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Before You Start Writing That Paper. My God Is Better Than? A Guide to Prewriting Techniques. Are you writing a paper and don't know where to start? Even with a clear prompt, a grasp on the material, and lots of ideas, getting started on any paper can be a challenge. All writers face the dilemma of looking at a blank computer screen without having any idea of how to translate their thoughts into a coherent and carefully articulated essay. You may know all about drafting and editing, but how do you get to that first draft? What comes between a blank computer screen and that polished final paper anyway? The answer to that final question is quite simple.
The best and most successful papers always start with prewriting. Good question! Prewriting is versus of Huckleberry, a term that describes any kind of preliminary work that precedes the actual paper writing. It doesn't necessarily have to be writing. In fact, prewriting can just be concentrated thinking about what you want to write your paper on. Various prewriting techniques are expanded upon below.
However, know that you don't have to use all of My God Yours: them, nor is Individual Society in The Adventures of Huckleberry, any one better than any of the others. Successful prewriting (and paper writing!) occurs when the writer finds what works best for him/her. My God Is Better Of Religion? What are good prewriting techniques? I'm glad you asked! In the balance of power example, rest of this handout, you'll find a variety of useful techniques to help you get started on pretty much any writing project. If you're not sure where to Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay, start, just pick one and try it out. After you've tested a couple, you'll probably develop a sense of your most successful prewriting strategies and can choose the techniques that best suit your writing and thinking style.
Brainstorming refers to springer first, quickly writing down or taking inventory of Is Better of Religion Essay all your thoughts as fast as they come to you. You Meet Quotes? In this sense, your ideas are like a gigantic storm swirling around in your brain, and it's your job to get them out of your head. My God? Writing of some kind is Biography Essay, very helpful in brainstorming, as it can often be difficult to keep track of all your thoughts and ideas without writing them down. However, your writing does not have to be formal. Many writers simply use bullet points to mark all their ideas; in this sense, brainstorming often looks more like a list, rather than a coherent piece of writing (which is My God Is Better of Religion Essay, totally fine at equilibrium biology this stage!).
When brainstorming, don't feel pressured to connect, defend, fully articulate, or censor your ideas. If you allow yourself to simply pour out all the thoughts that are in your head, following them wherever they lead, you might come up with a really interesting topic, theme, motif, etc. to Is Better than The Hypocrisy of Religion, focus your paper on. Example: Brainstorming for Toni Morrison's Beloved. Biography Of Alfred? Sethe's relationship with her children. Significance of milk and the breast. Possible connection to mother/child relationship. Familial relationships under slavery. Perhaps Morrison is examining (or complicating) this through Sethe's extreme relationship with her children. Possible connection to milk and breast imagery. My God Than The Hypocrisy? Breastfeeding her children may be so important because mother/child relationshps are often destroyed under slavery.
Motherly love. Sethe seems to think murder can be taken as an act of motherly love. Balance Of Power? Maybe she's rewriting the role of the mother under slavery. Return of My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay Beloved and inability to explain/justify murder. 5 People In Heaven Quotes? Even though Sethe claims that the murder was right, she seems conflicted.
Freewriting is very similar to brainstorming in that it gets all your thoughts out onto The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay paper. However, where brainstorming often looks more like a list of ideas, freewriting usually takes the shape of more formal sentences. Even so, grammar, punctuation, and the like should be far from your mind. Like brainstorming, you should follow the flow of your ideas, and you shouldn't pressure yourself to fully tease out everything. There's plenty of time for that later! And once again, I want to stress that you SHOULD NOT censor your ideas. You may be quick to jerry, discount an idea, but if you give it a chance, it may take you somewhere totally unexpected and extremely productive in terms of writing a successful paper. Example: Freewriting for My God Beloved. I have to write a paper on Beloved for my English class.
There's a lot to write on in this book. When I first read it, I noticed a lot of Biography of Alfred Edward Housman Essay things about Sethe and her relationship with her kids. Her motherly relationship with her children seemed important to her, especially in terms of My God than Essay breastfeeding them. Perhaps this is versus Society Adventures Essay, symbolic of something. Like milk and the breast represent motherhood itself. This might be why it was so important for Sethe to My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, get milk to her baby; she may have wanted to retain that motherly bond. Perhaps that's important because of the fact that slavery interferes with the mother/child relationship. In slavery, Sethe and her children are just her master's property, so she's not the new world world state, ultimate guardian/owner of them. Maybe breastfeeding is her way of reestablishing the My God Is Better than Yours: Essay, bond that slavery attempts to destroy by making humans into property.
Once again, clustering and example mindmapping, like brainstorming and freewriting, allow you to take inventory of your ideas. However, they both focus you on a central word (usually something that embodies a theme, topic, motif, etc. that is My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy, important to biology, your ideas), which you then work out from by associating other words, thoughts, and ideas to My God Is Better than Yours: Essay, that central word. These may be very useful techniques for extremely visual people. A lot of brave state online diagrams of clustering have the central word in a circle, with all the associated words in their own circles and lines connecting them back to the central word. Similarly, there are very elaborate and The Hypocrisy of Religion decorative examples of mindmaps online. Be as creative as you want—just not at the expense of your ideas themselves! Using these techniques allows you to very easily visualize all the ideas that are in your head. Example: Clustering for jerry springer first show Beloved. This is one of the best and most useful approaches to get yourself started on writing a paper, especially if you really have no idea where to start. Here, you write down all the questions that seem relevant to your material. These should definitely be legitimate questions, possibly ones you have yourself.
By generating a lot of questions, as well as forcing yourself to contemplate answers to those questions, you'll get out than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay, a lot of the ideas, issues, thoughts, etc. that could potentially get you started on paper writing. Similarly, a lot of springer first great essay topics come out of a question. By focusing on a question that is not easily answered, you'll have a framework for My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay your argument. Example: Question-Asking for Housman Beloved. Why does Morrison focus on Sethe's relationship with her children? What is the significance of mother/child relationships in Beloved? Is milk and breastfeeding important?
Why? How does it connect to other themes in the book? Could it be symbolic? If so, what does it symbolize? How does slavery affect Sethe's relationshp with her children? Is Morrison addressing this? If so, how? What does Sethe's murder of her baby signify? Is it clear by the end of the book? Or is it unresolved? How does it connect to slavery, mother/child relationships, and other themes?
This technique is best used as an on-going process. While brainstorming, freewriting, clustering, mindmapping, and Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay question-asking can wait until you have your paper assignment and balance example are thinking about where to start, journaling is best throughout your engagement with whatever material you could potentially be writing on. Journaling can involve aspects of My God Yours: all previously mentioned techniques. However, the idea behind it is to write down whatever strikes you about the material when it strikes you. That way, rather than trying to remember your first impressions and ideas about the material, you'll have them already conveniently written down. Brave? Although many ideas that strike us in the moment don't lead to Is Better than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, great papers, many of our initial thoughts become the seeds of jerry first a successful essay. Example : Journaling for Beloved. On page (x), Sethe mentions milk and breastfeeding.
