofors delivered a complete set of metric drawings as part of their end of this contract. It should be noted that the USN considered the original Bofors Model 1936 design to The Importance of Recycling to Our Health and Environment be completely unsuitable for matisse the mass production techniques required for the vast number of guns needed to equip the ships of the US Navy. Limitations Of Science? First, the Swedish guns were designed using metric measurement units, a system all but unknown in the USA at matisse that time. Paragraph On Do Have? Worse still, the fish dimensioning on the Swedish drawings often did not match the paradox actual measurements taken of the weapons.

Secondly, the Swedish guns required a great deal of hand work in matisse, order to make the finished weapon. For example, Swedish blueprints had many notes on them such as file to fit at assembly and paradox philosophy drill to matisse fit at assembly, all of which took much production time in order to implement - there is on A Brief Leininger a story that one production engineer supposedly remarked that the Bofors gun had been designed so as to eliminate the unemployment problems of the Great Depression. Third, the matisse Swedish mountings were manually worked, while the USN required power-worked mountings in order to attain the fast elevation and training speeds necessary to engage modern aircraft. Limitations Of Science? Fourth, the Swedish twin gun mounting supplied to the USA for evaluation was air-cooled, limiting its ability to matisse fish fire long bursts, a necessity for most naval AA engagements. Finally, the USN rejected the Swedish ammunition design, as it was not boresafe, the fuze was found to be too sensitive for normal shipboard use and its overall design was determined to to Our and Environment Essay be unsuitable for mass production. US manufacturers made radical changes to the Swedish design in order to minimize these problems and as a result the fish guns and mountings produced in of science, the USA bore little resemblance their Swedish ancestors.

For example, all but the earliest US guns were built to matisse English measurement units rather than to prima metric units. To give one additional example of the design differences made for USA produced weapons; the Chrysler Corporation redesigned ten components to suit mass production techniques and matisse fish this was claimed to have saved some 7,500,000 pounds (3,402,000 kg) of material and 1,896,750 man hours during a year's production, as well as freeing up 30 machine tools for the production of other components. For ammunition, the fuze designed and produced in Britain was adopted as an interim measure by the USA, but this was considered to be of an unsafe design and paradox unsuitable for mass production techniques. Fortunately, this fuze was almost immediately replaced by matisse one designed by R.L. Graumann of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory.

This fuze was simple in design and ideally suited to mass production. The new fuze, designated as the Mark 27, was found to be 99.9 percent efficient in prima facie examples, ballistic acceptance tests, a record not equaled by any other fuze of the matisse fish time. Both the US Army and the British adopted this fuze for their own production lines. The USN estimated that the adoption of the Mark 27 saved some $250,000,000 during the war. One firm rule adopted early in the redesign process was that any new Allied munition for these weapons needed to be completely interchangeable with existing designs. This allowed ammunition produced by any American or British ordnance manufacturer to be used with any weapon produced by either country, thus greatly simplifying the logistics problems of a world-wide war. The first USN pilot twin was completed in January 1942 and the first quad in April 1942. Limitations Of Science? The first shipboard quad installation was on the gunnery-training ship (ex-battleship) USS Wyoming (AG-17) on 22 June 1942, and the first twin installation was on the destroyer USS Coghlan (DD-606) on fish, 1 July 1942. The USA started a massive production program for these weapons and by December 1942 a monthly production rate of 1,600 Army guns and 135 Navy twin-barrel guns was achieved. A total of about 42,895 guns were built by the end of the war, distributed as 23,897 for the Army, 10,019 for of Recycling to Our Health and Environment Essay the Navy and matisse fish Coast Guard, and 8,979 for export to other nations.

Even so, the demand was not fully met until well into 1944. The Importance Of Recycling And Environment? By that time, the pre-war 1.1 gun had been almost totally replaced by Bofors guns. To illustrate how many of these weapons were produced by the USA, note that out of the more than 400 destroyers built for the USN between 1934 and 1946, only the fish four destroyers of the pre-war Gridley class (DD-380) and those destroyers sunk early in the war did not receive at least some Bofors guns. Late in World War II, the USN started replacing 20 mm Oerlikon guns with the Bofors 40 mm guns, as the smaller weapon was found to be ineffective against Japanese Kamikazes. However, even the Bofors was determined to be inadequate against suicide attacks by early 1945, and as a result Bofors guns were in turn replaced during the late 1940s and 1950s with the new rapid fire 3/50 (7.62 cm) designs. Limitations Of Science? It should be noted that although the Bofors gun was probably the best anti-aircraft heavy machine gun of World War II, the USN considered it to be a front-line weapon for only six years.

It did remain in service in the USN until the 1970s on auxiliary and non-modernized ships, primarily because the 3/50 RF (7.62 cm) replacement program was never fully funded. Early versions of the twin mounting used friction-coupled drives, which quickly wore out on matisse fish, naval ships due to paragraph on do good have salt contamination. Later versions used hydraulic-coupled drives which eliminated the matisse fish problem. The development of the Mark 51 director system gave the USA weapons greatly improved accuracy. Paradox? For example, half of fish all Japanese aircraft shot down between 1 October 1944 and of science 1 February 1945 were credited to the Bofors/Mark 51 combination. See the article on the Mark 51 director on the Technical Board for additional information. The USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 Bofors guns were both water-cooled and were used for matisse fish all twin and quad mountings. Facie Examples? The Mark 1 was a left-hand weapon while the Mark 2 was a right-hand weapon. Except for the barrel assemblies, the components were not interchangeable.

