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Annotated Bibliography: Arts Education. Arts Education in America: An Annotated Bibliography Statement of Scope: The purpose of this bibliography is to Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex attain information from credible sources on arts programs in schools. The goal is to provide enough information so that the reader is creatine research then able to form their own opinions on the benefits, problems, and Essay Must Legalize, policies on arts programs at varying levels of education. Wanted! Those looking to find detailed information will find this bibliography to be a good starting point. Parsad, B. On We Legalize Gay Marriage! , and Spiegelman, M. 2012. Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 19992000 and 200910 (NCES 2012014). National Center for creatine research Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education. Must Legalize Gay Marriage! Washington, DC.
Web. 24 Jan. 2013 This source is a presentation of unbiased information about both the overall arts education programs and Buy Rights Gold Essay, specific sections including: visual arts, music, dance, and theater/drama. The report utilizes a plethora of charts, graphs, and other visual aids to on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting help organize and present the information. Parsad and Spiegelman first present their findings on overall arts education programs including the percentages of schools offering visual arts, music, dance and theater classes.
They then dedicate ten to fifteen pages discussing the particulars of each section of the arts listed above. There is so much information in this article that it would be great for someone looking for a broad spectrum understanding of arts education programs. The visual aids complement the information presented and of a, would be easy to Essay on We incorporate into a variety of works. They earn better grades and demonstrate higher rates of Tycoons to Blue Essay college enrollment and attainment. (12) Most of the graphs simply relate percentages of students with low and high levels of art engagement to achieve certain things like high school graduation, entering a bachelors program, and attaining a steady professional level career. For every study and graph presented or reviewed there is clearly cited sources, if any confusion remains the appendix and cited pages are very clear about how to Legalize Gay Marriage find more information. Being that this is a report of findings from a national organization it is not biased to or for support of arts programs. For anyone looking for specific statistics to use in a presentation or report of their own, this research report could be very helpful. As previously stated the bulk of the information is presented through graphs and charts that utilize percentages, and is therefore very easy to take and to secede, use in a presentation without having to do much work yourself. For someone looking for a more scholarly breakdown of the benefits of arts education on high-risk students this report will not be as helpful, as it would be time consuming to Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage trace the information presented back to the original sources.
Dwyer, M. Christine. 2011. Reinvesting in Arts Education: Winning America#8217;s Future through Creative Schools. Menaechmus! President#8217;s Committee on Essay on We Gay Marriage Parenting, the Arts and the Humanities. Web. 24 Jan. 2013. The reports emphasizes the iron essential role that arts education programs play in improving student engagement and building creativity. Dwyer discusses, in a lengthy and wordy overview, the Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting current Arts Education programs and policies shortcomings. It is widely agreed that the U. S. public education system is not adequately serving a significant portion of our nations children and that public K-12 schools must change dramatically o achieve the Administrations goal that the United States become a global leader in postsecondary attainment by 2020#8230; School leaders and teachers will need to creatine step up to the challenge of finding new ways to engage many more students in meaningful learning#8230; (27) More importantly, this report discusses possible solutions such as reinvesting in arts education, and argues for Must and Same-Sex creating arts-rich schools that can engage students in ways that complement the study of the arts and other traditional subjects such as literature, history, science, and define iron, mathematics.
Another key takeaway from this report is it shows readers the link between arts education and achievement in other subjects. Being that this source is a report by the Presidents Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, it attempts to present evidence to support the positions of the president and his corresponding political party. As political and wordy as this report is it would most likely benefit someone looking into the politics side of arts education, it would not be as helpful for someone looking for developmental and long term benefits of art involvement in Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting schools. Rabkin, Hedberg. 2011. Arts Education in America: What the Declines Mean for Arts Participation. Based on the 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. National Endowment for tree in brooklyn the Arts. (Research Report #52). Web.
24 Jan. 2013. This report presents its findings after researching important question related to arts education in America. Questions like: Has participation in arts programs declined? What does it mean for teachers and students? How has this affected participation in other extracurricular activities? How does this affect support for programs? The article presents the questions to the reader and then follows up with information that supports both positive and Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, negative claims about the answer.
Charts are used when needed to to Blue Gold Essay simplify information into an easily digestible visual aid. There are numerous sources used as evidence for on We Must Gay Marriage Parenting the information presented, as well as suggestions for further investigation into the questions presented. This report has a very neutral stance towards the information presented. There is good information presented for wanted to secede varying arguments and the ultimate decision is left to the reader. Essay On We Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting! This source would be a fair report to use in a work, especially if in an argumentative essay you need information for the view that opposes yours. However for someone looking for highly specific information this report will only be useful for an introduction into the questions being asked about the national education programs. South Wanted To Secede! Oxtoby, David W. 2012. The Place of Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting Arts in Liberal Education.
Liberal Education, v98 n2 p36-41 Spr 2012. Oxtoby uses a great deal of literal vs figurative logic to Essay on We Gay Marriage Parenting explain his opinion on the place of arts in liberal education and he uses statistics to support his views. In his article, he states that diversity in the curriculum is a keystone to success in any liberal education program. He also claims that part of summary tree grows in brooklyn that diversity needs to include a program where students can express their creativity. Being able to express their creativity and the stimulation provided by arts programs lead to more successful students, both in academics, community involvement, and professional work environments. This article is Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex a good source of simple and sound logic in support of arts programs being included in all liberal education. Oxtobys statements and presentation of the information is Wealthy Buy Rights Essay biased towards supports arts programs, but he always includes evidence to support his ideas. Also, while he does not approve of excluding arts in liberal education there is never any negativity in Essay Must Legalize and Same-Sex his statements, only more supporting evidence for his ideas.
Some readers will find this article to be dry and literal, uninteresting unless they already have some knowledge and opinions on Must Parenting, the place of arts in education programs. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Why should I obey the law? Apart from the obvious prudential and on We Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex self-interested reasons (to avoid punishment, loss of reputation, and so forth), is the brothers menaechmus, there a moral obligation to do what the Essay Must and Same-Sex law requires just because the law requires it? If the answer is tree grows in brooklyn, yes and the mere illegality of an act renders its performance prima facie morally wrong, then I am under a political obligation. Political obligation thus refers to the moral duty of citizens to obey the laws of their state.
In cases where an act or forbearance that is required by law is morally obligatory on independent grounds, political obligation simply gives the Essay Legalize Parenting citizen an additional reason for acting accordingly. But law tends to extend beyond morality, forbidding otherwise morally innocent behavior and compelling acts and literal vs figurative omissions that are discretionary from an Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex independent moral point of view. In such cases, the sole source of ones moral duty to comply with the law is creatine research, his or her political obligation. Theories of political obligation can be roughly divided into three camps: transactional accounts, natural duty, and associative theories. Transactional accounts suggest that political obligation is Essay Gay Marriage, acquired through some morally significant transaction between the citizen and his compatriots or between the citizen and why the wanted to secede his state. Three such theories can be distinguished.
A political community is a cooperative scheme that is geared towards the production of Must Legalize, benefits for its members: security, transport, clean water, and so forth. Of A Tree In Brooklyn. The venture is fruitful in producing these benefits because those participating observe certain restrictions and pay their taxes. To enjoy the benefits of the scheme without submitting to Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, its restrictions is to free-ride on Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights Gold the sacrifices of Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage, others, which is unfair. The demands of Wealthy Buy Rights to Blue, fairness thus yield political obligation. H.L.A Hart was among the first to articulate this account:
When a number of on We Gay Marriage, persons conduct any joint enterprise according to rules and the brothers menaechmus thus restrict their liberty, those who have submitted to those restrictions when required have a right to Essay on We Must Gay Marriage, a similar submission from those who have benefited by their submission. (Hart, 1955: 185) There are some difficulties with citing fairness as the source of political obligation. Robert Nozick introduces the following thought experiment in Anarchy, State and Utopia. Suppose that a group of your neighbors invest in a public address system and decide to launch a program of public entertainment. They list the research names of all of the people in the neighborhood, numbering 365 in total. On his assigned day a person is to Must Gay Marriage, run the public address system, play records over it, give news bulletins, tell amusing stories he has heard, and so on. After 138 days on which each person has done his part, your day arrives. Are you obligated to take your turn? You have benefited from it but must you answer the call when it is your turn to do so? (Nozick, 1974: 93) The answer seems to be no.
From this Nozick draws the conclusion that one does not acquire an obligation to grows in brooklyn, cooperate with a scheme simply by benefiting from Essay on We Must Legalize, its labors. But examples that produce contrasting intuitions come readily to summary tree grows in brooklyn, mind. Suppose that the residents of Nozicks neighborhood vote to dig a public well, to be paid for and maintained by the members of the neighborhood, as an alternative to tap water that is and Same-Sex, dangerously polluted. One resident, who feels that the well is completely unnecessary, refuses to have anything to do with the enterprise. The others nevertheless proceed to dig the well and fund its maintenance and, after a fortnight, the summary of a tree grows in brooklyn dissenter begins to take water from the well. In this case, the Essay on We dissenter has acquired an obligation to pitch in or to creatine, contribute his fair share.
The relevant difference between the two cases is whether the benefits are merely received or positively accepted. In Nozicks example the benefits of the scheme are simply foisted upon all members of the neighborhood, who have no real choice over whether or not they will receive them. The benefits can be avoided, but not without great inconvenience. One would have to go to great lengths to avoid enjoying the music and on We Legalize entertainment being churned out through the public address system. Why The South Wanted. In the latter case, the dissenter must go out of his way to on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, retrieve water from the public well. Here the benefits of the scheme arent merely received ; they are positively accepted . This makes all the difference. While the acceptance of a schemes benefits may be enough to generate an obligation of fair play, their mere receipt cannot (Simmons 1979: 125-28). The problem with generalizing from this example is that most of the benefits provided by the state are open goods, the the brothers menaechmus enjoyment of which simply cannot be avoided, at least not without great inconvenience. On We Must Legalize. The peaceful and secure environment created by Wealthy Buy Rights Gold Essay, police, roads, and national defense are all cases in point. Since we cannot say that these benefits are accepted, it is difficult to maintain that those who enjoy them incur a political obligation of fair play by so doing.
Those citizens that take advantage of the readily available but not open benefits that society makes available, such as emergency services upon request, may incur a duty to requite, but this cannot give us a sufficiently general account of political obligation (Simmons, 1979: 127-28). But is Essay on We Must, acceptance always necessary? According to summary of a grows in brooklyn, George Klosko, the mere receipt of a benefit fails to impose a duty to reciprocate only when the Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex benefit in question is the brothers menaechmus, trivial. The force of the argument is blunted once we turn away from discretionary benefits that are not essential to well-being, such as entertainment, and towards presumptive benefits: goods that are necessary for an acceptable life such that all persons can reasonably be presumed to want them (Klosko 1987: 246). Klosko lists physical security, protection from a hostile environment, and the satisfaction of Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, basic bodily needs, offering the following example to illustrate his point: A lives in vs figurative a small territory surrounded by hostile territories whose leaders have made public their intention to slaughter the Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting citizens of X. In order to why the to secede, defend themselves, the X-ites must band together and Essay on We Must Legalize institute measures such as compulsory military service. A, however, finds this too burdensome and time consuming and decides not to comply. Why The South. Although the mutual-protection scheme has simply sprung up around him, we feel that it is wrong for A to free ride on the sacrifices of his fellow X-ites. On We Gay Marriage Parenting. He must reciprocate for the safety and security that he enjoys because of their efforts (Klosko 1987: 249). From this, Klosko infers that the mere receipt of in brooklyn, presumptive benefits is enough to create a duty of fair play. But now the emphasis has shifted from the enjoyment of benefits to the importance of the goods provided.
This gives us reason to suspect that considerations of Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, fair play are not ultimately what ground political obligation on Kloskos picture. Rather an why the independent imperative to help supply essential goods to ones compatriots a natural duty may be what is doing the on We Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting work (Wellman and Simmons 2005: 189-90). Why The South Wanted To Secede. Natural duty theories will be considered in greater detail below. According to this account, a citizen owes a debt of Essay on We Gay Marriage, gratitude to vs figurative, the government for the benefits that it provides. Essay Legalize Gay Marriage And Same-Sex. This debt is owed regardless of whether these benefits are accepted or merely received, and the debt is repaid through obedience to Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights Gold, law. There are a number of obvious difficulties with this account. First, only Essay Must Legalize and Same-Sex, a benefactor who makes a special effort or sacrifice is owed a debt of gratitude (Simmons 1979: 170). But public benefits are taxpayer-funded and members of government are paid handsomely for their work. As such, no sacrifice by the government is present. Define Iron Curtain. Our fellow citizens collectively do make sacrifices from which we benefit, but insofar as they are compelled to do so, they cannot be the objects of a debt of gratitude.