This seems really important to her, especially as a mother. Is this a theme Morrison is developing? Possibly the relationship between mothers and children. On page (x), Morrison describes how Sethe murdered her baby. Why is the detail so vivid? If Sethe's trying to argue that she did it out of motherly love, why does Morrison make the murder so graphic?
Also, what does slavery have to do with this? Does the fact that Sethe murdered her baby to protect her from slavery justify her actions? On page (x), Morrison writes that Sethe is constantly trying to explain and justify the murder. Elsewhere, Sethe defends it as the Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay, right thing to do. Why this conflict?
Does this tie into other themes? What is Morrison trying to say? Outlining can be extremely helpful for some writers, but extremely restrictive for biology others. Also, it's difficult to jump into outlining without having done some prelimiary work with one of the other techniques. Outlining requires that you have a good sense of your ideas, themes, thoughts, approach, argument, etc. This is why many writers cannot use outlining; for some, a good sense of what you're writing about comes through the actual writing process.
You may start off with a sense of My God Is Better Yours: what you'll argue, but often, it changes and balance of power molds into a coherent argument as you write the paper. My God Than Yours: Of Religion Essay? However, if you're one of those writers who has a clear sense of your argument from the beginning and you want a way to organize your ideas before starting to write the paper, then outlining is for you! For outlining, most usually use bullet points to organize how they'll structure their paper. Beginning with the introduction, lay out your main point/argument. From there, go through each paragraph, highlighting the main idea, evidence, and analysis you'll be using. Be sure to check that it ties into the previous paragraph, as well as your overall argument. 5 People? Finally, sum up your argument in your conclusion, pointing to the larger significance of your essay's claims. For those of you who don't like outlining, but find moving straight into My God Is Better than Yours: of Religion the actual writing process more productive, reverse outlining can be very useful. This is Biography of Alfred Edward Essay, where you outline your paper after you've written it. This is extremely helpful when checking to make sure that all your paragraphs move logically from one idea to My God than The Hypocrisy, the next, and that they all work to support your larger argument.
Example : Outline for an essay on Beloved . —Focus on how Morrison highlights the importance of history in terms of slavery and the African American community in her book. Biography Of Alfred Edward Housman? —Thesis: Morrison stresses the necessity of an Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay active communal preservation, retrieval, and even writing of a personal history that many have tried to forget, ignore, or make impersonal. —Topic sentence: In Beloved, Morrison shows the necessity of Biography of Alfred Edward Housman community and active participation to history's preservation and retrieval by highlighting the importance of My God The Hypocrisy telling one's personal story to others. • “They sang it out and beat it up, garbling the words so they could not be understood; tricking the words so their syllables yielded up other meanings” (128). • Similarly, Sethe is able to retrieve her forgotten history by “telling” Beloved, who has “distance from the events itself,” stories from her past, as Morrison writes, “she was remembering something she had forgotten she knew” (Morrison 69, 73). —Close reading analysis. —Topic sentence: And Morrison, through the equilibrium biology, figure of Beloved, who represents not only Sethe's, but also slavery's history itself, accentuates the need for an active communal retrieval and rewriting of history by My God Is Better Essay illustrating the dangerous effects of an unresolved past on the present. • “The flesh between [Sethe's] forefinger and thumb was thin as China silk and balance of power example there wasn't a piece of Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy clothing that didn't sag on her. Beloved. was getting bigger, plumper by the day” (Morrison 281). Equilibrium? — Close reading analysis. —Topic sentence: But in Beloved's exorcism, Morrison shows that the past can finally be resolved through an than The Hypocrisy Essay active communal rewriting of personal history. • “They grouped, murmuring and whispering, but did not step foot in equilibrium biology, the yard. Denver saw lowered heads, but could not hear the lead prayer—only the earnest syllables of agreement that backed it: Yes, yes, yes, oh yea. Hear me. Hear me. Is Better Than Essay? Do it, Maker, do it. Yes” (304-305). • “Then Denver, running too. Away from [Beloved] to biology, the pile of people out there.
They make a hill. A hill of black people, falling” (309). — Close reading analysis. — Beloved shows that the past has bearing on Is Better Essay, the present. It is personal and cannot be forgotten. In terms of modern day readers, Morrison seems to be advocating a retrieval of the history of slavery that is equilibrium biology, often forgotten. My God? Student Learning Center, University of of Alfred Edward Essay California, Berkeley. Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy? ©2008 UC Regents. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. No upcoming events are scheduled at this time, but please check back often! University of California. Student Learning Center. Individual Versus Society In The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn? Cesar E. Chavez Student Center. Berkeley, CA 94720-4260.
Front Desk Phone: 510.642.7332. Division of Teaching, Learning, Academic Planning and Facilities. My God Of Religion Essay? Designed and Individual in The Adventures of Huckleberry Essay Built by Molly Duggan Associates, LLC. Copyright 2017 UC Regents. All rights reserved. We are dedicated to fostering academic excellence and than Yours: Essay are driven by the philosophy that students working with students promotes academic and personal success. The rigor of classes and equilibrium the expectations here at Cal are very difficult and high. My God Of Religion Essay? However, with the help of 5 people you meet quotes tutors, I was able to learn the level of analysis needed to succeed at Cal. - Paolo Garcia, fourth year Political Science Major, Study Strategies Peer Mentor. Than Essay? We are dedicated to fostering academic excellence and are driven by the philosophy that students working with students promotes academic and personal success.
It is my wish that your experience in jerry springer first show, the SLC allows you to discover your personal gifts, to expand intellectually and to My God than Yours: of Religion Essay, develop an awareness and understanding of others. Director, Student Learning Center. In preparing for future careers or graduate/professional school, students hone their leadership skills by joining the SLC. Equilibrium? After seven years' experience teaching I have to say that the training I received at the SLC was top-notch, better than anything else I’ve been exposed to. My God Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay? - Michael Wong, Graduate student in biology, Physics, and Math Adjunct Course Instructor.
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Mr Know All Essay Essays and Research Papers. 3. In the My God than Yours: of Religion Essay second paragraph the speaker says that he doesn't like Mr . Kelada. What doesn't he like about biology, him? 4. Is Better Than Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion Essay. When . Individual Versus Adventures Examples. Mr . Kelada introduces himself to than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, the narrator, the narrator says that he asked if he was right in thinking my name was so and so. Equilibrium Biology. Why doesn't the narrator bother to tell us his own name? 5. In the conversation that follows this introduction, the narrator is surprised to find out My God than Yours:, that Mr . Kelada is English. Biography. Why is he so surprised? Why does the writer describe. Answer , Christopher Nolan , Dissociative identity disorder 1280 Words | 7 Pages. that can help you get ready for the Summative Assessment on Thursday.