These weapons could be fired in matisse fish, single-shot or automatic mode via a selector switch on the side of the slide. The M1 was an air-cooled version originally produced for the US Army. The barrel assemblies for the M1 were interchangeable with those of British and good good Canadian produced air-cooled weapons. All USN single mountings used a modified version of the matisse Army M1. These guns are recoil operated and use a monobloc barrel with a detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader. Breech block is a vertical sliding type. Although often listed as being 60 calibers long, all of these guns except for the Japanese version were actually 56.25 calibers in length. Additional information on guns produced by all nations may be found in the Mount / Turret Data section at the bottom of this page. Germany: 4 cm/56 (1.57) Flak 28.

Japan: 4 cm/60 (1.57) Type 5 (Model 1945) Official Designation: 60 caliber Type 5 4 cm Gun. UK: 40 mm/56.3 (1.57) QF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and NI/I. USA: 40 mm/56 (1.57) Mark 1, Mark 2 and M1. UK - Almost all major UK warships of have World War II. Germany - Cruisers and S-Boats. Japan - Not in service. Japan: Not in service.

Japan: 1,018 lbs. (462 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 1,120 to 1,163 lbs. (508 to fish 528 kg) [depending upon Mark] [water-cooled] USA Mark 1 and Mark 2: about 1,150 lbs. (522 kg) [water-cooled] USA M1: 1,036.5 lbs. Essay Brief? (470 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 145.3 to fish 145.5 in (3.691 to 3.696 m) [depending upon Mark] USA: 148.8 in (3.780 m) Japan: 94.5 in (2.400 m)

UK: 88.578 in experiment, (2.250 m) USA: 88.6 in (2.250 m) Japan: 78.8 in matisse, (2.000 m) UK: 75.85 in (1.927 m) USA: 75.85 in (1.927 m) Japan: (16) 0.0098 in deep (0.25 mm)

UK: (16) 0.0236 in deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) USA Mark 1 and Mark 2: (16) 0.0236 in limitations, deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) [water-cooled] USA M1: (16) 0.0225 in deep x 0.220 (0.057 x 5.59 mm) [air-cooled] UK: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) USA: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) Japan: Uniform RH 1 in 30. UK: Increasing RH 1 in 45 to 1 in 30. USA: Increasing RH 1 in 45 to 1 in 30. USA: 28.3 in fish, 3 (0.464 dm 3 ) (see Notes 2 and 7) 140 to 160 rounds per minute when firing horizontal (gravity assist) The official designation for British guns was Ordnance, Quick Firing (usually abbreviated as OQF) 40 mm Mark (whatever).

For example, OQF 40 mm Mark IX was the designation of the gun used in the Mark V mounting. A modification kit was produced around 1970 which increased the rate of Essay Brief Biography fire to matisse fish 180 rounds per minute and the magazine capacity to 20 rounds by using a banana feeder fed by standard four-round clips. USN Mark 1 guns fed from the left while the Brief Biography Leininger Mark 2 guns fed from the right. Manually loaded M1 guns fed from the left. The standard automatic loader holds two four-round clips. When the first four-round clip is inserted into the feeder, the fish clip itself is stripped off and falls out onto the deck (the clip chute is a cut out just below the loader; left side for a left gun and right side for a right gun). The second clip is then dropped into the loader and pushed down so that it forces a round through the loader star wheels and onto the rammer tray. This first round only had to be manually pushed through when the gun was initially loaded, the loader will automatically feed rounds from new clips.

The second clip does not drop out chamber experiment, until the first two rounds (of eight) are fired. The gun loader feed guides normally held eight rounds (two clips), although ten rounds could be loaded with two loose rounds between clips. To get the gun ready to fire the first round, a cocking lever is used to manually move the rammer to the cocked position, rotate the star wheels a quarter turn and lower the breech block. If no rounds are in the autoloader, then two clips must be inserted as described above to matisse fish push the bottom round onto the rammer tray. Unlike most weapons, triggering the Bofors gun by depressing the firing foot pedal does not actually fire the weapon. Essay On A Biography Of Madeleine? Instead, it starts the loading cycle which once in progress made the entire firing and loading operations completely automatic. At the start of this cycle, the spring-powered rammer is released, pushing the matisse round on on A Brief Biography Leininger, the rammer tray into matisse the breech which automatically closes when the cartridge case rim strikes the actuator. The breech closing actuates the firing sequence which ends when the firing pin strikes the primer cap in the base of the cartridge case and The Importance Health and Environment fires the matisse weapon. Recoil then opens the breech block, pushes the rammer back into the cocked position and the extractor arms pull the cartridge case out and paradox philosophy back over the rammer tray and matisse down a semi-circular chute that guides the on A Leininger spent case out under the gun barrel. As the breech block moves forward during counter-recoil, it causes the star wheels in the autoloader to matisse fish make a quarter turn which drops the next round onto the rammer tray. Paragraph On Do Good? In automatic mode, this cycle will repeat as long as the firing pedal is depressed and at least two rounds of ammunition remain in the autoloader.

Most Bofors guns, including the USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 guns, had a loader interlock which automatically halted firing when there were only two rounds remaining in the weapon, one on the rammer tray and matisse fish one in the autoloader. Limitations? This allowed firing to be quickly resumed when a new clip was dropped into the loader. USN M1 guns differed by having a selector switch on matisse, the back of the loader at the center, bottom rear. This switch could be set to disable the interlock such that the paragraph M1 could fire all eight rounds in fish, the autoloader or it could be set to paradox stop the gun when only two rounds were remaining, similar to matisse other Bofors guns. If all rounds were fired, then the The Importance to Our first loader would have to start from the beginning to fish drop in two clips and push on the top so that the bottom round would rotate through the on A Brief Biography Leininger loader star wheels and drop onto the rammer tray. The gun would then resume firing when the pointer pushed his foot pedal. As noted above, most Bofors guns stopped firing when there were two rounds remaining in the weapon or when the foot pedal was released. Unloading these two or more rounds at cease fire involved pointing the weapon up at a 30 degree angle, working the cocking lever to eject the matisse round on the loader tray and limitations then using special tools to remove the remaining rounds from the fish autoloader. It was up to the second loader to on do good good properly orientate each clip when he handed it to the first loader so that all the first loader had to do was drop it into the feed lips of the autoloader. Since the Bofors gun cycled between 120 to matisse fish 160 rounds per minute (one clip every 1.5 to Essay Brief Leininger 2 seconds), the first loader had to do a quick pick up, turn, and drop action in order to keep up with it. If the clip was not orientated properly during the hand-over, then the first loader would have to juggle it in order to position it properly before it could be dropped into fish the autoloader, thus slowing down the loading cycle.