Voluntary benefaction is necessary for any such debt to arise. Furthermore, gratitude is Essay Legalize Gay Marriage, not owed for benefaction that is motivated by malice or self-interest, which means that a government is not owed obedience for services that it provides only to win votes, to improve its reputation in literal vs figurative international circles, or for on We, other such disqualifying reasons. Second, even the concession that citizens owe a debt of gratitude to their government cannot salvage this account, for the content of the brothers menaechmus, this debt remains an Parenting open question. In other words, it is not clear that the debt must be repaid through obedience, rather than in some other way. Interjecting that this is what governments ask for in return is unsatisfactory since, as Simmons points out, benefactors are not specially entitled to themselves specify what shall constitute a fitting return for their benefaction (Simmons, 2002: 34). On this theory, a citizen that freely consents to his governments authority binds himself to obedience.
Though few deny this, the difficulty with consent theory is identifying an action in the personal history of most individuals that might count as a valid token of to secede, consent. Residence in a governments territory was said to express tacit consent by Locke and Rousseau (Locke, 1690: ch. 8, Rousseau, 1762: IV, ii). Essay Gay Marriage Parenting. The fatal errors of this view are well documented. The Brothers. For an act or omission to register consent, the agent performing it must be aware of the Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting moral significance of what he is doing. One cannot submit to authority and be bound unknowingly (Simmons, 1979: 64). Furthermore, the menaechmus agent must have the Essay Legalize opportunity to withhold consent and doing so must not come at menaechmus, too great a personal cost (otherwise consent cannot be considered free and voluntary). Residence fails to meet each of Must Legalize Parenting, these criteria. Research. First, if occupying territory expresses consent to the authority of its government, it is safe to say that the greater bulk of on We Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, citizens in any country are not aware of it. Second, the only way to withhold consent on this view is to emigrate, which is impossible for some and possible but extremely costly for others. Even if the moral significance of residence were known to all, in of a tree many cases it would still not be free and voluntary, which consent must be in order to on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, bind - a point articulated by David Hume in On the Social Contract:
Can we seriously say that a poor peasant or artisan has a free choice to leave his country, when he knows no foreign language or manners, and lives from day to day, by menaechmus, the small wages which he acquires? (Hume, 1748) A popular alternative token of consent is that of democratic participation or voting. Weak and strong formulations of democratic consent theory can be distinguished. According to Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, the weak version, to vote for a candidate in tree a democratic election is to consent to his appointment to Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, a position of political authority and therefore to define curtain, bind oneself to obedience should that candidates bid for power be successful. The strong version states that by participating in a democratic election fully aware that the purpose of the procedure is to invest authority in the candidate that wins the most votes, one consents to the procedure as a way of determining who will wield political power and therefore agrees to be bound by its outcome whichever way it goes . Under this alternative, a democratically elected government is owed obedience by every citizen that partook in the election by which it was empowered. But every democratic country contains citizens that are, for whatever reason, unable or unwilling to vote. This leaves a large portion of any democratic populace unbound by the duty to obey the law, even on the stronger formulation of democratic consent theory. By identifying voting as our token of consent, we avoid the difficulties associated with the residence account, but are left with a theory of political obligation that is insufficiently general in Essay on We Must Parenting its scope.
According to the brothers, natural duty theories, political obligation is grounded not in a morally significant transaction that takes place between citizens and polity, but either 1) in the importance of advancing some impartial moral good, such as utility or justice; or 2) in Essay Legalize a moral duty owed by all persons to all others regardless of their transactional history. Unlike the theories previously discussed, a utilitarian account of political obligation is forward rather than backward looking, deriving political obligation from the future goods to be produced by Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue Gold Essay, obedience, rather than from what citizens have done in the past or what has been done for them. Utilitarianism posits that actions that maximize utility are morally required. Essay Must Gay Marriage And Same-Sex. Utility is maximized by acts that produce more (or at least as much) happiness and well-being than any alternative course of action that is iron, open to the agent. The duty to obey the law is derived from this: since obedience produces more happiness than disobedience, one must obey. One of the Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting more interesting utilitarian accounts of political obligation is why the south wanted to secede, developed by R.M. Hare. Essay Legalize Gay Marriage. The acts and why the south wanted forbearances that are required of us by law are generally acts that are conducive to the greatest happiness of the greatest number independently of their being required by on We Must, law. Even in a lawless state of nature, the imperative to maximize utility would surely enjoin that we not burgle, assault, or murder our neighbors.
But the mere fact that the law requires something generates additional utilitarian reasons for complying according to Hare. He argues that the promulgation and enforcement of a law requiring X increases or amplifies the utility of X-ing and of a tree in brooklyn the disutility of Essay and Same-Sex, refusing or failing to X. There are several ways that it can do this. First, some actions only produce good consequences when performed in coordination with others. The enforcement of law helps to bring this about. Hare offers the following example.
Grant that we are each under a utilitarian obligation to observe clean habits in order to prevent the spread of typhus. Where the state does not enforce this obligation, many will not observe clean habits and typhus will spread regardless of whether or not I do so. In these circumstances my actions have little impact on overall utility. But once a corresponding law is passed and obedience is widely enforced, my failure to delouse myself jeopardizes the successful containment of the disease. The enactment and tree grows enforcement of a law thus adds to my pre-existing utilitarian obligation to observe hygiene standards by making it more likely that this will be effective in preventing the spread of typhus. But this cannot be said for all acts and forbearances.
Some seem to have the same utility whether or not they are widely enforced. In these cases, Hare appeals to Essay Parenting, more mundane considerations to support his conclusion. Laws require enforcement and their transgression demands punishment. This uses up public resources that might otherwise be put towards maximizing happiness and well-being. Breaking laws thus creates disutility that the infringement of raw moral duties does not. The mere illegality of an act gives us an independent utilitarian reason to refrain from it (Hare, 1989: 14). But even if the vs figurative utility of obedience is enhanced by factors such as these, there will surely still be some occasions on which disobedience would clearly produce more utility all things considered . In such cases, utilitarianism seems incapable of enjoining fidelity to law. On We Gay Marriage And Same-Sex Parenting. This is a problem because, while all duties are prima facie and liable to be overridden by literal, countervailing moral considerations, a moral requirement that gives way in the face of very slight utility gains hardly seems to be an obligation in any meaningful sense of the word (Simmons 1979: 49). Rule-utilitarianism looks more promising in this respect.
On this view, what is required is conformity to rules that are justified on Essay Must and Same-Sex Parenting utilitarian grounds; that is, rules which maximize utility when complied with generally. Obey the law does seem to be such a rule on the face of define curtain, it. But if an alternative rule could be identified which would produce even better consequences, then it must supplant the rule obey the law according to rule-utilitarianism. And there does seem to be such a rule, namely; obey the Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting law except when disobedience would certainly have better consequences. This takes us back to square one. Political obligation might alternatively be derived from the natural duties that human rights impose on us. The theory developed by Allen Buchanan in Political Legitimacy and Democracy (2002) will serve as an example. To show adequate respect for human rights, it is not enough to vs figurative, refrain from violating them. We must also do what we can to ensure that they are not violated by others, at on We Gay Marriage, least when we can do so without sustaining too high a personal cost. This is not a duty that we possess by virtue of having committed ourselves to protecting others.
We have it naturally, regardless of what we have done in why the south to secede the past or what has been done for us. (Buchanan, 2002: 707). Obedience helps to ensure that the state functions effectively. If the state does a credible job of protecting the Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting human rights of its citizens, obedience helps to ensure that the literal human rights of ones compatriots are protected. To refuse to obey constitutes a refusal to do what one can to protect human rights, which is a transgression of ones natural duty. Thus, political obligation is Legalize, among the literal moral requirements that the human rights of Essay on We Must Gay Marriage Parenting, others naturally impose on us. A major shortcoming of Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights Essay, this account, and Essay Must Legalize and Same-Sex of all natural duty theories, is their inability to bind individuals to one particular political authority above all others. (This is referred to in the literature as the problem of literal, particularity.) A duty to promote justice, utility, or human rights might give a citizen reason to obey and support his own state, but it equally gives him reason to support just and on We competent states abroad. And if utility, justice, or human rights would be better served by creatine, putting the on We Must Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting demands of a foreign state ahead of ones own, then this would seem to be the right thing to Gold Essay, do. Legalize Gay Marriage And Same-Sex. The money I spend on taxes, for example, would probably do more for justice and human rights if it were instead donated to a poor, developing country, in which case the best way to discharge my natural duty would involve tax evasion.
According to associative accounts, a citizen is duty-bound to creatine research, obey the Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex law simply by virtue of his or her membership in a political community. Literal. In many cases, we are willing to Essay Must Legalize and Same-Sex, concede that the non-voluntary occupation of creatine, a social role comes with moral duties attached. The duties of neighbors, friends, and family are all cases in point. (A daughter owes her parents honor and respect simply because she is Essay on We Must Legalize Parenting, their daughter, independently of whatever debt of gratitude she may have accrued). Likewise, political associations are pregnant of obligation, such that occupying the role of a citizen within such an association comes with its own set of duties, including a duty to obey the law (Dworkin 1986: 206). We simply misunderstand what it means to be a member of a political society if we think that political obligation needs any further justification. (McPherson 1967: 64) . Leslie Green aptly describes associative political obligations as parthenogenetic: having a virgin birth, [political] obligation has no father among familiar moral principles such as consent, utility, fairness, and so on (Green 2003). This account avoids the particularity problem since it derives political obligation from duties owed specifically to those with whom we stand in a certain kind of political relation, rather than from duties owed to human beings generally. But it is open to other kinds of objections.
Even if we accept that there are associative obligations within families and between friends, we might say that the typical political association lacks morally relevant characteristics possessed by the typical family or friendship (e.g. intimacy, emotional closeness), undercutting the analogy that is employed to yield an associative political obligation. Associativists are united in emphasizing the Uncle in Uncle Sam writes Wellman. The obvious problem for this approach is that citizens are not connected to compatriots as they are to uncles (Wellman 1997: 200). Or we might allow that families and why the wanted political associations are relevantly similar, but simply reject the notion of associative obligations. Legalize Gay Marriage And Same-Sex. Wellman maintains that associative bonds, allegiances, and why the wanted to secede attachments may give rise to special responsibilities, but denies that these are tantamount to moral duties (Wellman 1997: 186) . We are asked to consider a sibling that decides not to attend his sisters wedding just because he would rather spend his time and money elsewhere. We may disapprove of Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage, this individual given his lack of concern for Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue Gold, his sisters life. But we do not feel that he has failed to do something that his sister has a right against him that he do; we do not feel that he has failed to discharge a duty (Wellman 1997: 186). His behavior is unsavory, but it is not unjust; and if familial ties do not ground special, associative obligations , neither do political associations. Mixed accounts combine elements of two or more of the theories so far discussed. A recent example is Essay Must and Same-Sex Parenting, Christopher Wellmans Samaritan theory, which derives political obligation from the natural duties of literal vs figurative, citizens together with their obligations of fair play. The fist part of on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage, Wellmans theory is not dissimilar to Buchanans account, which was sketched above.
States depend on literal widespread obedience to function effectively. An effectively functioning state is necessary to protect people from the dangers inherent in the state of Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, nature. Obedience to the state is therefore necessary to ensure that others are protected from peril. This, Wellman insists, is something that we each have a natural Samaritan duty to do. This is the natural duty aspect of the brothers, Wellmans account. But obviously the state does not depend on on We the obedience of each and every citizen 100% of the time in order to function effectively. The non-compliance of a few in the midst of general compliance does not compromise the why the south states ability to protect its citizens from the dangers of the state of nature. This presents us with a problem. If I can be confident that a majority of my compatriots will consistently obey, why should I? The state will continue to Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, fulfill its protective function regardless of what I do and no ones safety is jeopardized by my infidelity to literal vs figurative, law. It seems that by Essay Parenting, disobeying, I am not doing anything that is summary of a tree in brooklyn, inconsistent with my Samaritan duty to Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, defend others from peril. To bridge this gap, Wellman supplements his Samaritan obligation with a duty of fair play.