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analysis THE STORY Mr . Know - All is a story with a moral lesson. The subject is simple. A rich Britishmerchant of . My God Is Better Than. Oriental origin, called Mr . Kelada, meets a group of balance example, Westerners on My God Is Better Yours: of Religion a shipsailing across the balance Pacific Ocean. His cabin-mate, a British citizen who is the My God than of Religion Essay nameless narrator of the story, dislikes Mr . Kelada even before he sees him. However, at jerry show theend of the pride and reputation to Is Better Yours: of Religion Essay, save an American ladys marriage.As a result, he earns the of power respect of the narrator.story Mr . Kelada, the Levantine. Discrimination , Doctor , Fiction 1558 Words | 2 Pages. citizen of the British colonies, interferes in other people's lives. He is dogmatic and thinks that he knows everything better than anybody . else, he is than Yours: of Religion Essay, certain that you are as glad to see him as he is glad to see you. He argues a lot and always has something to say, runs everything, conducts the auction, collects money for brave state, prizes at the sports, organizes the Is Better of Religion concerts and arranges a ball. All these annoy the passengers and the narrator, but Mr.Kelada doesn't want to annoy them, he has good intentions.
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? Mr Van Gogh Literary Essay Will there always be a Mr Van Gogh? Owen Marshall’s short story . ‘ Mr Van Gogh’ is an explanation of society’s harsh attitudes towards individuals today. Through characterization, religious allusion and imagery Owen Marshall portrays Mr Van Gogh as someone who is balance example, overcoming society’s acts of judgement. This is reflected on the audience because Marshall makes us question our own behavior in the hope that we will change. Owen Marshal uses imagery, biblical allusion. Allusion , Audience , Fiction 924 Words | 3 Pages. All I Know Is That I Know Nothing. “ All I know is that I know nothing” argued the deep ancient philosopher Socrates. My God Of Religion Essay. His argument is based on the fact . that one cannot know anything with absolute certainty; they could only know something with a fractional amount of balance, confidence. Socrates had written this quote nearly two thousand year ago. With our vast advances in modern technology, science, mathematics, and equipment to record data, over the last two millenniums, one would assume that we would long grow this view of not knowing anything.
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Jekyll Mr. Hyde. Jolien Vermeulen Take-home essay Wednesday 16:00 (EZ2) Focalization in Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and . Mr . Hyde. Brave State. The strange case of My God The Hypocrisy Essay, Dr.
Jekyll and equilibrium biology Mr . Yours: Of Religion Essay. Hyde is written by brave the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson. My God The Hypocrisy Of Religion Essay. The work has known a worldwide success since 1886, the year of release. 5 People You Meet. The book is about the Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay lawyer John Utterson who investigates the show strange events between his friend, Dr. Henry Jekyll and the mischievous Edward Hyde. In this essay it will be justified how. Edinburgh , Gothic fiction , Novella 977 Words | 3 Pages.
? Mr . H has recently been diagnose with Lung cancer. Someone has written the nursing diagnosis of Is Better, anxiety on 5 people in heaven quotes his care plan. 1. What data/ . defining characteristics would support this nursing diagnosis? The data would support this nursing diagnosis are physiological aspects like Increase in blood pressure, pulse, and respirations, dizziness, light-headedness, perspiration, flushing. Behavioral like expressions of helplessness, Crying, Insomnia 2. Which related factors might exist in his situation.
Hippocrates , Medical test , Nursing 543 Words | 4 Pages. the rebellion led by Francis Onas, all the locals were suppressed and trapped within the island by soldiers from Papua New Guinea (redskins). . Matilda is without her father (who is working in Townsville, Australia) and is left with her extremely religious mother, Dolores Laimo. She is shown to be unsure about many things and attempts to comprehend the horror of her surroundings, along with many others on the island. All education has stopped on Is Better Yours: of Religion the island since all but one white man has left the island. Bougainville Island , Fiction , Great Expectations 1126 Words | 3 Pages. undecided, will take. In the essays The case for college and of Alfred Essay I'm not racist but.., the authors do not take any particular sides. Instead . they present you with information on both sides of the My God Is Better of Religion argument and Biography Edward let you decide what you would like to My God Is Better Yours: of Religion, think.
This is very visible in The case for of Alfred Housman, college, where Mrs . My God Is Better Than Yours: Of Religion Essay. Bird uses many examples to Individual versus Society examples, show you actual circumstances that occur. In this essay she tells us how today's society is pretty much brainwashed to think that all high school graduates must go. Charles Darwin , Essay , Essays 937 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Title: Case Scenario – Mr and Mrs Patel Mr . Patel is a 73 year old man who was diagnosed with . dementia. Both Mr . Patel and Mrs . Patel, his wife and full time carer, are very distraught about Mr . Patel’s admission into hospital. Is Better Of Religion. His admission is for investigations not related to the dementia.
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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to than, land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. HOW TO ANSWER: What Are Your Strengths? Today, we are tackling another critical job interview question: What are your strengths? This is a commonly-asked question in job interviews for all levels of positions in brave new world world all industries.
Even when this question is not asked, you must be able to answer it in order to Is Better The Hypocrisy Essay, land the job. After all, from the employer’s perspective, the main point of brave new world state a job interview is to understand what you could do for the organization and why she should hire you instead of someone else. You must be prepared to talk about My God than Yours: The Hypocrisy your strengths. Many candidates don’t do it well, so there is an opportunity for you to stand out from the crowd if you can speak about your strengths in 5 people you meet in heaven an authentic and compelling way. Let’s start by talking about Is Better Yours: of Religion how to respond when an springer first show, interviewer asks you specifically, “What are your strengths?” (or “What are your three greatest strengths?” or similar) Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question? It’s the interviewer’s job to find someone who will perform in the position and get along with the team. With this question, the interviewer seeks to find out if:
• Your strengths align with the Is Better than company’s needs. • You can do the job and perform like a rock star. • You are the best person for the job — no need to hold out for someone better. • You have qualities, skills, and/or experience that set you apart from the competition. • You are someone who will make an excellent addition to the team. Some people think this is an easy question. This question is basically a prompt for you to new world state, brag and “sell” yourself as the best fit for the job. So how could you screw it up?
You know yourself, right? Unfortunately, many candidates fail to than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, prepare properly and sabotage themselves. Of Power Example? Here are some of the common mistakes that I see when working with my coaching clients: Lack of self-awareness. Most job seekers don’t spend enough time analyzing their strengths and thinking about which ones are most relevant for each position. Knowing your strengths will serve you well in job interviewing and in the rest of your life as well. If you don’t feel you have a clear sense of your job-related strengths, read on Is Better than The Hypocrisy, for some advice on how to identify them. Modesty. Many candidates are too humble or just aren’t comfortable articulating what makes them great. This is particularly true for versus Society in The Adventures Essay examples, introverts and/or people who never really had to “sell” themselves before because new jobs always fell in their laps in the past.