Being too slow would interrupt the firing cycle - hence the reason for the loader interlock. The British considered that skillful loaders could keep a gun firing for about 24 rounds (six clips) without a pause. Perhaps unusually for prima facie US guns, the bores of these weapons were not chromium plated. Ammunition was percussion fired in all models. In US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is stated that the Japanese in copying a captured British air-cooled gun 'increase[d the] barrel length from 2160 mm (85.1) to 2400 mm (94.57)'. Fish? This dimension is usually taken as being the overall barrel length in most references (see for example Naval Weapons of World War Two). However, this dimension cannot be the overall barrel length, as British-built Bofors guns had a bore length of 88.578 in (2.250 m) - 56.3 calibers, while their overall length was about 145.3 in (3.691m).

As the rifling length given in O-47(N)-2 for the Type 5 is significantly longer than that for the British Bofors, I believe that the dimensions given in O-47(N)-2 for barrel lengths must actually be for the bore lengths and use this assumption in constructing this data page. German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by Brief Biography Miroslaw Skwiot says that the rifling in German Bofors guns consisted of sixteen grooves, each 41.2 mm wide. These figures are mathematically impossible. It is possible that the author (or the translators) made an order of fish magnitude error and that the actual width was 4.12 mm wide, but this dimension would still be significantly narrower than the grooves in paragraph, UK and US guns which were identical to the original Bofors design. (see Notes 2 and 3) AB 40 mm L/60 HE-T - 2.05 lbs. (0.93 kg)

HE Mark 1 Mods 1 to 24 - 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) HE Mark 2 Mods 1 to 35 - 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) AP M81A1 and matisse fish M81A2 - 1.960 lbs. (0.889 kg) HE - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) SAP - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) AP - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) HE - 2.105 lbs. (0.955 kg) HE - 2.21 lbs. (1.002 kg)

UK - 4.88 lbs. (2.21 kg) USA - 4.75 lbs. (2.15 kg) Germany - 4.6 lbs. (2.1 kg) HE-T - about 0.150 lbs. On Do Good? (0.068 kg) TNT. Bofors (modern day) HE-T - 0.20 lbs. (0.092 kg) Hexotonal. USA (World War II) HE Mark 1 - 0.148 lbs. (0.067 kg) Cast TNT. HE Mark 2 - 0.150 lbs. (0.068 kg) Cast TNT. AP - None (Solid Bullet) Britain (World War II)

HE - 0.150 lbs. (0.068 kg) Cast TNT or BRX/BWX (BWX = Beeswax) USA AP M81A1 - 6.19 in (15.7 cm) Germany - 7.2 in (18.4 cm) USA HE - 17.62 in (44.75 cm) Britain HE - 17.65 in (44.83 cm) Britain AP and SAP - 17.58 in matisse fish, (44.65 cm) Germany - 17.8 in (44.7 cm) Mark 2 - Brass, 40 x 311R, 1.89 lbs. (0.86 kg) Mark 3 - Steel, 40 x 311R, 1.53 lbs. (0.69 kg)

USA - 0.694 lbs. Paradox Philosophy? (0.314 kg) NC 025. USA - 0.661 lbs. Matisse Fish? (0.300 kg) SPDN. UK - 0.547 lbs. (0.248 kg) Cordite W. UK - 0.719 lbs. (0.326 kg) FNH/PO22. Germany - 0.668 lbs. (0.303 kg) Str PC/38N. Japan - 0.617 to 0.661 lbs. (0.280 to to Our Health and Environment Essay 0.300 kg) USA HE w/NC 025: 2,890 fps (881 mps)

UK HE: 2,800 fps (853 mps) with Cordite W. UK HE: 2,890 fps (881 mps) with FNH/PO22. Germany Flak 28: 2,801 fps (854 mps) Japan Type 5: 2,953 fps (900 mps) UK - 19.68 tons/in 2 (3,100 kg/cm 2 ) USA - 19.5 tons/in 2 (3,070 kg/cm 2 ) UK - 10,000 Rounds. Germany - 10,000 Rounds. Admiral Hipper and Prinz Eugen: 2,000 rounds. S-Boats: 500 rounds. HMS Vanguard: 1,269 rounds (including 34 practice) Standard outfit for fish most ships was 1,564 rounds per gun. Most ships: 2,000 rounds.

Ammunition for most guns is held in four-round aluminum clips. The feed guides atop each gun can hold two clips at limitations a time. Two loose rounds can be inserted between clips. A four-round clip weighs about 19.0 lbs. (8.6 kg). The many Mods of USN ammunition were primarily bookkeeping designations used to indicate the manufacturer.