Contributing ones fair share to the achievement of the Samaritan objective defending others from peril requires obedience even when disobedience would seem to the brothers menaechmus, be inconsequential. It would be unfair to shirk ones share of the Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting Samaritan chore (Wellman 2004: 749). The trouble with mixed accounts is that they seem prone to inherit the difficulties associated with the theories of which they are composed. Complementing a natural duty with a principle of fairness does not, for example, cause the problem of particularity to south, disappear. Rather, the problem seems to on We Must Legalize, carry over and contaminate Wellmans mixed theory. (Why do I have a duty to contribute a fair share to the Samaritan chore in my own community, rather than in some foreign state?) Thus it is unclear whether mixed accounts have any advantage in this sense. Whether liberal democracy is a precondition of political obligation depends on which of the above theories we apply.
The gratitude account does not appear to preclude citizens owing obedience to undemocratic and tyrannical regimes. To be sure, the summary tree depth of ones debt of gratitude depends on the extent to which he or she benefits, so it is safe to say that democratic citizens will typically owe more than authoritarian subjects by Essay on We Must Legalize, way of requital. Democratically accountable governments have a political incentive to pamper their citizens with as many benefits and amenities as possible. Furthermore, a subject that is denied the rights and liberties afforded to his democratic counterparts has less to be grateful for. Nevertheless the subjects of authoritarian governments might still enjoy substantial benefits thanks to their state stable employment, security against crime, foreign invasion, and so forth. and as long as they do, they owe a debt of menaechmus, gratitude and therefore political obligation. The gratitude theorist might interject that all things considered, tyrants ought not to be obeyed. Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage And Same-Sex. The injustices perpetrated by such regimes ought to be resisted even if this means failing to repay ones debt of gratitude. Define. But this does not deny that political obligation is owed to tyrants; it merely concedes that political obligation is prima facie and Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex can sometimes be overridden by countervailing moral considerations. While the gratitude account can in this way be supplemented so as to avoid extending to the oppressed an all things considered duty to menaechmus, obey , the important point is that it cannot confine prima facie political obligation to the citizens of liberal democracies. On the face of Essay on We Must Gay Marriage, it, it would seem that fairness theorys sensitivity to regime type is south, no different from that of the gratitude account. Insofar as democratic citizens typically receive more benefits, what constitutes a fair share for Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage, them to contribute in why the south to secede return might be more than what non-democratic citizens owe.
But the latter are still bound to reciprocate for Essay on We Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, the goods that they do enjoy. But A.J. Simmons denies that this is the case. Fair play obligations, he says, can only arise in a liberal democratic setting: Only political communities which at vs figurative, least appear to be reasonably democratic will be candidates for Essay Must Gay Marriage Parenting, a fair play account to begin with. For only where we can see the political workings of the society as a voluntary, cooperative venture will the principle apply. Thus, a theorist who holds that the acceptance of benefits from a cooperative scheme is the only ground of political obligation, will be forced to admit that in at least a large number of nations, no citizens have political obligations (Simmons 1979: 136-37). The claim here is not that we are only wanted, obliged to discharge our duties of Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, fair play if we happen to live in a democracy, but that prima facie duties of fair play cannot even arise in states that arent liberal democratic (Simmons 1979: 136-37). Simmons remarks, however, seem wrongheaded.
What characteristics must a society possess in Wealthy Buy Rights Gold order to count as a voluntary, cooperative venture? Presumably, those participating would have to do so of their own free will, which is tantamount to saying that their involvement must be consensual. Now when Simmons says that a society must be a voluntary cooperative enterprise for Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage, the fairness account to have purchase, he surely cannot mean that only where every member of a society is a voluntary participant can fairness be invoked to yield political obligation. For not even liberal democracies will meet this standard. More importantly, if a society did manage to meet this standard, the fairness principle would become redundant: everybody would be under a political obligation simply by virtue of having consented to participate in the scheme. Hence Simmons can only mean that a society must contain a core enterprise that is voluntary and cooperative, made up of literal vs figurative, consenting participants, which makes benefits available to those outside the core and thus binds them to Essay on We and Same-Sex Parenting, reciprocate even though they arent voluntary participants.
But in this case he cannot plausibly maintain that it is vs figurative, only possible for liberal democracies to satisfy this condition, for authoritarian societies also seem to contain a core of voluntary participants cooperating and making benefits available to the rest. Is liberal democracy necessary for political obligation on consent theory? At first glance, the answer appears to depend on the token of consent identified. Where consent is registered by voting, then clearly a society must be democratic in Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex order for its citizens to be under a political obligation. On the other hand if consent is expressed through mere residence, it would seem that the denial of rights and liberties free speech, democracy, and so forth has no bearing on the issue of consent and political obligation.
But closer inspection reveals that this is mistaken. Consent is only morally binding if expressed under the creatine right conditions, whichever form it happens to take, a point alluded to Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice : it is generally agreed that extorted promises are void ab initio. But similarly, unjust social arrangements are themselves a kind of extortion, even violence, and consent to them does not bind (Rawls, 1971: 343). Rawls conclusion is creatine research, correct, but his reasoning here is faulty. The voluntariness of consent is not necessarily undermined by the injustice of the state consented to, particularly if the consenter is not himself the target of oppression. But we can plausibly raise doubts as to whether consent, however it is registered, is Must Legalize Parenting, fully informed when given to an unjust state, which seems to creatine research, be the route taken by Michael Walzer: It is Essay on We Legalize, not enough that particularly striking acts of consent be free; the whole of our moral lives must be free so that we can freely prepare to consent, argue about consenting, intimate our consent to other men and women Civil liberty of the most extensive sort is, therefore, the necessary condition of political obligation and just government. Liberty must be as extensive as the possible range of consenting action over time and why the south to secede through political space if citizens can conceivably be bound to a strict obedience (Walzer, 1970: xii).
Thus one could say that regardless of the Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex token of consent identified, its validity is define iron, conditional upon on We Legalize Parenting, liberal democratic institutions. Finally, let us turn to natural duty theories. On the utilitarian account, wherever obedience would generate more happiness and well-being than disobedience, this is research, what morality requires. Thus if we had some reason to believe that obedience maximizes utility in Essay on We Legalize Parenting democratic countries and define curtain fails to do so everywhere else, only then would the utilitarian say that democracy is a necessary condition of political obligation. However this empirical premise seems somewhat farfetched. The natural duty to promote justice, on the other hand, extends political obligation only to the citizens of Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, reasonably just states, according to Rawls, or states where each person has an equal right to the most extensive set of menaechmus, liberties compatible with a similar set of liberties for others. This demands stringent protection of basic human rights such as personal security, as well as of property rights, freedom of conscience, freedom of speech and association, and so on. Also, all citizens are to be afforded some kind of democratic participation. Therefore, the duty to promote justice only entails an Essay and Same-Sex Parenting obligation to obey liberal democracies. The subjects of other kinds of literal, regimes might be said to have a duty to comply only when their so doing would assist in the establishment of just arrangements (Rawls 1971: 334), but not a general, content-independent political obligation owed to their state. Allen Buchanans natural duty account seems to have similar implications.
On Buchanans theory, the duty to obey the law is grounded in the natural duty to make rights-protecting institutions available to others. It follows that failed states that do not competently fulfill this protective function and illiberal regimes that actually trample on human rights themselves cannot be owed obedience. 6. Relationship to Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, Legitimate Authority. On the traditional view, legitimate authority and political obligation are two sides of the same coin. Summary Grows In Brooklyn. A state is legitimate in the sense of Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, having a right to issue and enforce directives if and only if its citizens are under a political obligation. If citizens do not have a prima facie obligation to obey the law, their government does not have a right to of a, promulgate and enforce it (Simmons 1979: 195). There are, however, alternative accounts that decouple political obligation from legitimate authority. Kent Greenawalt, for on We Must Parenting, example, argues that a legitimate governments justification right its right to vs figurative, make and enforce law - implies a duty of non-interference on the part of the citizenry, but not a duty to obey (Greenawalt, 1999).
However, if what is meant by interference is interference with the states regulation of Essay Legalize and Same-Sex, society, it is not clear that interference and disobedience can coherently be distinguished. Thomas Christiano illustrates the point with a couple of clever comparisons, the first between the state and vs figurative the baseball umpire, and the second between the state and the movie director. If a player does nothing to prevent the umpire from watching the pitches and shouting ball or strike, but refuses to leave the batters box after having been called out, he interferes with the umpires calling of the game. Similarly if an actor on on We and Same-Sex the set of a movie does not actively try to sabotage the production of the film but refuses to follow the directors instructions, he interferes with the production of the film nevertheless. In the same way, Christiano argues, a citizen that does not attack police or make bomb threats to parliament house in order to obstruct the making of law, but that refuses to obey the iron curtain law is still guilty of interfering with the states legal organization of society. Disobedience is interference. (Christiano, 2004) William Edmundson avoids this difficulty by specifying that the correlate of Essay Must Gay Marriage, legitimate authority is non-interference with the administration and enforcement of laws , rather than non-interference with the why the south to secede states regulation of society more broadly. Similarly Patrick Durning argues that legitimate authority corresponds to a duty not to interfere with the states attempts to regulate society, which amounts to a duty not to interfere with the issuing of commands and their enforcement. On We. (Durning, 2003) Although this appears to be coherent, it still seems problematic. If we do not have a moral obligation to surrender a percentage of literal, our earnings in tax, for example, how can we be duty-bound to stand idly by and not resist when the on We Legalize and Same-Sex taxman comes to seize our money? Alternative accounts such as those put forward by Edmundson and Durning have the odd implication that one can be duty-bound not to resist the enforcement of directives that one has absolutely no moral obligation to comply with.
For this reason, the traditional view, according to which legitimate authority and political obligation are correlates, remains the prevailing view. 7. The Weight of Political Obligation. It does not, however, follow from ones being under a political obligation that he or she ought always to obey the law. Political obligation is prima facie and countervailing moral considerations always need to be taken into account when assessing the right course of action. The weight that should be ascribed to political obligation in any such judgment is, furthermore, an open question.
M.B.E Smith argues that it is negligible. A prima facie duty has considerable weight if and to secede only if; 1) an act which violates that obligation and fulfils no other is seriously wrong; and 2) violation of it will make considerably worse an act which on other grounds is already wrong (Smith, 1973: 970). Running a stop sign when it is perfectly safe to do so and when there is nobody else around to Must Legalize and Same-Sex, witness and be influenced by the indiscretion, constitutes a transgression of literal vs figurative, a citizens political obligation. Yet it seems to be a rather trivial wrong for which censure and moral condemnation are not appropriate responses. Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting. Political obligation thus flunks the first test. Define. As for the second test, Smith argues that the Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting moral wrongness of an act is not at all amplified by its illegality. Rape and murder are already seriously wrong. They are not made more wrong by the fact that these actions are against vs figurative, the law. From this Smith concludes that political obligation is at most of trifling weight (Smith, 1973: 971).
But these findings could equally be advanced in support of a stronger conclusion: that there simply is no duty to obey the law. There is today a growing consensus to Essay on We and Same-Sex Parenting, the effect that no theory of political obligation succeeds. But not everybody infers from this that political obligation does not exist. After all, the vs figurative source and nature of moral requirements more generally may not be adequately captured by any of our theories, but few advance this as proof that we are not bound by moral requirements. We have simply been unable to explain why we are so bound: the theorist has failed to develop a satisfactory account of Essay Must Parenting, what is there (or at grows, least might be there). But there are also those for whom the theories surveyed above are exhaustive. All possible grounds of political obligation are covered by these theories, such that if political obligation cannot be derived from either consent, or fairness, or gratitude, then there is no such thing as political obligation (Simmons 1979: 192). Philosophical anarchism is the term used to describe this latter position that there is no prima facie duty to obey the law, even in a just state, (the flip- side of this being that no state is legitimate in the sense of enjoying a right to obedience). Two kinds of philosophical anarchism can be distinguished: A posteriori and a priori . According to a posteriori philosophical anarchism, no existing state is legitimate or has a right to on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, obedience, but political obligation might be owed to an authority if it satisfied certain conditions. In other words, existing states are illegitimate because of their contingent characters (Simmons 2001: 106). A proponent of this view might, for example, say that residence would generate political obligation if internal succession were allowed and define iron if there were a widely known convention equating residence with consent, but that in on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting so far these conditions do not obtain in any existing state, no existing state is owed obedience (Beran, 1987: 126).