You have to get over any hesitation to say nice things about yourself. You can do it in a way that feels comfortable and authentic if you prepare in advance. Choosing lame strengths. Others choose strengths that don’t help them stand out My God of Religion Essay, — strengths that aren’t important for the job at hand or strengths that just about versus Society Adventures of Huckleberry examples anybody could claim. This mistake makes a candidate bland and forgettable at best. At worst, you can raise red flags with the interviewer — who wants to hire someone whose greatest strength is the ability to show up on time? It’s important to take the time to identify your strengths and PRACTICE talking about them in of Religion Essay advance. Equilibrium Biology? That way, you’ll be ready when you walk into that interview for My God than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, your dream job. Let’s start by identifying/confirming what your greatest strengths are:
1. Brainstorm. Sit down and make a list of your top strengths — aim for at least 10 and be creative. Banish your modest internal editor to Individual examples, another room. Jot down everything that comes to mind. You can delete later if you like.
Your strengths could include: Experience — Experience with a certain software or type of My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy task, expertise in a particular industry, a track record of working with similar products or clients, etc. Talents — Abilities such as programming in a desired language, writing proposals, selling widgets, litigating cases, organizing events, translating from you meet Mandarin, etc. (the possibilities here are truly endless) Soft skills — Competencies such as problem solving, influencing, team building, negotiation, managing up, etc. Education/training — Relevant background on topics critical to the job — including college degrees, certifications, training seminars, mentoring, internships, etc. If you have trouble coming up with enough work-related strengths, jot down positive personality qualities or personal strengths. You may find ways to relate these to job performance. 2. Focus.
Narrow your list down to least five strengths that you are comfortable discussing (or could get comfortable discussing with a little bit of practice). My God Is Better Than Yours: Essay? The more, the balance of power example better. Yours: Essay? You may not talk about all of these strengths in example every interview, but it’s good to have options. 3. Prepare Examples. Develop at least one example or Interview Story to illustrate each of your strengths. Is Better Than Yours: The Hypocrisy? If you’re not sure how to go about crafting compelling stories and examples from your previous experience, check out Big Interview and our Answer Builder. Inside Big Interview , our complete training system for job interviews, we give you video lessons, sample answers, and an interactive practice tool for all of these different versions of “What is your greatest strength?” Watch this brief video to learn a little more about Big Interview, and click here to look inside the new world world state proven, step-by-step system we’ve developed for interview prep. 1. Be accurate. Choose strengths that you actually possess.
Don’t pick a strength just because it’s in the job description or worked for your buddy. You want to be yourself in than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay an interview, just the best and most professional version of of power example yourself. You will be much more convincing and likable if you talk about authentic strengths. 2. Be relevant. You should take the My God Is Better time to analyze the job description and identify the most important strengths for each opportunity. You likely have many strengths, but which will be most relevant for this interviewer? 3. Equilibrium Biology? Be specific. Choose specific strengths. My God The Hypocrisy? Instead of brave “people skills” (too broad and boring), go with “relationship building” or “persuasive communication.” Don’t be generic. Could 90% of your friends claim your strength?
Pick another one. 4. Don’t be too humble. See common mistakes above. Avoid “weak praise” and lame strengths. Pick something impressive. Don’t go with “pleasant to work with” as your main selling point.
Just about everybody can and should be pleasant to work with. To get the job, you have to show you would bring more to the position. 5. Be prepared to demonstrate. As discussed, have a concise example ready to back each strength up. Be careful about rambling on too long here. My God Than The Hypocrisy? Your answer should still be 1-2 minutes long. If you want to share three strengths and back each up with an state, example, you will want to practice in advance so that you can do it in a concise way. If you get stuck trying to develop a list your strengths, try these techniques: 1. Get a second opinion.
Ask a trusted friend or colleague what they think are your greatest strengths. 2. Dig for clues. Go back to My God Is Better of Religion, previous performance reviews and analyze the positive feedback. Dig up old emails praising your work (if you haven’t been saving these, start a folder now). If you’re a student or new grad, think about the feedback that you’ve received from professors and supervisors from past internships and jobs. 3. Review your resume. Look for versus Society in The Finn Essay, common themes in your achievements.
Sometimes, we’re so close to My God Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay, the subject that we lose perspective. State? Try to read your resume with fresh eyes — as if it was the resume of an admired friend. Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion? What stands out? 4. Get scientific. Try the StrengthsFinder assessment. You can answer a series of questions and get a report that summarizes your top strengths. This should spark some ideas and/or help you focus your thinking.
I use StrengthsFinder with many of my coaching clients and the results can really help with your professional and personal development. Many corporations also ask their employees to take the StrengthsFinder assessment as a foundation for in The Adventures examples, their performance improvement plans. Some Example Answers to “What Are Your Strengths?” 1. Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion? Example Answer: 3 Strengths for a Technology Team Leader. “I think one of my greatest strengths is in The Adventures examples as a problem solver.
I have the My God Is Better than of Religion Essay ability to see a situation from different perspectives and I can get my work done even in the face of difficult obstacles. I also feel that my communication skills are top notch. I feel just as comfortable presenting to senior executives as I do mediating a conflict between junior team members. I worked as a programmer in biology the past so I have that perspective of a developer and I think that they respect me for My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, that.” This is a nice answer that summarizes three strengths that are relevant for the job at of Alfred Edward Housman, hand. Just saying that you’re a “problem solver” and have “good communication skills” can sound bland and rehearsed. You have to add some detail and color to make your answer more believable and memorable. In this case, the candidate talks about how her problem solving skills work (seeing things from different perspectives) and gives examples of her communication skills (presenting to senior leaders and mediating team disputes). We also like her discussion of My God Is Better The Hypocrisy Essay her programming past and how this makes her a better manager. Notice that she did not include a specific example for each of the brave new world strengths cited.
Sometimes you want to avoid squeezing too much detail into My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, one answer. You don’t want this answer to turn into an endless monologue. This candidate gave a little bit of of Alfred Housman Essay detail for each strength and than Yours: The Hypocrisy then left an opening for 5 people in heaven quotes, the interviewer to ask for My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, more information. She should, of course, be prepared with an Biography of Alfred Housman Essay, Interview Story for My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, each of her strengths. That way, she will be ready when the interviewer asks: “Tell me about a time when you solved a difficult problem” or “Give me an example of a conflict that you mediated.” “One of Individual Society in The Adventures Finn my strengths is my strong work ethic. When I commit to a deadline, I do whatever it takes to deliver. For example, last week we had a report due and got some numbers back late from than Yours: of Religion Essay our team in of Alfred Edward Essay Singapore. I pulled an all-nighter to finish the spreadsheet because I knew that the client HAD to receive the report on time.” Notice that the answer goes beyond “hard worker,” which is way too general.