USN AP had a windscreen. Matisse Fish? USN HE ammunition was issued in HE-T/SD, HE/SD, HE-I-T/SD and HE-I/SD forms. Essay On A Biography Leininger? Plugged forms for training purposes were also manufactured. There was also a Mark 3 HE round that did not contain a tracer, but this was used only for fish a brief time during World War II and choice experiment was replaced in matisse, 1945 by Dark (non-luminous tracer) and Dark Ignition (delayed ignition tracer) ammunition. Dark Tracer was issued only in HE/SD and HE-I-T/SD forms. Dark Ignition ammunition was issued only in HE-I-T-SD form. By 1941 Britain was producing forty-one marks of HE and experiment HE-T, nine marks of SAP, five marks of matisse fish AP, twenty-four marks of TP and TP-T, six marks of of science proof ammunition, four marks of barrel-cleaning rounds, five marks of break-up ammunition for training and fish gun checking, and a single mark of paper shot ammunition. Paradox? This plethora of types threatened to overwhelm the logistical system and a rationalization program reduced the numbers down to matisse fish three HE and HE-T marks by on A Leininger 1945. Gilding metal for driving bands was substituted for copper as a cost-savings measure and these rounds had a T after the mark number, such as HE Mark 6T.

HE and HE-T rounds were painted a buff color while SAP rounds were painted black with a white tip. AP rounds were painted black with a white tip and fish a white body ring. Tracer rounds added a red body ring. On A Biography Leininger? USN tracer burned out at matisse fish 5,000 yards (4,570 m) horizontal, 15,000 feet (2,740 m) vertical. USN bourrelet diameter was 1.570 inches (39.88 mm). German rounds were HE with tracer and self-destruct. Tracer ignited about 330 yards (300 m) from the muzzle and the self-destruct was set for 10.5 seconds. Modern ammunition: Bofors introduced a 40 mm PFHE proximity round during the 1980s similar to those developed for their larger guns. Bofors claims a maximum effective bursting radius of 18 feet (5.5 m) against aircraft size targets with automatic sensitivity control to reduce the to Our and Environment Essay burst range to six feet (2 m) against missiles flying at matisse fish low altitudes. Muzzle velocity is 2,820 fps (860 mps) and limitations the total shell weight is 2.16 lbs. Fish? (0.98 kg) including 3.2 oz (90 gms) of octol explosive. Bofors currently produces HET, PT and APHC-T (armor piercing high capacity - tracer) rounds for these weapons.

The APHC-T round is unusual in that it carries an armor-piercing slug within an of science, aluminum body. Bofors claims that this round penetrates some 30% deeper than the earlier APC-T round and that the aluminum body has an incendiary effect on the target. Matisse? In US Naval Technical Mission to of science Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is stated that the muzzle velocity of the Japanese weapon was 2,822 fps (860 mps) before the matisse barrel was lengthened and the propellant charge increased. However, I must question if the working pressure given in limitations of science, this document - 16.50 tons/in 2 (2,600 kg/cm 2 ) - is correct, as it seems to be much lower than that found for other nation's weapons. The Mark and Mod, manufacturer's initials or symbol, and lot number are stamped around the fish body of the projectile. Color photographs of some of these projectiles may be seen below.

USA produced HE-SD ammunition was set to detonate at 4,000 - 5,000 yards (3,700 - 4,570 m) so as to minimize problems due to paragraph friendly fire. HE and AP rounds that did not self-destruct were also manufactured. Time of flight for 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) HE shell with MV = 2,890 fps (881 mps) 4,200 yards (3,840 m): 8.5 seconds. 4,500 yards (4,110 m): 10.5 seconds.

British rounds normally self-destructed at 3,000 - 3,500 yards (2,700 - 3,200 m), but this was increased to 7,000 yards (6,400 m) in some ammunition types. German rounds self-destructed after 10.5 seconds. The USN attributed this low effective range to poor fuze design. Matisse Fish? It is unclear as to how the fuze design affected the effective range, but I would assume that this meant that the facie examples fuze was of poor aerodynamic shape. Self-destructing ammunition was not used. Armor Penetration with AA Common Shell. Estimated for Class B Homogeneous Armor. Note: This data is from Battleships: United States Battleships 1935-1992 and is based upon the USN Empirical Armor Penetration formula. Fish? Although not stated as such, I believe that the penetration values would be for 90 degree impacts. Mount/Turret Data - Sweden/Bofors-built Weapons and Mountings. Prior to the start of World War II Bofors had produced 182 Land-Service guns for the Swedish Army and 295 for of science export.

Bofors also produced 11 Naval guns for the Swedish Royal Navy and 61 for export. During World War II Bofors produced at fish least 320 guns for the Swedish Royal Navy. Essay? Thirty-eight additional guns were built post-war until 1954 when production of the L/60 was halted. Guns were of both air-cooled and water-cooled types and at least fifteen different single, twin and submarine mounting types were in service. Some of the twin water-cooled mounting types had integral 1.25 m or 2.0 m Hazemeyer rangefinders. (10,524 - 10,796 kg) (10,340 - 11,137 kg)

Mark 3 single mounts used air-cooled guns, which were modified versions of the matisse US Army M1 Bofors gun. Three versions of the philosophy Mark 3 were used on surface ships, the Mod 0, Mod 4 and Mod 9, while submarines used the wet mount Mod 5 and Mod 6. Matisse Fish? Mod 0 was the basic Army mount and limitations weighed 2,440 lbs. (1,107 kg) including gun and sighting mechanisms. The Mod 0 lacked power drives and so was manually trained and elevated. Matisse? Crew for the Mod 0 was usually five to six men. Mod 4 added 1 hp power drives for training and elevation and had the same crew size as the Mod 0. Paradox Philosophy? Submarine Mods 5 and 6 were manually worked mountings. Fish? Most single mount shipboard installations had safety rails around them to paradox keep the gun crews from fish, accidentally firing into the ship. The Mark 3 Mod 9 was a much later design using rebuilt M1 guns. Paradox Philosophy? The Mod 9 was designed for fish use on river and and Environment Essay coastal patrol craft and for one man operation - crew was actually a pointer-trainer and a mount captain.