A priori philosophical anarchism, by contrast, denies not only the existence, but also the possibility of a legitimate state. There cannot be a duty to obey the law on this view (Edmundson, 2004: 219, Simmons 2001: 105). Robert Paul Wolff endorses this position. Wolff argues that obedience - acting as the summary of a in brooklyn law requires just because the law requires it is incompatible with the Must Parenting overriding duty of each individual to to secede, act in Essay on We and Same-Sex accordance with his or her own moral judgment. Differently put, obedience constitutes an abdication of moral autonomy, which is immoral. This precludes citizens from acquiring political obligation no matter what they say or do. We are necessarily free from political obligation and, accordingly, the notion of a legitimate state must be consigned [to] the category of the round square, the married bachelor, and why the wanted the unsensed sense-datum (Wolff 1970: 71). None of this has anything to Essay Must, do with the contingent character of vs figurative, ones government (Hopton 1998: 601).
If political obligation does not exist, what follows? Locke declares that an individual under the exercise of a power without right - the power of an authority without a claim to his obedience - is at liberty to Essay on We Gay Marriage Parenting, appeal to heaven or to resort to violent resistance (Locke, 1690: II: 168). On this view, philosophical anarchism offers something of a justification for political anarchism disobedience and resistance to the state. But one can have strong moral reasons for complying with directives issued by his government without owing any obligations to that government. A state might deserve obedience without being entitled to it. Moreover the acts and forbearances required by of a grows, law are in many cases morally required independently of the on We Gay Marriage law. The fact that a citizen is free from define iron curtain, political obligation means only that the laws demanding something of on We Legalize, him is not in vs figurative itself a morally relevant consideration for behaving accordingly. But the citizens pre-existing moral duties will in Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex many (or even most) cases be sufficient to grows in brooklyn, prohibit his acting contrary to the law. Thus, the absence of political obligation does not challenge our understanding of when morality demands conformity with law and non-resistance as dramatically as one might expect. Allen, R.E., Socrates and Legal Obligation , (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980). Edmundson, W.A., State of the Art: The Duty to Obey the on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage Law, Legal Theory, vol.
10, (2004): 215-259. Edmundson, W.A. (ed.), The Duty to Obey the literal vs figurative Law, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999). On We Must And Same-Sex. Green, L., Legal Obligation and Authority, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003. Hopton, T., Political Obligation, in why the wanted to secede Encyclopedia of Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage, Applied Ethics, vol. 3, (San Diego: academic Press, 1998). Klosko, G., Political Obligations, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). McPherson, T., Political Obligation, (London: Routledge, 1967). Pateman, C., The Problem of to Blue Gold, Political Obligation: A Critique of Liberal Theory, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1979). Rousseau, J.J., The Social Contract and Parenting Discourses by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), trans. Literal. G.D.H Cole, (London and Toronto: J.M.
Dent and Essay on We Sons, 1913). Simmons, A.J., Civil Disobedience and the Duty to Obey the Law, in R.G. Frey and C.H. Wellman (eds.), A Companion to Applied Ethics (Blackwell Publishing, 2003). Why The Wanted. Simmons, A.J., Moral Principles and on We Must Gay Marriage Political Obligations, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). Woozley, A.D., Law and Obedience: The Arguments of Platos Crito, (London: Duckworth, 1979). Hart, H.L.A, Are There Any Natural Rights? Philosophical Review 64, (April 1955). Klosko, G., Presumptive Benefit, Fairness, and literal Political Obligation, Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 16, no. 3, (Summer 1987): 241-259.
Klosko, G., The Principle of Fairness and Political Obligation, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992). Nozick, R., Anarchy, State, and on We Must Parenting Utopia, (New York: Basic Books, 1974). Rawls, J., A Theory of Justice, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971). Creatine Research. Simmons, A.J., The Principle of Fair Play, and on We Fair Play and vs figurative Political Obligation: Twenty Years Later, both in his Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Klosko, G., Political Obligation and Gratitude, Philosophy Public Affairs 18 (1988/89): 352-358.
Walker, A.D., Obligations of Must Parenting, Gratitude and Political Obligation, Philosophy Public Affairs 18, (1988/89): 359-364. Walker, A.D., Political Obligation and the Argument from Gratitude, Philosophy Public Affairs 17, (1987/88): 191-211. Beran, H., The Consent Theory of Political Obligation, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987). Hume, D., On the Social Contract, in A. MacIntyre (ed.), Humes Ethical Writings, (New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1965). Iron Curtain. Jenkins, J.J., Political Consent, Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 20 (1970): 60-66. Locke, J., The Second Treatise of Civil Government, (1690) (any edition). Plamenatz, J.P., Consent, Freedom and Political Obligation, 2nd ed., (London, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1968). Plamenatz, J.P., Man and Society , vol. On We Must Gay Marriage. 1, (London: Longman, 1963). Singer, P., Democracy and Disobedience, (New York and literal London: Oxford University Press, 1973).
Walzer, M., Obligations: Essays on Disobedience, War and Citizenship, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970). Bentham, J., A Fragment of Government, in on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting J. Bowring (ed.), The Works of Jeremy Bentham, (London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 1843). Buchanan, A., Political Legitimacy and Democracy, Ethics 112 (July 2002): 689-719. Hare, R.M., Political Obligation, in Essays on creatine Political Morality, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989). Klosko, G., Political Obligation and the Natural Duties of Justice, Philosophy and Essay Legalize Public Affairs, vol. 23, no.
3, (Summer 1994): 251-70. Wellman, C.H., and A. John Simmons, Is there a Duty to Obey the Law?, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005). Dworkin, R., Laws Empire , (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Belknap, 1986). Horton, J. Political Obligation, (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1992). Simmons, A.J., Associative Political Obligations, in his Justification and the brothers Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Wellman, C.H., Toward a Liberal Theory of Political Obligation, Ethics, vol. 111, no. 4, (July 2001): 735-759. Klosko, G., Multiple Principles of on We Legalize and Same-Sex, Political Obligation, Political Theory 32, 6, (2004): 801-824. Lefkowitz, D.A., Legitimate Authority and the Duty of creatine research, Those Subject to Essay on We Legalize, It: A Critique of Edmundson, Law and Philosophy 23 , (2004): 399-435. Miller, D., On Nationality, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Relationship to legitimate authority: Christiano, T., Justice and Disagreement at the Foundations of Political Authority, Ethics, 110 (October 1999): 165-187. During, P., Political Legitimacy and the Duty to Obey the Law, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, vol. Summary Of A Grows. 33, no. 3, (September 2003): 373-390.
Edmundson, W.A., Legitimate Authority without Political Obligation, Law and Philosophy, 17, (1998): 43-60. Greenawalt, K., Legitimate Authority and the Duty to Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, Obey in creatine William A. Edmundson (ed.), The Duty to Obey the Law, (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999). The weight of political obligation, and philosophical anarchism:
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9/11: The Mysterious Collapse of WTC Building 7 was Not An Inside Job. Preface: If you believe that the on We Legalize Parenting, government always tells the creatine research, truth, you have gotten lost in a bad neighborhood, and Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex you should turn around and get back on the freeway as quickly as possible. If you believe that politics, war and terrorism do not greatly affect your lifestyle, your investment portfolio and the economy, you are sadly mistaken. See this, this, this, this and this. If, on the other hand, you believe that 9/11 was an inside job, then please point out any inaccuracies, shortcoming or erroneous conclusions contained within the Wealthy, post.
Please don’t just label it as being a “limited hang-out” propaganda sell-out hit piece instead, if you believe it is wrong, please link to actual evidence which disproves what I am saying, or which adds pieces of information which you think are missing. Maybe I’ll agree with you, maybe I won’t. But I will consider every comment. People who state that 9/11 was an inside job are claiming that it is a false flag operation which killed people, was used to justify wars in Iraq and elsewhere and a power grab in the U.S. But World Trade Center building 7 the Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, third building to collapse on creatine research September 11th has nothing to do with any inside job: No one died as a result of the collapse No airplane hit the building, and so it was not directly involved in the terrorist attack No wars were launched to avenge WTC7 No power grabs or loss of civil liberties ensued because of the collapse of this building Unlike the Essay Gay Marriage, rest of 9/11, the government has been very quiet about its destruction.
As such, the collapse of the summary of a grows, building also known as the “Solomon Brothers Building” was not an inside job. Of course, the on We Legalize, building might have been demolished to save lives. For example, Paul K. Trousdale a structural engineer with decades of of a grows, experience says: I had always thought the Essay Must Gay Marriage, 3rd building was destroyed to prevent unpredictable collapse. (some point to summary of a in brooklyn, the World Trade Center owner's statement about the decision to pull the building as confirming Trousdale's theory). So why am I wasting your valuable time in discussing this? Because the Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, government as part of its political cover-up of negligence before and on 9/11 pretended that the building collapsed due to vs figurative, “natural causes”. This should not be entirely surprising we know that government personnel sometimes misspeak about things like the economy or Iraq and weapons of Essay Must, mass destruction, and they may also have made some minor errors peripherally related to 9/11:
Again, this post has nothing to do with “9/11 inside job”: no one died when building 7 collapsed. What does the evidence show about the Solomon Brothers Building in Manhattan? Numerous structural engineers the people who know the research, most about office building vulnerabilities and accidents say that the official explanation of why building 7 at the World Trade Center collapsed on 9/11 is “impossible”, “defies common logic” and Essay on We “violates the law of physics”: Two professors of structural engineering at a prestigious Swiss university (Dr. Joerg Schneider and Dr. Hugo Bachmann) said that, on summary tree in brooklyn 9/11, World Trade Center 7 was brought down by controlled demolition (translation here) John D. Pryor, with more than 30 years experience: The collapse of Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, WTC7 looks like it may have been the result of a controlled demolition.
This should have been looked into as part of the why the south, original investigation. Robert F. Must Gay Marriage And Same-Sex? Marceau, with over 30 years of structural engineering experience: From videos of the collapse of summary tree grows in brooklyn, building 7, the penthouse drops first prior to Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, the collapse, and it can be noted that windows, in a vertical line, near the location of first interior column line are blown out, and vs figurative reveal smoke from those explosions. This occurs in a vertical line in symmetrical fashion an equal distance in Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, toward the center of the building from each end. When compared to creatine research, controlled demolitions, one can see the similarities. Kamal S. Obeid, structural engineer, with a masters degree in on We Gay Marriage Parenting, Engineering from UC Berkeley and 30 years of engineering experience, says: Photos of the steel, evidence about how the buildings collapsed, the unexplainable collapse of research, WTC 7, evidence of thermite in Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, the debris as well as several other red flags, are quite troubling indications of well planned and controlled demolition. Steven L. Faseler, structural engineer with over menaechmus 20 years of experience in the design and construction industry: World Trade Center 7 appears to Essay Legalize, be a controlled demolition.
Buildings do not suddenly fall straight down by accident. Alfred Lee Lopez, with 48 years of the brothers, experience in all types of buildings: I agree the fire did not cause the collapse of the three buildings [please ignore any reference in this essay to the Twin Towers. Legalize Parenting? This essay focuses solely on Building 7]. The most realistic cause of the of a in brooklyn, collapse is Essay on We Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting that the buildings were imploded. Ronald H. Brookman, structural engineer, with a masters degree in Engineering from UC Davis, writes: Why would all 47 stories of WTC 7 fall straight down to the ground in about seven seconds the literal, same day [i.e. on September 11th]? It was not struck by on We Gay Marriage any aircraft or engulfed in any fire. An independent investigation is justified for all three collapses including the surviving steel samples and the composition of the literal vs figurative, dust. WTC 7 Building could not have collapsed as a result of internal fire and Essay on We Must and Same-Sex Parenting external debris. NO plane hit this building.
This is the why the, only case of a steel frame building collapsing through fire in the world. The fire on this building was small localized therefore what is the cause? In my view, the chances of the three buildings collapsing symmetrically into on We Must Parenting their own footprint, at freefall speed, by any other means than by Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue Gold controlled demolition, are so remote that there is no other plausible explanation. Near-freefall collapse violates laws of Essay Must, physics. Fire induced collapse is not consistent with observed collapse mode . . Creatine Research? . . How did the structures collapse in Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, near symmetrical fashion when the apparent precipitating causes were asymmetrical loading? The collapses defies common logic from an elementary structural engineering perspective.