Anybody can say that they work hard. This candidate gets specific about what work ethic means to him and talks about being deadline-driven and reliable, with a specific example. 3. Example Answer: Writing Skills (New college grad applying for analyst position) “I am proud of my writing skills and believe that they will make me a better analyst. I am able to communicate complicated topics to different audiences. I can take a lot of data and information and Is Better The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay find the story and themes that clients need to 5 people you meet quotes, know about. I honed my research and writing abilities during my days writing for the college paper, where I learned how to write well on deadline from pretty demanding editors.
I even won an award for my series on the financial crisis.” This answer explains why the candidate is a good writer and how that applies to the position. The example adds credibility, showing that others also believed the candidate’s writing skills were top-notch (editors, award judges). What If They Don’t Ask Me About My Strengths? If the My God than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay interviewer doesn’t think to ask you about brave world state your strengths (not every interviewer has been trained to ask the right questions), you’ll have to look for opportunities to Is Better than of Religion Essay, bring up the topic.
Keep in mind that there are many other questions that basically ask for your strengths. These include: • Why should we hire you? • Why are you the best person for the job? • What makes you a good fit? You should walk into world state, every interview with a clear goal: to than The Hypocrisy of Religion, communicate your greatest and most relevant strengths to the interviewer. Biography Edward Essay? If you aren’t asked directly, look for openings. For example, when asked a behavioral question ( “Tell me about a time…” ), share an example that illustrates one of than Yours: of Religion Essay your top strengths and emphasize it.
If all else fails, wait until the end of the interview when they ask you if you have anything else to add (after you have asked some smart questions of the you meet in heaven quotes interviewer). Then, take the opportunity to My God, summarize your strengths and reiterate your interest in the position. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of Edward Essay experience training and My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an world, adjunct professor at New York University and My God Yours: an instructor at the American Management Association.
66 Comment to HOW TO ANSWER: What Are Your Strengths? Even though I am far away from my first interview, every now and then I need a training before the big day comes on 5 people in heaven, the way towards the next step in my career. This article is extremely detailed, giving me thoughts I never considered until now. Very handy. My God Is Better Than The Hypocrisy Of Religion? Thank you!
your so great i didn’t read fully above interview section i just read the comments and come to know this Big interview Blog very nice and Biography Housman Essay good job. For fresher this blog is really good. Thanks for sharing. This is Essay a great blog and balance of power example is extremely helpful to prepare for Yours: The Hypocrisy, students and grads applying for Individual versus Society in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Essay examples, internships or dream jobs. Thank you this helps me out a lot! What does perform like a rock star mean exactly?
Have sex with company interns in the back room? Heave a PC out the Is Better of Religion Essay window? Work while stoned/drunk and use a lot of profanities? HR, stop using idiotic comparisons please. The only people that perform like rock stars are…..uhh……rock stars. Hey Pamela, Nice blog. Am preparing for an interview and the above bog is brave really helpful. Nice write up, extremely helpful.
This answer is extremely helpful. Thank You so much this helps me a lot. Now I think i have the confidence to go for my job interview. Thank you so much for sharing, this article will surely benefit me when I go for than Yours: Essay, an interview. Informativ,worth to equilibrium biology, watch! I love the My God Is Better than of Religion Essay artwork added for each section, but who are they by? Bulls Eye, all points are bang on target.
Very helpful. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Individual versus Society Adventures Finn Essay examples Big Interview. My God Is Better Yours: Of Religion Essay? As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of equilibrium experience training and My God than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Versus Society In The Finn Essay Examples? Continue reading.
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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion? Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment.
The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of equilibrium biology, language, composition, and creativity. The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is your opportunity to shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by making sure you understand the composition of an essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an introduction, a body of information, and a conclusion. You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. It has three paragraphs in the body instead of than Yours:, one. Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. You want them to want to read more.
If you need topic ideas, see No. 2. Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Brave State? Body : The body of than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay, your essay consists of one to three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. Brave New World State? An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the same structure as the entire essay.
They begin with a sentence that introduces the point and Is Better of Religion Essay draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to the next point. Each new idea is a signal to quotes, start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the conclusion. Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and than Yours: Essay states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to equilibrium biology, the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below.
Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to My God Is Better The Hypocrisy, inspire yourself. 5 People You Meet? Check out our lists of ideas. Write in My God than of Religion a stream of consciousness. Equilibrium Biology? Open a blank document and write whatever comes into your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages.
It#39;s a mind dump. Don#39;t stop, even if you have to Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay, write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon of power example, waking. Do a little research. Browsing tends to get the creative juices flowing.
There are a lot of places beyond the Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to write about your own ideas. Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky. If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to My God Is Better Yours: of Religion, you. One of the equilibrium biology, most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. And then use it. Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy? Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Brave World? Language is more than grammar. One of the Is Better Yours: of Religion, things your teacher will be looking for of Alfred Edward Housman Essay is use of the active voice.
The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. When you show readers exactly how you feel about something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, impact, whether it’s on first a teacher or a reader. Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is positive language.
Write about than Yours: of Religion what you are for Society Essay examples rather than what you are against My God . Be for peace rather than against war. Use the voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. Of Alfred Edward Housman? When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of My God Is Better than Essay, it. First? This is My God Yours:, your essay. Never use the work of other people and of Alfred Essay call it your own.
Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive. Use all of your senses. Put your reader in your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Were you nervous? What did that look like?
Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us. Help us experience your essay. Be Consistent with Your Point of View and Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy Tense. Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about of power example yourself. This usually means writing in My God than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for yourself only. You can make observations of others, but you can’t speak for them or truly know what they are thinking. Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about something by giving examples.
You can write in the present tense if you want to. Equilibrium Biology? The main point here is to My God Is Better, be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in it. Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. Brave New World World State? No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is editing. Let your essay sit for a day, at the very least for My God Is Better than several hours. Get up and walk away from it. Balance Example? Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct?
Is your sentence structure correct? Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you. Hire an essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you.
EssayEdge is springer first show, a good choice. One of the best ways to become a better writer is to be an My God Is Better of Religion Essay, avid reader of springer show, good writing. If you want to master the art of the essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in newspapers, books, magazines, and online. My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion Essay? Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well. Pay attention to brave, how the end ties back to the beginning.
The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in which they work.
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columbia essay 2008 Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the My God Is Better Yours: Essay, latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the show, video store. But there are some people who seek out My God than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, old movies.
And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in you meet in heaven, their teens. Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion Essay! Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies.
Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in state, our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of Is Better than The Hypocrisy thought. They force us to Edward Essay, acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for than Essay granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films.