This mount used integral train and elevation power drives and was stabilized. Weight increased to 4,200 lbs. (1,905 kg). This Mod was installed aboard 17 PB Mark III Sea Spectre patrol boats during the mid-1980s. Matisse? Originally, Mod 9 used a large 48-round drum magazine, but this was not often used as it interfered with vision from the pilot house. Paragraph On Do Have? This drum looked something like the ones used on fish, 20 mm Oerlikons but, of course, much larger. Have Good? During the 1980s Tanker War in the Persian Gulf, it was also reported that the drum did not feed reliably, so it was removed and the crews went back to manual loading. All USN twin and quad mountings used water-cooled Mark 1 and Mark 2 Bofors guns. Any mod of the Mark 1 or Mark 2 Bofors guns could be used in any mod of USN twin or quad mountings; these USN guns were designed to be completely interchangeable in that regards. Twin mounts consisted of a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and a right-hand gun (Mark 2) joined together. The gun axes were 9.568 in (24.3 cm) apart. Elevation and training motors were 3 or 5 hp.

In twin mounts, when the firing pedal is pushed down, one gun in the pair fires as described above. When this gun recoils, it trips a lever which allows the other gun to fire, thus ensuring that the guns do not fire together. For twin and quad mounts, the crew consisted of a Mount Captain, Pointer, Trainer, a 1st Loader for each gun and then however many ammunition passers it took to get back to the ammunition supply point. In addition to the guncrew, there was normally a Mark 51 (or later) Director crew consisting of a Pointer and a Range Setter. Quad mounts were basically two twin mounts joined together, with each pair having a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and a right-hand gun (Mark 2). The gun pairs axes were 60.0 in fish, (1.524 m) apart. Elevation motors were 5 hp and training motors were 5 or 7.5 hp. As noted above, hydraulic drive gear was used on most units. Facie Examples? Although both pairs of guns elevated together, in some Mods the pairs could be uncoupled in case of damage. There were many Mod numbers assigned to the twin and quad mountings, with most having to do with details of the power drives. An asterisk (*) indicated that the mount included a radar antenna and was used with the Mark 63 director.

The Mark 4 quad mount was a low-weight version that used a lighter amplidyne generator mounted below deck and matisse fish a GE RPC system. This mounting had much faster training and elevation speeds than earlier mounts, but only 100 had been delivered by the end of the on A Brief war. Matisse Fish? US ships carried large quantities of have good this weapon with USS Saratoga CV-3 probably having the most with 23 quad mounts and two twin mounts for a total of matisse 96 guns. Essex class carriers carried between 10 and 18 quad mounts and most Iowa class battleships carried 20 quad mounts. The USN built more than 2,300 quad mounts, just under 10,000 twin mounts and more than 10,000 single mounts during the war.

This mass production gradually reduced the costs during the choice chamber war, with quad mounts dropping from $86,000 down to $67,250 and twin mounts dropping from $62,300 down to $43,640. Matisse? As noted above, the USA supplied 8,979 guns to Essay on A Brief Biography Leininger other nations as part of Lend-Lease. This is broken down as follows: United Kingdom and matisse Commonwealth: 2,834. Free French Forces: 448. American Republics: 4. Serious British interest in this weapon was first shown by the Army in 1933 and was followed by an order for 100 guns in 1937. Later, a manufacturing license was purchased from on A Brief Biography, Bofors. The British version is officially listed as 56.3 calibers long.

In spite of the many different Mark numbers, all Bofors guns used by the Royal Navy were basically similar. They were recoil operated with a monobloc barrel and matisse detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader with a vertical sliding breech block. Of Recycling To Our Health Essay? The air-cooled Marks I, I* and matisse fish III differed in details of the of Recycling to Our and Environment automatic loader and were primarily derivatives of Land Service (LS - Army) guns. The Canadian-built models were given a C suffix as in the Mark IC and Mark I*C. The Austrailian-built Mark I* was identical to the British-built gun of matisse that designation. The water-cooled Marks IV, VIII, IX, X, XI and facie examples post-war NI and NI/I all had water jackets with circulating pumps and matisse differed only in philosophy, regards to the mounting they were to be used on. Single shots could be fired in fish, all but the Mark VIII, IX, X and probably the NI and NI/I guns. Unlike USN practice, the left and right versions of these weapons were not given separate Mark numbers but had Type letters added (see below).

This large number of variations of British Bofors guns compared to the three produced for the USN would seem to show once again the lack of interest by the Royal Navy in weapon standardization during the World War II period. The British considered the Bofors to be at least twice as effective as their own 2-pdr against torpedo bombers, but not much better than that weapon against kamikazes. Details on the guns: Marks I, II and III: Air-cooled, LS guns, some of which were converted to naval use. See Note 3 below.

Mark IV and IV/I: Water-cooled. Designed for use on the twin-gun Mark IV Hazemeyer mountings. The Importance Of Recycling And Environment Essay? Produced in left and fish right versions, with Type D being the left gun and Type E the right gun. Good? Many of matisse these guns were later converted to the Mark XI standard for use on the Mark V mountings. A total of 484 guns were produced with 442 in philosophy, service by 1945.

See Note 4 below. Mark V: Project abandoned. Mark VI: Army gun issued to matisse Crusader AA tanks. Mark VII: Air-cooled, no-trunnion guns intended for Essay of Madeleine use on an early version of the STAAG Mark 1 mounting. 400 guns were ordered from Vickers-Armstrong, but the project was canceled and the Mark X took its place. Mark VIII: Water-cooled, this weapon was produced for fish the Buster mounting and eight guns were finished before the project was canceled. Left and right guns were produced and these guns did not have a single-shot provision. See Note 12. Mark IX: Air-cooled guns for the for of Madeleine the Mark VI six-gun mounting.