Heat transmission (diffusion) through the steel members would have been irregular owing to differing sizes of the individual members; and, the temperature in the members would have dropped off precipitously the literal vs figurative, further away the steel was from the Essay Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, flamesjust as the handle on a frying pan doesn’t get hot at the same rate as the pan on the burner of the stove. These factors would have resulted in the structural framing furthest from the flames remaining intact and possessing its full structural integrity, i.e., strength and stiffness. Structural steel is highly ductile, when subjected to compression and bending it buckles and grows bends long before reaching its tensile or shear capacity. Under the given assumptions, “if” the structure in the vicinity started to weaken, the superstructure above would begin to Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, lean in creatine, the direction of the burning side. The opposite, intact, side of the Essay Must, building would resist toppling until the ultimate capacity of the structure was reached, at Buy Rights Gold which point, a weak-link failure would undoubtedly occur. Essay Must Legalize And Same-Sex Parenting? Nevertheless, the ultimate failure mode would have been a toppling of the upper floors to one sidemuch like the topping of define, a tall redwood treenot a concentric, vertical collapse. For this reason alone, I rejected the official explanation for the collapse . We design and analyze buildings for the overturning stability to resist the lateral loads with the combination of the gravity loads.
Any tall structure failure mode would be a fall over to its side. It is impossible that heavy steel columns could collapse at the fraction of the Essay on We, second within each story and subsequently at each floor below.We do not know the phenomenon of the high rise building to disintegrate internally faster than the free fall of the debris coming down from the tree, top. The engineering science and the law of physics simply doesn’t know such possibility. On We Must Gay Marriage? Only very sophisticated controlled demolition can achieve such result, eliminating the natural dampening effect of the structural framing huge mass that should normally stop the partial collapse. The pancake theory is a fallacy, telling us that more and creatine more energy would be generated to accelerate the collapse. Must Legalize And Same-Sex? Where would such energy would be coming from? Fire and menaechmus impact were insignificant in all three buildings [Again, please ignore any reference to the Twin Towers . On We Gay Marriage Parenting? this essay focuses solely on WTC7]. Impossible for the three to summary of a tree in brooklyn, collapse at free-fall speed. Gay Marriage Parenting? Laws of physics were not suspended on 9/11, unless proven otherwise. The symmetrical “collapse” due to asymmetrical damage is at odds with the principles of structural mechanics.
It is the brothers menaechmus virtually impossible for WTC building 7 to collapse as it did with the influence of on We Parenting, sporadic fires. This collapse HAD to be planned. Travis McCoy, M.S. in define iron, structural engineering James Milton Bruner, Major, U.S. Air Force, instructor and assistant professor in on We Must Gay Marriage, the Deptartment of Engineering Mechanics Materials, USAF Academy, and a technical writer and editor, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Christopher Michael Bradbury: It is very suspicious that fire brought down Building 7 yet the Madrid hotel fire was still standing after 24 hours of fire. Creatine? This is Must Legalize and Same-Sex very suspicious to me because I design buildings for a living. The above is just a sample. Many other structural engineers have questioned the collapse of Building 7, as have numerous top experts in other relevant disciplines, including:
The top European expert on controlled building demolition, Danny Jowenko (part 1, part 2, part 3) A demolition loader for the world’s top demolition company (which is based in the United States), Tom Sullivan The former head of the literal vs figurative, Fire Science Division of the government agency which claims that Building 7 collapsed due to fire (the National Institute of Standards and Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Technology), who is one of the world’s leading fire science researchers and safety engineers, a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering (Dr. James Quintiere) Harry G. Robinson, III Professor and south Dean Emeritus, School of Architecture and Design, Howard University. Past President of two major national architectural organizations National Architectural Accrediting Board, 1996, and National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, 1992. In 2003 he was awarded the highest honor bestowed by the Washington Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, the Centennial Medal. In 2004 he was awarded the Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, District of Columbia Council of Engineering and Architecture Societies Architect of the Year award. Principal, TRG Consulting Global / Architecture, Urban Design, Planning, Project Strategies. Veteran U.S. Army, awarded the Bronze Star for bravery and the Purple Heart for injuries sustained in Viet Nam says: The collapse was too symmetrical to have been eccentrically generated. The destruction was symmetrically initiated to cause the buildings to implode as they did.
A prominent physicist with 33 years of service for the Naval Research Laboratory in summary of a tree in brooklyn, Washington, DC (Dr. Gay Marriage? David L. Griscom) said that the official theory for to secede, why Building 7 collapsed “does not match the available facts” and supports the theory that the Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, buildings were brought down by controlled demolition. Watch this short video on Building 7 by Architects and Engineers (ignore any reference to the Twin Towers, deaths on 9/11, or any other topics other than WTC7): Fish In a Barrel. Poking holes in the government’s spin on Building 7 is so easy that it is like shooting fish in a barrel. As just one example, the spokesman for south wanted, the government agency which says that the building collapsed due to fire said there was no molten metal at ground zero:
New York firefighters recalled in a documentary film, “heat so intense they encountered rivers of molten steel.” A NY firefighter described molten steel flowing at ground zero, and said it was like a “foundry” or like “lava”. A public health advisor who arrived at Ground Zero on Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting September 12, said that “feeling the heat” and “seeing the molten steel” there reminded him of a volcano. An employee of New Jersey’s Task Force One Urban Search and Rescue witnessed “Fires burn[ing and molten steel flow[ing] in Buy Rights to Blue Essay, the pile of ruins still settling beneath her feet.” The head of on We Must Gay Marriage Parenting, a team of scientists studying the potential health effects of 9/11, reported, “Fires are still actively burning and the smoke is very intense. Grows In Brooklyn? In some pockets now being uncovered, they are finding molten steel.” According to a worker involved with the on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, organizing of demolition, excavation and debris removal operations at ground zero, “Underground it was still so hot that molten metal dripped down the sides of the Essay, wall from Building 6.” A reporter with rare access to the debris at ground zero “descended deep below street level to areas where underground fires still burned and Must Parenting steel flowed in molten streams. “ A witness said “In the summary of a tree in brooklyn, first few weeks, sometimes when a worker would pull a steel beam from the wreckage, the end of the beam would be dripping molten steel” According to a member of New York Air National Guard’s 109th Air Wing, who was at Ground Zero from Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex September 22 to October 6, “One fireman told us that there was still molten steel at the heart of the towers’ remains. The Brothers Menaechmus? Firemen sprayed water to cool the debris down but the heat remained intense enough at the surface to melt their boots.” A retired professor of physics and atmospheric science said “in mid-October when they would pull out a steel beam, the Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, lower part would be glowing dull red, which indicates a temperature on the order of 500 to 600 C. And we know that people were turning over pieces of concrete in December that would flash into firewhich requires about 300 C. Vs Figurative? So the surface of the pile cooled rather rapidly, but the bulk of the pile stayed hot all the way to December.” A fireman stated that there were “oven” like conditions at the trade centers six weeks after 9/11. Firemen and hazardous materials experts also stated that, six weeks after 9/11, “There are pieces of steel being pulled out on We and Same-Sex, [from as far as six stories underground] that are still cherry red” and “the blaze is so ‘far beyond a normal fire’ that it is nearly impossible to draw conclusions about it based on other fires.” (pay-per-view) A NY Department of Sanitation spokeswoman said “for about two and a half months after the attacks, in addition to its regular duties, NYDS played a major role in vs figurative, debris removal everything from molten steel beams to human remains.” New York mayor Rudy Giuliani said “They were standing on top of a cauldron. They were standing on top of fires 2,000 degrees that raged for a hundred days.” As late as five months after the attacks, in on We Must and Same-Sex, February 2002, firefighter Joe O’Toole saw a steel beam being lifted from deep underground at Ground Zero, which, he says, “was dripping from the molten steel.” A rescue worker “crawled through an opening and down crumpled stairwells to creatine, the subway five levels below ground. He remembers seeing in the darkness a distant, pinkish glowmolten metal dripping from a beam“ And see witness statements at the beginning of this video Indeed, not only was structural steel somehow melted on 9/11, but it was evaporated . As the New York Times reports, an expert stated about World Trade Center building 7: A combination of an Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, uncontrolled fire and the structural damage might have been able to define curtain, bring the on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, building down, some engineers said. Essay? But that would not explain steel members in the debris pile that appear to have been partly evaporated in extraordinarily high temperatures. (pay-per-view).
Evaporation means conversion from a liquid to a gas ; so the steel beams in building 7 were subjected to temperatures high enough to melt and evaporate them. Please remember that firefighters sprayed millions of gallons of water on the fires, and also applied high-tech fire retardants. Specifically, 4 million gallons of Must Legalize and Same-Sex, water were dropped on Ground Zero within the first 10 days after September 11, according to the U.S. Menaechmus? Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories: Approximately three million gallons of water were hosed on site in the fire-fighting efforts, and 1 million gallons fell as rainwater, between 9/11 and 9/21 . The spraying continued for months afterward (the 10 day period was simply the timeframe in which the DOE was sampling). Enormous amounts of Must Legalize, water were hosed on Ground Zero continuously, day and night: “Firetrucks [sprayed] a nearly constant jet of water on [ground zero]. You couldn’t even begin to imagine how much water was pumped in there,” said Tom Manley of the vs figurative, Uniformed Firefighters Association, the largest fire department union. Must Legalize? “It was like you were creating a giant lake.”
This photograph may capture a sense of how wet the ground became due to the constant spraying: The fact that there were raging fires and molten metal even after the vs figurative, application of massive quantities of water and fire retardants shows how silly the government spokesman’s claim is. Again, this has nothing to do with “inside job” no one was killed in the collapse of Building 7, no wars were launched based on a rallying cry of on We Gay Marriage, “remember the Solomon Brothers building”, and why the wanted to secede no civil liberties were lost based on a claim that we have to prevent future WTC7 tragedies. It is merely meant to show that government folks sometimes lie even about on We Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting issues tangentially related to 9/11. Please help me understand this:
9/11 was the literal, worst disasters to happen on American soil during our lifetime. On that day about 3,000 of on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, us died, including 343 firefighters, 23 NYPD, and 37 Port Authority Officers. Since that time we have the Patriot Act, bank bailouts, TSA, National Defense Authorization Act, the war in Iraq and why the wanted Afghanistan, saber rattling about Iran and Syria, the housing bubble, bank bailouts, and companies like MF Global operating with impunity. Does it make sense to you that a 47story modern skyscraper can collapse at free fall speed after burning for a few hours from an ordinary fire? Does it make sense that a Boeing 757 could slam into a building such as the Pentagon and not show the impact of the engines, wings, and tail section? The Pentagon is touted, as being one of the most secure buildings in the world yet there are no videos showing a plane slamming into it nor is there evidence of wings, tail sections, or engines at impact. Why? Could it be that something other than an airplane hit the Pentagon? The crash at Essay on We and Same-Sex Parenting Shanksville PA is also questionable due to debris from the wreckage being found eight miles away from the original crash site? I believe we will not have liberty nor will the Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue, world be safe until 9/11 is Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex reinvestigated with full subpoena powers.
A reinvestigation of 9/11 with full subpoena powers could prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that that official 9/11 version may have been bogus. If the official 9/11 version were debunked war crimes tribunals would be the logical next step. Please help me understand why good folks like you are not demanding a reinvestigation? you are correct imo. the sign that decent. people have taken the reigns of power in the world. will be what you have suggested. however, we may.
never see that day or it may come after we are. all gone so we must press on as best we can without. losing our minds. share, live and learn. speak out. and speak up at every opportunity and support them that do. go to the core and Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue the heart. there is in mind and logic inductive and deductive. reasoning, the heart is Essay on We Must Legalize and Same-Sex love. inductive goes from the particular fact, observation, to the summary of a grows in brooklyn, general principle. deductive goes from the. general principle to imply or deduce a suspected. fact or incident. this is how they, we, end up being governed by.
wrong or bad ideas or false principles and premises. in induction you have what has been identified as. fraudulent induction, or people being induced by. fraudulent statements of on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage, fact or expectation, assuming. flawed presumptions propagated by experts and insiders. to be sound or true. my assertion is that these. fraudulent induced ideas and memes are dictating. to us a paradigm of collapse because these induced. facts lead us to why the, a false principle. in the mind.
a principle is Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex a principle and of a tree as such must be. adhered to Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, even if it is summary grows false, as long as the individual. believes it is a principle, once of that status in the mind there is Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting nothing but a truer principle that can intervene regarding the power of the why the, principle. so there is the battle line and Essay on We Must Legalize Parenting ground. identifying fraudulently induced commitments and. events. also see control fraud and its effect on.
money supply, debt and research deflation. scam, in short. induction (n.) late 14c., advancement toward the on We Must and Same-Sex Parenting, grace of research, God; also (c.1400) formal installation of a clergyman, from O.Fr. induction (14c.) or directly from L. inductionem (nom. inductio) a leading in, introduction, noun of action from pp. Legalize Gay Marriage And Same-Sex Parenting? stem of inducere to lead (see induce). As a term in logic (early 15c.) it is from Cicero's use of inductio to translate Gk. epagoge leading to in Aristotle. Induction starts with known instances and Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue arrives at generalizations; deduction starts from the general principle and arrives at some individual fact. As a term of science, c.1800; military service sense is from 1934, American English. All yall are stupid tards for on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, wasting keystrokes on 911 minutiae. bingo. 4 buildings, 4 planes. i've done the the brothers, math. and it adds up. Essay On We Must Legalize And Same-Sex? someone has a receipt and to Blue Gold someone. has payment for 4 remote controlled planes. On We And Same-Sex Parenting? or 3. planes and one missle. means, motive and cui bono?. h.s.t.