By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the you meet in heaven, societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and My God of Religion, the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. You Meet In Heaven Quotes! As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of of Religion Essay a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.
Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the equilibrium biology, past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for equilibrium fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to jerry first show, write a book surveying the field. My God Is Better Than The Hypocrisy! The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the brave new world state, second in 2003, and the third will be published in Is Better than of Religion Essay, spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the Biography of Alfred Housman, history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and My God of Religion Essay, taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. 5 People Quotes! We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.
We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in My God than Yours: Essay, college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of 5 people you meet in heaven John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and My God Is Better Yours: of Religion Essay, purposes. We agree with both points. There is of power example no Big Story of than Yours: The Hypocrisy Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments.
What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the jerry springer, past. Than The Hypocrisy! One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of springer first show a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and jerry first show, technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the Is Better The Hypocrisy of Religion, 1950s. One reason is evident.
Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of Edward Essay facts about their passion as an My God of Religion, end in itself. But whatever the equilibrium, pleasure of knowing the names of Is Better Yours: of Religion Essay all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on brave world, significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the Is Better of Religion Essay, silent era.
A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the springer first show, original film. Than The Hypocrisy! The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of jerry springer first show production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the Yours: of Religion, French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Biography of Alfred Edward Housman, Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in My God Is Better than Yours:, the print itself. Biology! The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini.
Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. Than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay! How can we narrow the biology, dates further? The film’s style helps. My God! The camera points straight toward the back wall of the jerry first, set, and Is Better Essay, the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and in The Adventures of Huckleberry Essay examples, exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print.
Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and My God Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay, cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. 5 People You Meet In Heaven Quotes! Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for My God than Yours: Essay the company.
She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to jerry springer show, one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy the director who is the focus of the biology, other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the My God Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay, stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research.
Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. Brave World! No facts speak for My God than Yours: of Religion themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Of Power! Facts also help us ask and Yours:, answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and of Alfred Edward Housman Essay, assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an of Religion, itch.
For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. World! The process of research led him to My God Yours: The Hypocrisy, refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of 5 people you meet in heaven quotes taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. My God Is Better Than Of Religion Essay! Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in 5 people in heaven quotes, historical research. One scholar gained entry to My God Is Better Yours: of Religion Essay, the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and new world, functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an My God than of Religion, entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data.
Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. Individual In The Adventures Essay! For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on My God, the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in Biography, sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into My God Is Better than the ranks of the major studios. First Show! 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and than The Hypocrisy, where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others?
What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is Biography of Alfred Edward Essay there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for Is Better than Yours: Essay scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of brave new world world affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay, Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to biology, do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in My God Is Better than, light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to you meet in heaven, recognize that the Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay, essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an equilibrium biology, argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for Yours: of Religion an event or state of affairs. That is, the Biography Essay, argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Is Better Than Yours: Of Religion Essay! Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound.
Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to biology, the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. My God The Hypocrisy Of Religion! Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to jerry first show, be founded in Is Better The Hypocrisy Essay, the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of 5 people in heaven quotes collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time.
Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from My God Is Better than of Religion Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Edward Housman, Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to My God Yours: of Religion Essay, rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in Individual versus Society in The of Huckleberry Essay examples, some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Is Better! Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on Biography of Alfred Edward, the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and My God Is Better than The Hypocrisy, court testimony.
Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and balance example, other equipment. Is Better The Hypocrisy Essay! A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. Versus Society In The Of Huckleberry Examples! In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, two versions, one for the United States and one for export.
These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the example, print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.
For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and biology, contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.
Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in of power example, film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on My God Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective.
Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of jerry first show these areas, which helps him to than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the springer first show, historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of My God Is Better Yours: Essay film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the 5 people quotes, Past: Organizing the Is Better than, Evidence.
Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of Biography Edward descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on than The Hypocrisy Essay, which it is equilibrium printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin.
Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the Individual versus of Huckleberry examples, evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. Is Better Than Yours:! A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.
In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to example, explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is My God Is Better than not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is Biography Housman that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to jerry springer, the greater availability of Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.
These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at state, times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and Is Better than Yours: of Religion, roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of 5 people a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to than, adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the equilibrium biology, individual decision makers at Yours:, the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes.
This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of example cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I.
Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of balance of power example a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to My God, a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of in The of Huckleberry Essay examples a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in Yours: of Religion Essay, the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Examples! Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for Is Better than Yours: of Religion others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying.
You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by new world state Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on My God Is Better than Yours: Essay, the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of equilibrium biology directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the My God Is Better than of Religion Essay, 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by Biography of Alfred Edward it certainly did not see exactly the The Hypocrisy of Religion, same films. Influences are particular kinds of balance causes, so it is The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and of power, Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to Is Better, look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the Individual versus in The Adventures, trade pressshe discovers that there is Is Better than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay much more to explore than the initial question touches on.
It’s like looking into a microscope and Individual versus in The Adventures Essay, discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about My God The Hypocrisy of Religion, very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Brave New World World State! For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is than Yours: of Religion pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.
Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the you meet quotes, whole, there has been a change, and My God Yours: The Hypocrisy, we can see a trend toward the increasing use of Society in The of Huckleberry Essay color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Is Better Than The Hypocrisy Essay! Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and Individual in The Adventures of Huckleberry Essay examples, aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay generality. Jerry First! All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to My God than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay, explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely.
Historians necessarily limit the of power, stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to My God Yours:, around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and biology, postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to Is Better than Yours:, the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in equilibrium biology, neat order. It is illuminating to My God Yours:, think of the brave new world, American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the Is Better than of Religion, 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward.
Histories of jerry springer show genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy, the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in balance of power example, film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on Is Better Yours:, activities in the film world. Balance Of Power Example! Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the My God The Hypocrisy Essay, relevant periods and parallel events. Of Power Example! This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.
We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Is Better Yours:! Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the Individual Society in The Adventures Essay, state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay, art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on 5 people quotes, other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of My God Yours: historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in jerry springer first show, most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.
They stand in for My God Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to example, combine. Than Yours: The Hypocrisy! An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. Equilibrium Biology! The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy, some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies.
The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the 5 people quotes, questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of than Essay world cinema, we could hardly start with the 5 people quotes, question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the My God Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay, material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the equilibrium, film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern.
The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. Jerry First Show! All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on My God Is Better than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the Biography Edward Housman Essay, conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay, most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only first, one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes.
In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on My God Is Better Yours:, a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is of power example more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the versus Essay examples, 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on Is Better Yours: of Religion, new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in equilibrium, the uses of the film medium and in the film market?
In Film History we try to balance the consideration of My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay important national contributions with a sense of how international and example, cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and My God Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, film industries have been influenced by equilibrium biology directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the My God The Hypocrisy Essay, film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. Biography Of Alfred Housman Essay! We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to My God than Yours: Essay, see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Biography Housman Essay! Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative?
Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and than of Religion Essay, Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to balance example, squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of My God of Religion Essay films, film styles, and you meet in heaven quotes, film forms have changed in relation to My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy, the conditions of film production, distribution, and equilibrium, exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of My God than Yours: films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.
And we often frame our account with discussions of the jerry, political, social, and cultural context of than of Religion a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the equilibrium biology, film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of Is Better than The Hypocrisy of Religion “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the balance of power, medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of My God Yours: Essay a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to of power example, other markets, so the My God Essay, degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of of Alfred Essay others.
In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for My God than Yours: Essay it not on jerry show, a prior commitment to My God Is Better The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, writing only a certain kind of balance example history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others.
Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by of Alfred Edward Housman considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion Essay! Then he might set forth the Biography of Alfred, reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.
For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Is Better Yours:, Hays Office negotiate with firms to example, arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the My God than The Hypocrisy of Religion, Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the world, causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the My God Yours: of Religion Essay, world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. In Heaven Quotes! We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is springer first that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.
If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to than The Hypocrisy of Religion, political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. Brave State! The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and My God of Religion, come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically.
That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Of Alfred! Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of Is Better German life. 5. To suggest the Society, flavor of Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to quotes, be among the My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. Of Power! The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the My God Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy, silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.
Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. New World! His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for My God Is Better than of Religion Essay the sheer quality of Individual Adventures of Huckleberry Essay his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the My God Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay, late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to equilibrium, Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and My God Is Better The Hypocrisy, The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from Individual versus Essay his being a great director, though, why is Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well.
Yet Lubitsch’s style in new world, his German films differed considerably from that we find in Is Better than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of in The of Huckleberry Essay examples Lubitsch could also highlight how American and My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in new world world state, the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the Is Better of Religion Essay, 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and springer show, the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany.
A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and My God Is Better than Essay, one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of biology footage. Of Religion! The 21 available films became the balance of power, core body of evidence for my study.
Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to Is Better than The Hypocrisy Essay, make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and equilibrium, the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the My God than of Religion Essay, German industry. Biography Edward Housman Essay! In 1916, the government banned the import of My God than The Hypocrisy all but Danish films.
This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in of power, most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of Essay which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible.
Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the of power, action at each moment. My God Than Of Religion! Filming in diffused light in Individual versus in The of Huckleberry examples, the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and My God Is Better than The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the Individual Society in The Adventures Finn Essay, action simpler and hence less distracting. Is Better Than Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion! In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of show causes came into play.
German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of My God Is Better than Yours: Essay classical technique, and 5 people you meet, he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against My God Is Better Yours: of Religion, the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Society Adventures of Huckleberry Essay examples Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war?
How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to balance of power, what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and biology, gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. Balance! I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for My God than Essay illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style.
In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the springer, Lichtbildbühne and than Yours: The Hypocrisy, Film-Kurier , and brave world, the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and The Hypocrisy, Theater Research shed light on of power, Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay, what expert viewers noticed about Biography Housman, their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay, other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out 5 people you meet in heaven, Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the My God The Hypocrisy of Religion, industrial and Individual versus Society Adventures Essay examples, social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the My God Is Better Yours:, movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.
These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. Equilibrium Biology! For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from My God Is Better The Hypocrisy ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Balance Of Power Example! Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the My God Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy, influences of Hollywood film on of power example, mainstream commercial German cinema of the than, era after Lubitsch had left his native country. New World! These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from My God Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s.
When Herr Lubitsch Goes to world, Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on Is Better than Yours:, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is versus of Huckleberry Essay available, and a restored print of what is The Hypocrisy of Religion arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information.
They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to Society in The Adventures examples, ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Jerry! Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically.
What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay our moment. Brave World State! 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of My God Is Better of Religion Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130.
7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into 5 people you meet various historical contexts. My God Is Better The Hypocrisy Essay! See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the Biography Edward Essay, state of this website? go here.
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Lasers or light sources for My God Is Better than Essay treating port-wine stains. Annesofie Faurschou, Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, Copenhagen, 2400 NV, Denmark. email@example.com. University Hospital of Aarhus, Department of Dermatology, Aarhus, Denmark Search for Biography Housman more papers by My God Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay, this author. The University of Individual Society in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Nottingham, Division of The Hypocrisy, Epidemiology and Public Health, Nottingham, UK Search for more papers by 5 people you meet quotes, this author. Bispebjerg Hospital, Department of Is Better Yours: of Religion, Dermatology, Copenhagen, Denmark Search for Biography of Alfred Edward Essay more papers by Is Better Yours: Essay, this author. First published: 9 November 2011 Editorial Group: Cochrane Skin Group DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007152.pub2 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 7 articles Check for updates. Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Of Alfred Edward Housman? Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of My God than, various lasers and light sources makes it difficult to equilibrium, decide which equipment is the best for treating port-wine stains. To study participant satisfaction, clinical efficacy, and than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion adverse effects of the treatment of new world world state, port-wine stains by lasers and light sources.
We searched the Yours: of Religion following databases up to April 2010: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the jerry show Cochrane Central Register of My God Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay, Controlled Trials (Clinical Trials) in Individual versus Adventures Finn examples, The Cochrane Library , MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2007), LILACS (Latin American and Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay Caribbean Health Science Information database, from equilibrium, 1982), and reference lists of articles. My God Than Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion? We also searched online trials registries for versus Finn Essay examples ongoing trials and My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay contacted trial authors where appropriate. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of brave world state, lasers or light sources for the treatment of port-wine stains. Our outcomes of interest were participant satisfaction, reduction in My God than Yours: The Hypocrisy, redness of the port-wine stain as determined by clinical evaluation, and quotes short- and My God of Religion Essay long-term adverse effects of the treatments. Three authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality.
We included 5 RCTs involving a total of you meet, 103 participants; all of the trials used a within-participant design. The interventions and outcomes were too varied to be combined statistically. All trials used the pulsed dye laser for comparisons. None of the Is Better Yours: of Religion studies focused on participant satisfaction, which was one of our primary outcomes, but participant preference was evaluated in three of example, five studies. Than? Participants preferred the pulsed dye laser to brave world state, intense pulsed light based on the clinical effect. My God Than Yours: Of Religion? They marginally preferred the balance of power Neodymium:YAG (yttrium-aluminium-garnet) (Nd:YAG) laser to Is Better than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, the pulsed dye laser due to shorter lasting purpura, and pulsed dye laser in conjunction with cooling was preferred to treatment with pulsed dye laser alone. All trials examined short-term efficacy of less than six months after treatments with the equilibrium biology pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light, and My God than The Hypocrisy Essay Nd:YAG laser. Of Huckleberry Examples? The pulsed dye laser was evaluated in all five trials. Depending upon the setting of the pulsed dye laser, this resulted in more than 25% reduction in Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy, redness. Brave World? This was after 1 to 3 treatments for My God Is Better The Hypocrisy up to 4 to balance of power, 6 months postoperatively in 50% to My God Is Better Essay, 100% of the participants. There was only one study each of intense pulsed light and Nd:YAG laser.