Left and matisse fish right guns were produced and limitations these guns did not have a single-shot provision. See Note 6. Mark X: Water-cooled guns for the STAAG Mark 2 mounting. These guns had trunnions and were produced in left and right versions with no provision for single-shot operation. Matisse Fish? See Note 11. Mark XI: Water-cooled guns for the Mark V mounting. Many of these were converted from the Mark IV and Mark IV/I. Total of chamber experiment 342 in service by matisse 1945.

The USA provided 393 each of their Mark 1 (left-hand) and The Importance to Our and Environment Essay Mark 2 (right-hand) guns to the Royal Navy. These were used in matisse, British RP Mark I (Twin) and RP Mark II (Quad) mountings. The twin mount was first used on limitations, the Lend-Lease Attacker class escort carriers in January 1943. The quad mount was first installed on HMS Phoebe in June 1943. Matisse? The USA also supplied air-cooled guns which were used mainly on choice experiment, LSTs. The Mark III series of hand-operated single mountings were the Army design adapted for fish Naval use and were widely used, with some 500 in facie, service by the end of World War II. Fish? Usually designated as LS Mark III (Land Service).

The following mountings do not appear to have entered naval service, although they do appear on naval gun lists: Mark III* (hand operated with gyro sights for layer and chamber trainer), RPLS Mark III (Remote Power Land Service) and Toadstool (joystick controlled power operation using Army components). Elevation limits for the Mark III were -5 to +90 degrees. As of fish June 1942, 314 Mark III mountings were in service, of which 301 were on DEMS. By May 1945, there were about paradox, 1,392 in service with 568 on DEMS. Those Army mountings modified at least somewhat for matisse naval service were designated as Mark III CN and there were 500 of these in service at the end of the war, with 291 on DEMS. Mounting weight for limitations of science the LS Mark III including the gun was 1.2 tons (1.22 mt). The Mark IV twin mounting was derived from the fish Hazemeyer triaxial mounting which had its origins in the 1940 arrival in Britain of the Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . The Mark IV was a self-contained twin mounting that had its own rangefinder, radar and analog computer on the mount. This mounting used Mark IV water-cooled guns and utilized a track and pinion system for paradox philosophy elevating and training which was powered via a Ward-Leonard system for matisse fish automatic target tracking.

The Mark IV was probably too advanced for its day and proved to be somewhat delicate for use on on do good, destroyers and sloops. Matisse Fish? The later STAAG and Buster designs were more robust, but very much heavier. According to service notes, the of Recycling Health Essay Mark IV was apparently used more often in manual mode than in power mode. Elevation was -10 to +90 degrees with cross-level of +/- 14 degrees with control cutting out at +/- 12 degrees. Maximum elevating speed was 25 degrees per matisse second with the manually controlled joystick, but training and elevation via automatic control was limited to facie little more than 10 degrees per second. Weight was 7.05 tons (7.16 mt). The later Mark IV* mounting had a more robust radar attachment and matisse differed in details of the controls and gyros. The following description taken from Destroyer Weapons of Essay on A Brief Biography of Madeleine World War 2 is of interest: 'The 7-ton Haslemere, as it was generally known, was a brilliant concept, but unfortunately it needed more advanced technology than then existed.

It cannot claim to have been the most popular of weapons but at least it provided a little light relief on occasions. Matisse Fish? When stationary in the power-off mode during maintenance, a combination of training, depression and cross-roll made it look for paragraph good good all the fish world as though it was about to fall off its gundeck. Observations like I see the The Importance of Recycling Haslemere is matisse fish ill again were common.' The design of the Mark V twin was based upon the USN Mark 1 twin mounting adapted to use British components including some components of 2-pdr mountings and RPC gear from the 4.5 (11.4 cm) Mark V. Also known as Utility, this mount used the Mark XI gun and was first introduced on the Hunt class destroyer HMS Meynell on 3 February 1945. The Mark V was power operated with elevation limits of -15 to +90 degrees and weighed 6.4 tons (6.5 mt) with 12 four-round clips carried on mount. The Mark V proved quite popular in service and was retained long after the more sophisticated STAAG was retired. Its largest drawback was the lack of a blind fire capability.

The RP50 Mark V had a maximum training speed of 35 degrees per second and have elevating speed of 28 degrees per second. The RP50 Mark VC (Canadian) had a maximum elevation speed of 35 degrees per second. Matisse Fish? The Mark VI was a sextuple mount using the air-cooled Mark IX gun and used a 36-round ammunition tray for each gun rather than the usual four-round clips. Trays had an limitations of science, automatic feed mechanism which was operated by matisse fish the recoil of the guns. Trays needed to be reloaded manually with the to Our Health Essay mount elevated to matisse +25 degrees. Left and choice right versions of the fish guns were produced and the guns did not have a single-shot capability. Choice Chamber Experiment? Training and elevating speeds of the RP50 Mark VI mounting were both 30 degrees per fish second. This mount did not enter service until after the war.

Weight was 21.24 tons (21.58 mt). This was a large weapons platform intended to be fitted primarily to limitations battleships and fleet carriers with three hundred-twenty four being completed. The first battleship fitted was HMS Vanguard and she eventually carried a total of matisse ten mountings although this number was rapidly reduced during her career. Aircraft carriers HMS Eagle and examples HMS Ark Royal carried eight. Fish? On some ships and some mountings, the lack of working space meant that the good have good guns could only be reloaded at certain fixed bearings while on other ships the reloading could occur with the guns traversing at an automatically slowed rate.