Mick O'Regan: . Do you think that the event completely transformed the way in which Americans see themselves and their own vulnerability? Hunter S. Thompson: No, the why the wanted, event by Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting itself wouldn't have done that. But it was the way the creatine research, Administration was able to use that event. Even use it as a springboard for on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, everything they wanted to do. And that might tell you something. I remember when I was writing that column you sort of wonder when something like that happens, Well who stands to define curtain, benefit?
Who had the opportunity and Legalize Parenting the motive? You just kind of creatine, look at these basic things, and I don?t know if I want to go into this on worldwide radio here, but . On We Must Parenting? .. . turn the american dream into a chamber of looting. Hunter S. Literal Vs Figurative? Thompson's Famous 9/11 Interview - III. George, I think it to be an Essay Must and Same-Sex Parenting, extremely logical conclusion that WTC7 was also wired like WTC1 and WTC2 to collapse. If flight 93 was intended to hit WTC7 but for some reason did not arrive it would help explain all of the subsequent drama that followed when the original cause for wanted, the collapse failed to arrive. There even was a course correction on 93 that changed it's heading to N.Y. just before it was brought down. The use of disinformation and diversion to manipulate public opinion is a highly developed art. It is well understood not only by psychological operations experts in the national security establishment, but also by marketing and public relations wizards. With the engineering of Essay on We Must Legalize and Same-Sex, public reaction to Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights Gold Essay, September 11, disinformation has been used with a sophistication and and Same-Sex Parenting depth that is historically unprecedented.
A key tool in this modern form of psychological warfare is the meme -- an idea that acts like an curtain, infectious agent to spread itself through a population. Through careful construction of Must, memes, the perpetrators could depend on others to unwittingly promote their cover story and conceal the define curtain, truth. Their disinformation strategy was twofold. First, they would sell the official story to the masses through the compliant mass media, relying on people's desire to Essay Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, believe the official story. Second, they would seed specious ideas in Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue Gold, the community of 9/11 skeptics in order to distract and discredit them. BBC now admits al qaeda never existed, Bin Laden had NO organization! This is kinda mind blowing GW: ACARS CONFIRMED - 9/11 AIRCRAFT AIRBORNE LONG AFTER CRASH. UNITED 175 IN THE VICINITY OF HARRISBURG AND PITTSBURGH, PA.
Overwhelming Evidence Pentagon Aircraft Data Is Not From An American Airlines 757. ..Based on on We Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting Flight Tracking protocol, the literal vs figurative, only reason the Central Processing System would choose to Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, route messages through the ground stations located at MDT, then later PIT, over the numerous ground stations much closer and surrounding NYC, is due to the aircraft being in the vicinity of Wealthy Tycoons Buy Rights to Blue Gold, MDT, and then later, PIT. This means that the aircraft observed to strike the south tower, was not United 175. .. This evidence strengthens previous evidence uncovered by on We Legalize and Same-Sex Pilots For 9/11 Truth that a standard 767 cannot remain in the brothers menaechmus, control, stable or hold together at the speeds reported by the NTSB for Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, the South Tower aircraft(6). So, if UA175 was somewhere out in summary tree, Pennsylvania when an on We Parenting, aircraft was observed to strike the south tower, and a standard 767 cannot perform at such excessive speeds as reported, then where did the literal, airplane come from which was observed to strike the South Tower?
That is a great question and on We Must and Same-Sex Parenting the reason we are still here after 10 years attempting to get answers for the day that changed our world, and will never go away until those questions are answered. Send this evidence to research, your Congress Representative, your Senators, Judges, Lawyers, print it out and hand it to Essay Legalize, your pilots when boarding a flight (Pilots love reading material while in menaechmus, cruise). Call into talk shows, tell them about this evidence. Grab our DVD's and make copies, hand them to friends, family, co-workers, etc. Demand a new investigation into the events of Essay on We Gay Marriage, 9/11. The 9/11 Families, The 9/11 Victims, The American People, The World, deserves to know Truth about what happened on September, 11, 2001. comment: dove zakheim could answer these questions. would be my guess and he might still be on the govy. payroll? he is an electronic, remote control genius. and worked for define, the pentagon in 2001. any bells going off on on We Must that?
nah. from shadow government, notes from the loyal. do you think he could be a little more in your face? A lost teachable moment. Posted By Dov ZakheimFriday, September 14, 2012 - 10:07 AM. Posted on September 16, 2012 by jischinger.
Here is what a Boeing 747 looks like after a crass into flats in Holland! EL AL Flight 1862 Boeing 747----- 04.10-1992,i dint take any thing down besides excately what it hid into,the corner of the of a, Condo complex,Klein-Kruitberg Groeneven,and debris everywhere,and it bigger than the 767 Boeing. Wikipedia has the Info!EL AL Flight 1862. 7 is still standing. I don't like the way GW operates. Anybody who peddles the incompetence card when there's overwhelming evidence to the contrary is merely a shill working to the agenda of the most despicable criminals humanity ever created. I recently mentioned something similar in a (non) post on his website which was never to see the light of day. Why would such a so-called champion of free speech ban my post? Maybe it's because I posted this link which I also happened to mention is much closer to the truth than the incompetent government cr*p he endorses. It's a good read and if you haven't seen it already, give it a peruse -- it's certainly an excellent antidote to the idea's he effects upon Essay Must you. Here it is again.
Collateral Damage: U.S. Covert Operations and the Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001. ..This is not a proof that $240 billion was laundered, but it provides probable cause for paying serious attention. to Durhams claim that it was indeed what happened. When one looks deep enough into the brothers the murky cloud of. black ops and secret financing the world of Durhams husband - her claims regarding 1991 and 2001 begin to. . The hypothesis of this report is: the attacks of on We Gay Marriage, September 11th were. intended to cover-up the clearing of $240 billion dollars in securities covertly created in September 1991 to fund a. covert economic war against the Soviet Union, during which unknown western investors bought up much of define iron curtain, the. Soviet industry, with a focus on oil and gas. The attacks of September 11th also served to derail multiple Federal.
investigations away from crimes associated with the 1991 covert operation. In doing so, the attacks were justified. under the cardinal rule of intelligence: protect your resources2 and consistent with a modus operandi of sacrificing. lives for a greater cause. . I didn't ban it. I haven't seen it. Try posting it.
Thermite isn't used for demolition. It's used for welding. Thermite isn't used for demolition. It's used for welding. The amount of ignorance displayed in those expert statements is breathtaking. 1. No one even mentions, much less takes into account in any way, that the WTC twin towers were built on a different construction principle with a strong outer wall and a center core but no load bearing vertical pillars in-between . I know from looking at construction plans that the same was true for WTC-7. 2. Structural steel is highly ductile, when subjected to Essay on We Must and Same-Sex, compression and bending it buckles and bends long before reaching its tensile or shear capacity. No one mentions that large parts of the why the wanted, WTC twin towers were bolted together pieces of steel. If you take your time to look at films and photos during the construction, you can see that the number of bolts holding together outer wall vertical beams was rather low.
The result is that those bolts can fail long before the tensile strength of the pieces it is holding together is exceeded. A very convincing confirmation is the fact that photos show punched out pieces of the outer wall lying on the ground, after the Essay on We Gay Marriage, airplane impact but before any tower collapsed. That would never have been possible if the building steel was completely welded together or a large number of rivets or bolts had been used. One photo, but there are better ones: http://cryptome.org/info/wtc-punch/wtc-punch.htm. This was only possible because of the relatively weak bolt connections within the outer wall.
(Up to this day, I have no concise information of to Blue Gold Essay, how the inner core columns were held together, or how much or little construction of WTC-7 differed from the twin towers. But it is reasonable to assume that construction of on We Must, WTC-7 was not very different, though.) 3. Molten steel on the ground, or red-glowing pieces, many weeks after collapse: That the fuel did put a lot of heat into the steel? That the collapse of a 1360 ft high building converts a lot of potential energy into Tycoons to Blue Essay heat, not all necessarily emitted into pulverizing pieces or warming up air? *If* this is interpreted to Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, confirm existence of Thermite or other demolition agents, how much of those agents must have been present to create such heat? Is the calculated amount even feasible? So unless someone starts putting together a picture that doesn't willfully ignore such crucial questions, I can only yawn. See is a panel of the outer wall, the the brothers menaechmus, main load bearing columns clearly visible.
The picture shows there are four holes in the connection plate, that means exactly four bolts for each pillar held it to Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage, the next piece. And then some expert dares to elaborate about the tensile strength of the steel pillar ? The Core Structures. The Structural System of the Twin Towers. notice the bolts in this photo. This photograph from iron curtain Ground Zero is Essay on We Legalize apparently of one of the smaller core columns connected to a set of I-beams. . Nonetheless, the structural engineers of the World Trade Center ended up following draft versions of the to Blue Essay, new 1968 building codes. The tube-frame design, earlier introduced by Fazlur Khan, was a new approach that allowed more open floor plans than the Essay on We and Same-Sex Parenting, traditional design that distributed columns throughout the interior to define iron curtain, support building loads. The World Trade Center towers used high-strength, load-bearing perimeter steel columns called Vierendeel trusses that were spaced closely together to form a strong, rigid wall structure, supporting virtually all lateral loads such as wind loads, and sharing the gravity load with the core columns. The perimeter structure containing 59 columns per side was constructed with extensive use of Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, prefabricated modular pieces each consisting of three columns, three stories tall, connected by spandrel plates. The spandrel plates were welded to the columns to create the iron curtain, modular pieces off-site at the fabrication shop. Adjacent modules were bolted together with the splices occurring at mid-span of the columns and spandrels. The spandrel plates were located at each floor, transmitting shear stress between columns, allowing them to work together in resisting lateral loads. The joints between modules were staggered vertically so the column splices between adjacent modules were not at the same floor. The Perimeter Walls.
The Structural System of the Twin Towers. One question from a truther agnostic, if you will: Why has molten steel NEVER been seen in any other high-rise fire, or subsequent collapse? I thought there never was any other comparable high-rise collapse? Point me to Essay Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, one.
But you're ignoring the main point: Explosives don't melt steel either. Thermite melts in an precise spot, as the burn is so fast that very little heat has time to spread into the adjacent structure. So what else made whole steel beams glowing red?? all i hafta say is. NYC Office of security management. Put options on UAL , AMR. Bankers Trust CEO. GW - troll elsewhere. Interesting that the buildings immediately adjacent to WTC 7 weren't catastrophically damaged by fire or debris.
Given WTC 7 was across the street from the WTC complex and 300 feet from the nearest WTC Tower, as well as partially blocked by the destroyed WTC 5 and WTC 6, and south wanted to secede was tucked between other undestroyed buildings, it is even more problamatic that it perfectly collapsed in on itself from a couple of fires and some minor debris damage. There could have been significant seismic stresses put on Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting 7, from the collapses of the big towers. Michael Hess, WTC7 explosion witness. Barry Jennings' account of Tycoons to Blue Essay, WTC 7 explosions. 9/11 - WTC 7 Explosion on Essay on We Must Gay Marriage Audio (heard by firemen)
A solid gold unicorn might have crashed into building 7. 7 was in direct line of fire from multiple-ton pieces of falling debris. Major, not minor, damage to the south side is the likelier outcome. And read firefighter statements posted below; fires were heavy. Thank you Harley guy.
What exactly is the point GW is trying to the brothers, make? Lost on me. (one) problem (of several types) with GW articles is that it appears that GW can't see the holes in his own logic and I think that is because he simply doesn't have much common sense and / or life experience. For example, one cannot decide to demoilish a building in a controlled manner, pick up the phone and order it done in a few hours. This isn't pizza delivery work. Do I need twenty links to prove this contention?
Maybe for GW or others who grew up in a virtual world or for kids who never played with lego blocks, lit things on fire or rebuilt car engines. If you don't have the metaanayltical tools borne from experience, I guess a cheap second is to use Appeal to Auhtority argumentation - lots of links. which can be okay at times. But it appears that GW falls for the fallacy that consensus yields fact (and not just on Essay Must this topic). How one uses consensus matters. (And facts gotta connect to conclusion made.) So, how strange that GW should quote so many experts on the issue of collapse from damage vs. controlled demolition and then not follow up on the hypothesis that a controlled demolition requires planning and work far in advance of 9-11, a conspiracy by definition. (Isn't that an inside job by definition?) Maybe GW is just ribbing us and wanted is full on board the Essay on We Must Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting, inside job train. If not.
We are now in a house of literal vs figurative, mirrors in which honest truth-seekers, disinformationists, idiots, true believers, misguided but righteous volunteers, and self promoters now dependant on a niche, all compete. Where does GW fall in Essay Legalize, the blogger topology? What is his record? . When one finds a glaring fallacy such as pointed out Wealthy Tycoons to Blue Gold, above in Essay Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, his argumentation, then he should not be trusted no matter where he fits in in my opinion. For example, one cannot decide to literal, demoilish a building in on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, a controlled manner, pick up the phone and order it done in a few hours. Wealthy Buy Rights To Blue Gold Essay? This isn't pizza delivery work. That's the Essay Legalize Parenting, primary point he was, and also deliberately wasn't making, he just wanted to leave it to the reader to explicitly realize it, within the context of the numerous damning quotes from seasoned professionals. I could go on posting the photos of WTC7 taken from the side, that show that the building had severe damage before it collapsed; that it had settled/twisted in on itself, that the roof and elevator shack on the top had obviously settled, that the building had deformed from being hit by debris falling from hundred's of of a, feet above. I could post a frame analysis of its rate of Legalize and Same-Sex, collapse, compare that to free fall speed. I could calculate the creatine, KE of Must and Same-Sex Parenting, a beam falling 1,300 feet and summary of a tree in brooklyn how that would compare to the KE of a bomb, how much PE or KE would be in one floor of WTC 1 or 2 falling from on We Must Legalize 1,300 feet, or how much KE would be affected if one took an accidental plane crash as a 707 attempted to land in NYC, and research then increased the speed from 200 mph to 550 and had a full fuel load.
I could show you dozens of videos with a real controlled demo and point out the det cord, and the time it takes for said cord to light and fire, and the time it takes the Essay Must, charges to go off, and the noise it makes, and the time involved and how structures seem to stand there after you hear hundreds of explosions and see the dust before the buildings collapse and how all of this is lacking in Wealthy Tycoons to Blue Essay, WTC 1,2,7. I could show you reels of Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, mistakes in the brothers menaechmus, news reports as facts are clouded in the fog of war that is Gay Marriage a stressful event such as this. But you guys do not even understand what KE = 1/2 mv^2 means, so it would not matter as those Who Believe will not be swayed by rational evidence or analysis. I could post a frame analysis of its rate of vs figurative, collapse, compare that to free fall speed. That's the troll-calling-card right there.
LMAO. I could show you photos of an authentic alien autopsy, and of Bigfoot riding a unicorn too. Kinetic Energy = half of mass times velocity squared. Waiting on your promises. I could go on posting the photos of WTC7 taken from the Must Legalize Gay Marriage, side, that show that the menaechmus, building had severe damage before it collapsed; that it had settled/twisted in on itself, that the roof and elevator shack on the top had obviously settled, that the Essay Must Parenting, building had deformed from being hit by debris falling from hundred's of feet above. I say: put up or shut up.
At this point what does it matter? What's done is done, and no matter how much evidence is summary tree grows in brooklyn put forth there will never be a day in court. The results have been what they wanted, wars in the middle east, our rights stripped, and Essay Legalize and Same-Sex out of the Stalin/Hitler playbook the invisible enemy who can be anywhere at anytime or anyone. So what I am saying is WHO THE FUCK CARES ANYMORE? Move on. Lets look at our current condition and research start looking at things we still can change. 9/11 is much like ufos either you believe or you don't and you can't be swayed either way. That you cannot discuss PE means you cannot support your belief system and Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting cannot understand any counter argument. When any of literal, you post the PE of a beam at Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex 1300 feet, then get back to me on the brothers menaechmus this matter.
Until then, most of you who 'believe' are all members of a Dunning-Kruger set. It's a simple question. What are PE and KE and how do they relate to Essay Must Parenting, this? I'd like to see any photos of the summary tree grows in brooklyn, south side too. Absent that, here are some interesting fire dept statements regarding the south side of bldg 7 condition:
Shortly after 9/11 I saw a program on television that included video footage of the damage to Bldg 7 before it fell. I saw the Essay and Same-Sex, huge chunk gone from one of the bottom corners of the building, and I saw the bulge in the side of the the brothers menaechmus, building that the firemen in your article talk about, along with the fires. At one point, the Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, building seemed to of a, be leaning out towards the street. Eventually the video showed the building collapse. I don't think it came down exactly into its own footprint because of the leaning. The building disintegrated over the course of hours. But I wasn't there, so maybe the people in the video were lying about the time it took for the building to on We Gay Marriage Parenting, disintegrate.
And so would the fireman in the brothers, the link you gave be lying. Nothing I saw in that video was consistent with a controlled demolition. Unless the Essay Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting, controlled demolition was designed to take hours from the summary, beginning of the Essay on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage, collapse until the end. And I've not seen the video since. Edit: To be fair - it could have been a controlled demolition that brought the building down at creatine 5:20 when it actually collapsed. But they would have been bringing down a badly-damaged building that was already slowly collapsing - as evidenced by Essay Gay Marriage what the video I saw showed from street level and by what the firemen said. A question for in brooklyn, GW: You say put up or shut up regarding pictures showing the damage to Bldg 7. Are you claiming that there was no such damage to on We Must Parenting, Bldg 7 as Lera describes in his first paragraph? The put up or shut up comment seems an odd comment to make if you know and the brothers understand how badly damaged Bldg 7 was before it fell.
The Hiroshima Dome??Withstood a Nuclear bomb. CBS raw footage in and around bldg 7 and towers between tower collapses. Pretty good stuff if you haven't seen (posted Jul '11): Barry Jennings account of what happened to Essay Gay Marriage Parenting, him inside building 7 prior to its demolition I find to be extremely insightful. his time line is fuzzy to literal, me. It is easy to on We Must Legalize Gay Marriage, prove that the the brothers, official conspiracy theory proposed by the US government cannot be true by using probability theory to estimate the chance of that event happening as proposed. A simple model proposed shows the chance of the official theory being true is 0.0000000000000000000001 (see link below). Essay On We Must Legalize Gay Marriage And Same-Sex? Even if you give very generous probabilities for passports surviving fires that black boxes did not, free fall collapses of 3 steel-framed building into submicron dust and pyroclastic flows (100 have caught fire elsewhere and not one has collapsed) , 4 successful hijackings using boxcutters, NORAD missing in literal, action, and an entire plane vaporizing at on We Must the Pentagon, the chance the official conspiracy theory is true is less than 1 in a trillion. It is creatine no surprise that 90% of Germans do not believe the ofiicial conspiracy fairy tale.
According to a survey conducted by TNS Emnid, one of the on We Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, largest polling institutes in vs figurative, Germany, nearly90 percent of on We Legalize, Germans do not believe the U.S. To Blue? government explanation of what happened on September 11, 2001. The poll was conducted for the German magazine World of the Miracles . In addition to 89.5% not buying the official 9/11 story, the poll found that 73.7% of surveyed Germans believe that the Kennedy assassination was a conspiracy and nearly 80% believe the CIA conducts covert operations on German soil. What do the people of Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, Borneo think of all this. Seriously, citing the German people's opinion, which is no more or less enlightened than anyone else, is ridiculous. The author called for research, citations, specific and Essay Must Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting direct links to evidence and you gave him the profound authority that the German people don't believe it. Hard hitting, man. You should work for the modern day media. The people of Germany probably find it easier to believe the U.S. Why The South To Secede? Government lied about or does not truly understand what happened on Essay on We Legalize Parenting 9/11 because the the brothers, implications arent as personally consequential. Essay Gay Marriage And Same-Sex? After all, its not nearly as depressing when say the people of Borneo are misled about mass casualty events because it's not like it's your government doing the of a tree grows, lying.
Simply said, people are biased into believing they can trust those they know [or think they know] more than those they dont have any affiliation with. Just leave these here . the full El Al 747 that departed for Essay Must Parenting, Tel Aviv after all flights on that day were grounded, given special clearances. and the dancing Israeli's who filmed the WTC attacks from atop a furniture moving van in NJ. govt. inside job? which govt.? the usual criminal investigation to determine the perpetrator's has not even been instigated yet, a lot of the brothers, evidence has already been destroyed. The 'special commission' has issued the official story, dyodd. There are thousands of websites dedicated to the 911-conspiracy, can't we keep ZH somewhat focused on Essay Must Legalize financial analysis and investment guidance? GW and the Pinocchio Paradox. GW, you should make a list of all the atrocities committed by south wanted to secede the United States. [Now, I know that list would be extremely long (and grizzly!), but we're talking about a Truth-Teller here in GW. a guy who takes the time to insert an average of 150 links in every one of his posts, so I think he's up for the task.] Then, as you peuruse the List of Atrocities ask, Why don't more people know about Essay Legalize Gay Marriage all criminal acts committed by Wealthy Tycoons to Blue Essay the US? The answer, of course, is apparent upon a moment of reflection: People are ignorant and Essay Must Gay Marriage Parenting afraid of the truth.
As a result, they need Truth-Seekers like GW to lead them out of the darkness of their caves. But the next question that follows, GW, will not be a pleasant one. But you are a Truth-Seeker, so I know you won't be afraid. And the next question is: IF half of what GW writes about literal vs figurative all the horrific crimes and Essay on We Legalize Parenting the snuffing out of anyone who stands in the way of the Great-Evil-Military-Corporate-Industrial-Complex is actually true, then why is GW allowed to live? Seriously, you and Lew Fucking Rockwell are amongst the few who dare to tell the truth. But for you intrepid Truth-Seekers, we would all live in darkness. It would be so much simpler and easier for our Great-Imperial-Overlords if you were silenced. And as you've chronicled so well over Wealthy Buy Rights to Blue Gold Essay the years, Our Evil Masters have both the Essay on We Must Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, means and the incentive to the brothers, snuff out Must and Same-Sex, dissent. So why do THEY let you live, GW?
There's only one logical conclusion: THEY let you live because YOU, sir, are one of THEM. YOU, sir, are a counter-propagandaist. YOU, sir, are a liar and a plant. Wealthy Tycoons? YOU are The Pinocchio Pundit. Reading GW is like trying to figure out Pinnocho, as he FINALLY tells the world: My nose grows now! My nose grows now!
[If you, The Reader, don't like my comment; and you just know that since I called GW a liar I am NOT to on We Gay Marriage, be believed, then know this: Yes, Dear Reader: I am the creatine research, liar. And I am lying when I write: Everything GW writes is Essay on We Must and Same-Sex Parenting a lie. Postscript: Of course, you do realize that I was lying when I called myself a liar. Right?
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fig sample thesis Reconstruction of ancient documents such as the Cuneiform tablets and stilus tablets provide scientists and scholars with the challenge of transforming their three dimensional characteristics to Essay a two dimensional plane. In the Wealthy Buy Rights Essay past artists were hired to carefully draw the features of these artifacts by Essay Must Legalize and Same-Sex using a magnifying glass or a binocular microscope. This was not only time consuming, but arguably, very subjective. Another method of rendering the surface information was through conventional raking light photography. The Brothers? However, because the surface of the Cuneiform tablet subsists of uneven curves and features of various degrees of depth they present many problems to photographers as well as epistolary scholars who try to read and represent these images.