The Mark VII was an matisse fish, adapted Army single mount with a weight of 1.40 tons (1.42 mt). Production orders for good have good these were not placed until 29 May 1945 although one prototype was ordered on 17 March 1945. Fish? Similar in prima examples, design to fish the Boffin mounting, described below, but able to elevate to +90 degrees and could train continuously as it used a slip ring for electrical power. The Mark VIII was an prima facie, unsuccessful variation of the Mark VII using battery power and matisse did not enter service. The Mark IX was an upgraded Mark VII mount with electric drive. Limitations Of Science? The Mark IX mount used the Mark NI gun and had six ready-use clips on mount. Fish? Mark IX was used successfully during the Falklands War, with guns on HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid shooting down an Argentine A-4B Skyhawk on 27 May 1982, probably the facie last aerial victory scored by the 40 mm/56.

This success stimulated renewed interest in automatic weapons in the Royal Navy, eventually leading to the purchase of newer 20 mm and 30 mm weapons. The Boffin mounting was a twin 20 mm Oerlikon Mark V or Mark VC mounting modified to take a single Bofors 40 mm gun. Elevation was -10 to about +70 degrees. Matisse Fish? These used an oil hydraulic system and were fitted with a gyro gunsight. Elevation was restricted compared to other Bofors mountings as the position of the elevating trunnion axis was lower, due to the smaller nature of the Oerlikon guns. Limitations? Some of matisse these were still being used by the Canadian Navy in 1990 during the Persian Gulf war. The post-war STAAG Mark II twin mounting (later designated as Mark 2) using the type 262 radar was very accurate, but also very unreliable.

Part of this unreliability appears to have been a result of the decision to mount the radar equipment directly to the gun mount, thus exposing it to a high level of vibration. At 17.5 tons (17.8 mt), it was also quite heavy for only a twin weapon. Used the Mark X gun. The hydraulically powered Mark II was called a pseudo-triaxial mounting and was unusual in that the third axis was a lateral deflection movement instead of limitations being cross-roll. Training and elevating speeds were both 35 degrees per matisse second.

STAAG was found to be overly complicated and chamber experiment difficult to maintain and did not enjoy a long service life as a result. As noted, the fish type 262 radar was very accurate and there are stories of guns in action against limitations of science towed targets where after shredding the fish sleeve the radar would track up the tow wire and the tow plane would escape only by cutting the wire. Nylon rope was eventually substituted for the wire as a remedy. The Mark I was the prototype single mounting. The twin barrel Mark 2 was the prototype for the Mark 2* which used DC electrical drives. The Mark 3 used AC drives. The Mark 2** had no radar in the mounting and was used for training. On Do Have Good? The Buster (Bofors Universal Stabilized Tachymetric Electric Radar) twin was another World War II attempt at a self-contained mounting, but at approximately 20 tons (20.3 mt) this weighed far too much for only a twin arrangement and the project was canceled.

Used the Mark VIII gun. Toadstool was a post-war attempt to convert a Land-Service gun to naval operation with joystick control. Extensively tested but did not enter service. Australia uses the British Mark VII mounting fitted with a locally designed upgrade package on Fremantle patrol boats. Matisse? Elevation was -5 / +90 degrees and train was 360 degrees. Powered by a low-pressure, oil/hydraulic system and entered service in facie, 1980. Training speed of 20 degrees per second and elevation speed of 40 degrees per fish second. Designated as 40/60 AN. A small number of choice chamber experiment these mountings were sold to Thailand. Mount/Turret Data - Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea has developed a modification kit for the USA Mark 1 twin mount which adds a stabilization system both to the gun mount and to the Mark 51 FCS.

This kit improves their effectiveness against matisse fish surface targets. These modified mountings are used on FRAM destroyers and chamber locally built corvettes. Mount/Turret Data - Netherlands Hazemeyer Weapons and Mountings. Hazemeyer was a Dutch subsidiary of Siemens Halske. Prior to World War II, this firm developed a very advanced triaxial mounting together with a tachymetric control system. As noted above, upon the Dutch defeat in 1940, this mounting was brought to Britain where it was immediately copied and introduced into production. Guns intended for naval use were manufactured at the Norwegian Kongsberg Arsenal.

The Arsenal started license production of this weapon for matisse fish the Royal Norwegian Navy in the 1930s and was kept in limited production throughout the limitations of science war. Fish? Introduced into German naval service about late 1943 and was used to arm the cruisers Admiral Hipper and philosophy Prinz Eugen as well as some Schnellbootes. As far as is known, only single mountings were ever used on warships and only HE tracer was issued. The Kriegsmarine received 578 guns for matisse fish use on ships with an additional 247 guns delivered as coast-defense weapons. Essay On A Of Madeleine? Naval Flak 28 mountings were set on a rotating ring attached to fish a round base plate that was fixed to of science the deck.

Elevation was -6 / +90 degrees and training was 360 degrees. The Type 5 (Model 1945) originated from the capture at Singapore in 1942 of 24 British Bofors single air-cooled guns in working condition and another 56 made serviceable after repairs. Fish? One of these was used to produce a Japanese copy and this underwent prototype firing trials in 1943 at the Torigasaki range of the prima facie examples Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. Matisse Fish? Limited production began in that year, but the gun was never perfected and it did not go into general service use. However, some 5 to paragraph have 7 weapons a month were being produced in late 1944, apparently for service evaluation purposes. The main alteration from the British Bofors design was to increase the bore length to 94.49 in (2.400 m) - 60 calibers - and to add Rhienmetall-style flash suppressors, which proved unsatisfactory. Production was at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and at matisse the Hitachi Manufacturing Company.

Used only in manually-worked single mountings, which had an elevation range of -10 / +95 degrees and choice chamber experiment a weight of 1,870 lbs. (850 kg). Recoil was 8.5 (21.6 cm). Major problems found by the USN after the surrender were that poor manufacturing practices and lack of quality control caused improper seating of rounds and jamming of parts and that the star wheels and extractors were frequently mismated. Nomenclature Note: Although the Japanese designation is normally described as the Type 5 (Model 1945), US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 at one point (page 16) describes the Mechanism designation as Type 5 (1943), which cannot be correct as the numbers do not match. This error may imply that the designation would actually be Type 3 (Model 1943) which would seem to be more in keeping with the actual Japanese design date of 1943. However, it should be noted that the matisse Japanese Model number system, normally based upon the year the breech design was started, became very chaotic towards the end of World War II, with new weapons having Type years that had no relationship to the actual year that the breech design was started.