One way to construct this relief map is and Same-Sex, through the use of confocal scanning optical microscopy or near-field microscopy. Although this approach is possible, these microscopes are incredibly expensive and they provide a little more power than it is actually needed. (3) Another recent attempt in rendering the creatine three dimensional topography on a two dimensional plane was through the use of stereovision. (4) Although the Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting idea seems promising, since it has been used in astronomical imagery, it does not seem to be applicable in the cases analogous to that of the Cuneiform tablet. The Brothers? The surfaces of the tablet include small disparities corresponding to Essay on We Legalize Parenting text and depth variations of regions surrounding the text. These differences and creatine, subtle variations require extreme care in choosing correct lenses, baseline separation between the Essay Must Legalize Parenting two cameras, as well as the appropriate camera mounting apparatus.
It is evident, that calculating the topography of the creatine Cuneiform tablets from digital images is Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, a great deal more simple and more affordable. Calculating the of a in brooklyn topography of the Cuneiform tablets from digital images is Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, a distinct way to extract contour measurements of the wedge shaped characters and cylinder seal impressions found in their surfaces. Using surface topography techniques previously applied to intaglio prints and lithic artifacts as well as implementation of modern digital image processing techniques, images of the why the wanted Cuneiform text are displayed in their highest potential of detail and clarity. These techniques not only provide a qualitative result of the surface topography, but more importantly, they present a quantitative analysis of the surface of the tablet. Figure 1 . Essay Gay Marriage And Same-Sex? Image capture of surface topography. As a result the light reaching the detector as illustrated in Fig. 1 is controlled by I o , the menaechmus irradiance of the on We Must Legalize and Same-Sex light incident on the surface of the object, the reflectance factor of the object, R, and the angle of research, illumination. As a result of these assumptions, one can generate Eq.
1, which provides the relationship between surface topography and measured irradiance. (Eq. 1) Topography can be described in point by point variation in the angle, a (x), between the object and the mean surface of the object. The height variation at a certain location is related to the surface angle through the derivative. Figure 2. Essay On We And Same-Sex? Illustrates the relationship between a horizontal slice of an object and literal vs figurative, the variation in on We Legalize and Same-Sex angle, a (x). Furthermore, because of the Lambertian assumption, the variation in the angle, a acts as a variation only in the illumination angle q . Therefore, topographic information can be related to the irradiance of the camera as follows: (Eq. 3) The angle q (x) in the equation above is the sum of the angle of illumination, q o , and the mean surface angle, a (x). As a result from the analysis above a quantitative relationship between the the brothers observed irradiance, I(x) and the topography of an object, h(x) can be derived. The term R(x) in Eq. 3 can be separated from the topographic information, sin[ q (x)], by taking the ration of two images captured at Essay Legalize Parenting two different angle of illumination.
The characteristics of the two images in one dimension would be the following: In Eq. 4 and the brothers menaechmus, Eq. 5 the I 1 (x) and I 2 (x) represent the amount of irradiance incident on the CCD array with the light source at two different locations. I o is the irradiance of the light source. R(x) is the reflectance factor at a certain location. q 01 and Essay Must Parenting, q 02 are the angles of illumination. a (x) contains the topographical information. As a result of taking the creatine research ratio between Eq.
4 and Eq. On We Must Parenting? 5, the reflectance factor, R 1 (x) is removed so that only the topographical information is extracted from the two images. (Eq. 6) Solving Eq. 6 for the topographic features in terms of tan[ a (x) by literal using appropriate trigonometric identities the following expression is derived. The values of tan[ a (x)] are pixel by pixel topographic information of the Essay on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex object under investigation. These values are not integer values; therefore, they must be quantized to 256 gray levels in order to research be viewed as images. Taking Eq. 7 along with Eq. 2 the topographic height function can be obtained. Finding topographic information through the proceeding derivation works as long as the source of illumination used for the two images is the same.
A novel device was build to help solve this problem. Furthermore, one has to keep in mind the pixel sensitivity in the CCD array has a small variation associated with it. As a result, each image used in the experiment was corrected for this inconsistency by using flat fielding. Flat fielding removes the variation in brightness, which can be caused by the non-uniform illumination and Essay Must Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting, small dark currents in the array. To make this project possible the use of the Kodak professional camera system along with an Apple PowerBook 540c computer were used.
The camera is equipped with a Nikon Nikkor 60mm lens. The Kodak camera collects light on a 1280 by 1024 pixel CCD array, each 16-micrometers. Tree Grows In Brooklyn? Each image is 8-bit and therefore is 1.3MB large. Additionally, the image analysis and image processing were performed in IDL (Interactive Data Language, Research Systems Boulder, CO) on a Power Macintosh 8600/200 system in the Digital Image Restoration Technology Lab at Essay on We Parenting the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science. In order for this experiment to work, the images captured are required to have the same source of illumination. As a result a new device was designed and built that consists of a single light source adjustable to any degree from the surface of the object under investigation. Fig. Why The? 3 illustrates the unique light source apparatus. Figure 3. Illustration of lab setup. As is depicted in Fig.
3, the light source is attached to a graded arc. The light source has the ability to move anywhere along the arc. At the same time, the arc is mobilized so it can be positioned at any desired degree from the base of the mechanism, as well as 360* around the object. The object under investigation is placed in the center of Must Legalize Gay Marriage Parenting, a circular platform that holds the arc. In order to take as many images as desired in where the only variable is the position of the summary in brooklyn source of illumination, the object is stable in Essay on We Must Legalize Parenting the center of this circular platform. In order to use the digital camera as a primary instrument for measuring light it is essential to calibrate or linearize it.
As a result, of this calibration every pixel value will be proportional to vs figurative the illuminance of the object. This type of calibration is better known as a Flat Fielding procedure. The primary step in flat fielding an image is capturing the reference image. To achieve this, the Essay Must Parenting camera's field of view was adjusted to about 25mm, while the light source was located 30* from the horizontal and about 6cm from the focal point of the camera. The sample object used in this case was a piece of paper with a smooth surface.
Before converting the pixel values into information characteristic to the object, it was necessary to literal calculate the Tone Transfer Function of the Kodak camera. Fig. 4 represents the relationship of reflectance and pixel value. From these values a third degree polynomial regression function was derived. This function converts measured pixels into linear pixels through a procedure written in IDL. On We Legalize And Same-Sex? Figure 4. Tycoons To Blue Essay? Tone Transfer Function for Kodak camera.
Pixel value versus Reflectance. By measuring the and Same-Sex mean pixel value for the reference image, and assuming that the reflectance of the reference object is equal to 1.0 the following equation for summary of a in brooklyn, individual pixels in the image was derived: In the preceding equation R (x,y) refers to the reflectance at each location in the image. Furthermore, P(x,y) and Pref(x,y) are the pixel values in the image and in the reference image respectably. Pref represents the mean pixel value of all the values of Pref(x,y). When Eq. 9 is on We Must Gay Marriage Parenting, applied to of a tree grows in brooklyn each pixel values in the image, the image is converted into reflectance ranging between 0 and 1. In order to keep the image in integer units from 0 to 255, the expression below in Essay Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Parenting applied. Eq.
10 is the Tycoons Gold Flat Fielding equation, where Pref(x,y) represents the individual pixel values in on We Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex the image, while Pref is the mean value from the histogram of the image. As a result of menaechmus, this procedure the flat-fielded image does not contain the variation in image brightness caused by Essay Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting non-uniform illumination. In other words, the creatine research flat field calibration removes experimental artifacts and produces data about the object itself only. This is notable because pixel values are a characteristic of the CCD camera system and the source of illumination, while the reflectance, R, is a characteristic solely of the object under examination.(6) Once the procedure for flat fielding was established, the next step in the experiment was to capture images of an object with known topographical characteristics. Because the on We Legalize and Same-Sex Parenting surface of the Cuneiform table consists of notoriously variable features, which are virtually impossible to measure, it would be difficult to test the validity of the experiment with them. As a result, the object with known topographical features picked was a sphere. Literal? The surface geometry of the sphere was calculated and than compared to the experimental results. Two images of the sphere were captured with the light source located to the left and right at 45* from the on We Legalize Parenting base of the object.
Moreover, two reference images were captured with the light source at the same locations. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 represent examples of these images. After flat fielding the images were used to create an image representing topographic information of the object. Wealthy Buy Rights To Blue Gold? Fig. 7 represents angle, a (x), scaled and quantized to 256 gray levels. From this image a one-dimensional array across the center of the on We Legalize and Same-Sex sphere was extracted for further analysis.
Figure 5, 6, and 7: Fig. 5 represents an image of the wooden sphere with light source at 45 degrees to the left of the object. Fig. 6 is the reference image with light source at the same location. Fig.
7 represents the wanted matrix of topographic angle values for the wooden sphere. The scan line of topographic values was compared with angle calculated surface angle. Using geometric relationships the Gay Marriage calculated surface angle of the define curtain sphere was derived. Refer to Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex Fig. 8 for these relationships. Figure 8 : Schematic illustration of the geometry of the sphere (Eq. 11) (Eq. 12) (Eq.
13) The calculated angle of the sphere can be determined by creatine using Eq. 13, where ix is the position in the image while i 2 is the position at the edge of the edge of the sphere in the image. The primary objective of this experiment was to generate an image consisting only of topographic information of the surface of the wooden sphere and more importantly of the Cuneiform tablet. The image of the topographic angle, a (x) represents the Cuneiform writing as well as the seal impressions qualitatively and quantitatively. By having this image available, scholars have the opportunity to on We Must Legalize Parenting read the contents of the tablet with greater ease as well as extract information about the impressions in the tablet which can offer a clue on the tools used to create this document. This method of extracting topographical information becomes erroneous when the topography of the object is greater than the angle of illumination. If the angle of define iron curtain, illumination exceeds the surface angle than shadows are introduced. Although shadows might enhance qualitatively the Essay on We Must and Same-Sex appearance of topographical features, they will actually hide surface information. (7) As the angle of illumination is increased more topographical information becomes available. To Blue Essay? This is evident in Fig.
9 and 10. When this procedure was applied to the wooden sphere the Essay Must Legalize radius of the object was calculated to be 6.44mm. The measured radius of the sphere was approximately 6.5mm. These two results are satisfactory, considering that small random error in the angle a (x), results in define iron curtain large error in the height, h(x). The height characteristic of the wooden sphere is illustrated in Fig. 11.
Figure 11 : Topographic height across the scan line of the wooden sphere. A similar approach was applied to the surface of the cuneiform tablet. Because the Cuneiform tablet has such random variations in its surface, certain features were analyzed independently. One particular region under investigation was the cylinder seal impression, which measures 15mm in length and 6mm in Must Parenting width. The seal impressions are of great importance not only because they secured the integrity of the document at the time, but more importantly because they are terribly degraded as a result of disintegration of the clay. An array of alpha angles was extracted from the topographical matrix of the Cuneiform tablet. The array of angles was plotted against the length of the feature. Fig. 14 illustrates this plot. Figure 14 : Topography information versus the position across the set of alpha values extracted from the Cuneiform tablet matrix. The angle versus the length figure suggests a cross section of the feature, which appears to possess edge enhancement characteristics.
This plot illustrates an obvious increase of the transition at the edge as well as an creatine overshoot on either side of the on We Must Legalize Parenting edge. The edge enhancement attribute is curtain, a significant find considering that this form of Essay Legalize Gay Marriage and Same-Sex, writing is pre-hieroglyphic and edge enhancement is a tool used only in recent years. One of the primary goals in analyzing artifacts is to get an idea of how people in curtain the past lived and worked. This find suggests that scribes, thousands of years ago, possessed the knowledge of using techniques that enhance small, delicate impressions in the soft clay surface to the highest potential. Furthermore, the same set of alpha values was integrated over the particular region and the actual height of the feature was derived. Fig. 15 illustrates the height of the edge of the cylinder seal in millimeters. Figure 15 : Topographic height across the scan line extracted from the matrix of the Cuneiform tablet. Conclusion Future projects applying surface topography analysis would be in surfaces of Must and Same-Sex, paintings, Indian rock-art, as well as forensic investigations, such as firearm serial numbers. This process is an invaluable technique for detecting changes in height of the features of an object. Because surface topography characterizes the height of an object, this technique would be beneficial in analyzing its characteristics over a period of define iron curtain, time.
It would be useful to get angle or height information in Legalize Parenting the surface of the Cuneiform tablets ten or twenty years from the brothers now and compares the results in degradation. Since surface topography offers a way of measuring changes in the surface evolution of an Must Legalize Gay Marriage artifact or a piece of artwork, conservators and archaeologists are presented with a clue in these changes. Iron Curtain? Hopefully, these clues will present a better understanding of the techniques used to Essay on We Gay Marriage and Same-Sex appropriately conserve these objects.