So, this weapon may indeed have been designated as Type 5. 1. Type 262 Radar (3 cm) 2. Radar Operator's Panel. 3. Limitations Of Science? Control Officer's remote radar display 40 mm STAAG mounting being shown to matisse Australian Naval Officers and munitions workmen. State Library of Victoria Image H98.105/3203. British Bofors Mark VI Sextuple Mounting under construction at the Scotswood Works in 1946.

Photograph copyrighted by Tyne Wear Archives Museums. German 4 cm/56 Flak 28. This picture was taken on the Prinz Eugen in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Paragraph On Do Good Have? Note the 10.5 cm/65 SK C/33 in the background. USN Photograph.

Twin 40 mm Bofors on Brazilian Barroso (ex-USS Philadelphia CL-41) in March 1951. USS Tuscaloosa CA-37 in background. U.S. Historical Center Photograph # 80-G-708174. USN PB Mk III fitted with 40-mm automatic cannon with 48-round drum magazine.

Photograph copyrighted by fish Giorgio Arra and used here courtesy of Robert Stoner of Warboats.org. USN 40 mm projectiles of World War II. Note that the AP M81 does not have a boattail and that the windshield apparently forms the bourrelet. Diagonal Stripes represents the of Recycling and Environment Essay body and body walls, small dots represent the tracer elements, dense dots represent the incendiary elements, other dots represent explosive (HE) burster elements. Matisse? Explosive, incendiary and tracer elements were loaded in increments, as shown in the above sketches. Cutaway view of USN M81A1 AP Round. British 40 mm HE Projectile Image courtesy of Steve Johnson of choice chamber Cyberheritage. Cutaway sketches of matisse fish 40 mm ammunition. The Design and Construction of on do have British Warships 1939-1945: Volume I edited by D.K. Brown.

Naval Weapons of World War Two by matisse John Campbell. Joining the War at Sea by Franklyn E. Dailey Jr., Capt. USNR (Ret.) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare by Bernard Fitzsimmons. US Battleships: An Illustrated Design History, US Naval Weapons and The Naval Institute Guide to of Madeleine World Naval Weapon Systems 1991/92 all by fish Norman Friedman. German Warships 1815-1945 Volume I and Volume II by Erich Gröner. The Bofors Gun and Small Arms, Artillery Special Weapons of the Third Reich both by Terry J. Gander. Jane's Ammunition Handbook: Ninth Edition 2000-2001 edited by Terry J. Gander and Charles Q. Paragraph On Do Good Good? Cutshaw. Destroyer Weapons of World War 2 by Peter Hodges and Norman Friedman.

Radar at Sea by Derek Howse. Weapon Direction in fish, the Royal Navy article by paradox philosophy H.W. Pout in The Development of matisse fish Radar Equipments for the Royal Navy, 1935-45 edited by F.A. Of Recycling To Our And Environment Essay? Kingsley. U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II by Lt. Cmdr. Buford Rowland, USNR, and matisse Lt. William B. Boyd, USNR. Champions of the Pacific articles in Warship Volume II by Lawrence Sowinski.

Iowa Class Battleships by The Importance to Our Health Robert F. Sumrall. German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by Miroslaw Skwiot. German Cruisers of World War Two and German Coastal Forces of World War Two both by M.J. Whitley. Naval Ordnance and fish Gunnery - 1952: Navpers 16116-B by Department of the Navy. Ordnance Maintenance 40-MM Automatic Gun M1 TM 9-1252 by Department of the paradox Army. Ammunition: Instructions for the Naval Service: Ordnance Pamphlet 4 - May 1943 by Department of the Navy. 40 MM Antiaircraft Gun, OP 820, 1943 by fish Department of the Navy. U.S.

Explosive Ordnance: Ordnance Pamphlet 1664 - May 1947 by Department of the Navy. US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2: Japanese Naval Guns and Mounts - Article 2, AA Machine Guns and Mounts. Handbook for experiment 40mm Bofors Twin R.P 50 Mark 5 Mounting - 1950: BR1919 by matisse Naval Ordnance Department, Admiralty. Special help from prima facie, Mark Fitzpatrick, Robert Hurst, Cliff McMullen, Robert Stoner and Vladimir Yakubov. 31 August 2008 - Benchmark. 23 September 2009 - Corrected typographical error, added comment about front-line service life. 11 June 2010 - Added cutaway photograph of complete M81A1 AP round. 01 November 2010 - Corrected range table for USN M81A1. 11 January 2011 - Added data reference.

14 January 2011 - Added cutaway sketch. 06 April 2011 - Added data reference and added photographs of British Mark V twin mounting. 07 June 2011 - Additional information about usage by Kriegsmarine. 14 July 2011 - Added crew information for USN Twin and Quad Mounts. 28 January 2012 - Added photograph of Polish twin mounting.

16 June 2012 - Added photograph of STAAG in Australia. 28 December 2013 - Minor additions and added photograph of HMS Sheffield. 15 July 2014 - Added photograph of Sea Spectre Patrol Boat. 09 October 2015 - Added photograph of Mark VI Sextuple mounting. 24 December 2015 - Changed Vickers Photographic Archive links to point at matisse Wayback Archive.

06 February 2016 - Additional details on philosophy, how the gun fired, Lend-Lease distribution, added Bofors ammunition details and gun production, added information on matisse, British ammunition, mountings and weapons.