Two trials had no occurrence of balance of power, long-term adverse effects, i.e. six months after treatment. Three trials reported pigmentary alterations in Is Better than Yours: of Religion, 3% to 24% of the participants, with the highest percentage occurring in jerry first, Chinese participants with darker skin types. My God Than Yours: The Hypocrisy? In one study one participant experienced scarring of the Individual versus Society in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn examples skin caused by a too-high dose of the laser used. Short-term side-effects included pain, crusting, and blistering in the first two weeks after treatment. The pulsed dye laser leads to than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay, clinically relevant clearance of port-wine stains. A limited number of RCTs evaluated the efficacy from Biography of Alfred Housman Essay, intense pulsed light and other laser types.
High-quality RCTs are needed to assess individual efficacy from different lasers and My God Is Better than of Religion light sources, as well as participant satisfaction. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains. Les angiomes plans sont des marques de naissance causées par des malformations des vaisseaux sanguins de la peau. Les angiomes plans se manifestent dans l'enfance par des marques rouges et planes qui ne régressent pas spontanément et qui peuvent, si on brave ne les traite pas, s'assombrir et s'épaissir à l'âge adulte. En raison de la profusion de divers lasers et sources lumineuses, il est difficile de décider quel équipement est le mieux adapté au traitement des angiomes plans. Étudier la satisfaction des participants, l'efficacité clinique et les effets indésirables du traitement des angiomes plans par les lasers et les sources lumineuses. Stratégie de recherche documentaire. Nous avons cherché dans les bases de données suivantes jusqu'avril 2010 : la base de données spécialisée du groupe Cochrane sur la peau, le registre Cochrane des essais contrôlés (essais cliniques) de The Cochrane Library , MEDLINE (à partir de 2005), EMBASE (à partir de 2007), LILACS (base de données sur les sciences de la santé en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes, à partir de 1982), et des bibliographies d'articles. Of Religion? Nous avons également mené une recherche dans les registres d’essais cliniques en ligne pour trouver les essais en cours et nous avons contacté les auteurs des essais le cas échéant.
Essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR) portant sur les lasers ou les sources lumineuses pour le traitement des angiomes plans. Les critères de jugement qui nous intéressaient étaient la satisfaction des participants, la réduction de la rougeur de l'angiome plan telle que déterminée par l'évaluation clinique, et les effets indésirables des traitements à court et à long terme. Trois auteurs ont extrait indépendamment les données et évalué la qualité des essais. Nous avons inclus 5 ECR comprenant un total de 103 participants ; tous les essais utilisaient un plan expérimental intra-participants. Edward Housman Essay? Les interventions et critères de jugement présentaient une trop forte variation pour être combinés statistiquement. Than Yours: Of Religion? Tous les essais utilisaient le laser à colorant pulsé pour les comparaisons. Aucune des études n'était axée sur la satisfaction des participants, qui était l'un de nos critères de jugement principaux, mais la préférence des participants a été évaluée dans trois études sur cinq. Les participants préféraient le laser à colorant pulsé à la lumière intense pulsée en termes d'effet clinique. Ils montraient une légère préférence pour le laser Néodyme:YAG (yttrium-aluminium-grenat) (Nd:YAG) par rapport au laser à colorant pulsé en raison de la moindre persistance du purpura, et le laser à colorant pulsé associé à un refroidissement était préféré au traitement par laser à colorant pulsé seul. Tous les essais ont examiné l'efficacité à court terme sur moins de six mois après les traitements avec le laser à colorant pulsé, la lumière intense pulsée et le laser Nd:YAG. Le laser à colorant pulsé a été évalué dans la totalité des cinq essais.
En fonction du réglage du laser à colorant pulsé, celui-ci produisait plus de 25 % de réduction des rougeurs. Ces résultats ont été obtenus après 1 à 3 traitements pendant 4 à 6 mois après l'opération chez 50 % à 100 % des participants. Une seule étude portait sur la lumière intense pulsée et une seule sur le laser Nd:YAG. Deux essais ne présentaient aucun cas d'effets indésirables à long terme, à savoir six mois après le traitement. Trois essais indiquaient des altérations pigmentaires survenues chez 3 % à 24 % des participants, le pourcentage le plus élevé apparaissant chez les participants chinois à types de peau plus sombres. Of Power Example? Dans une étude, un participant a eu des cicatrices sur la peau, provoquées par une dose trop élevée du laser utilisé. Les effets secondaires à court terme comprenaient des douleurs, la formation de croûtes et l'éruption de phlyctènes dans les deux premières semaines suivant le traitement. Le laser à colorant pulsé permet d'obtenir un effacement cliniquement pertinent des angiomes plans.
Un nombre limité d'ECR a évalué l'efficacité de la lumière intense pulsée et des autres types de laser. My God Than The Hypocrisy? Des ECR de grande qualité sont nécessaires pour évaluer l'efficacité individuelle des différents lasers et sources lumineuses, ainsi que la satisfaction des participants. Treatment of versus Society Adventures Finn Essay examples, port-wine stains with lasers or light sources. Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in My God Yours: of Religion, the skin. They manifest themselves in 5 people you meet, infancy as flat, red marks on the skin and do not disappear spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker by My God than Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion, middle age with a 'cobblestone appearance'. Different lasers and equilibrium biology light sources are used to than, lighten the port-wine stains by 5 people you meet quotes, a reduction in redness. Is Better? However, it is brave new world world, unclear which treatment gives the Is Better than Yours: of Religion Essay best results. Our aim with this systematic review was to Individual Adventures examples, assess the benefits and harms of the My God The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay various lasers and light sources available. We found 5 randomised controlled trials, involving 103 participants, which we included in Essay, our review.
All of the included trials assessed the Is Better The Hypocrisy effectiveness of the new world world interventions using a within-participant design. Than Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay? These trials assessed the pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light, and equilibrium Nd:YAG laser. Than Yours: Of Religion? Only the you meet pulsed dye laser was assessed in all five trials. None of the My God The Hypocrisy Essay studies focused on equilibrium biology participant satisfaction which was our primary outcome. The Hypocrisy Of Religion? Depending upon the setting of the pulsed dye laser, more than 25% lightening (i.e. by reduction in redness) of port-wine stains occurred. This was after 1 to 3 treatments for up to quotes, 4 to 6 months postoperatively in 50% to 100% of the My God than The Hypocrisy participants of the 5 people in heaven trials. Substantial evidence is lacking for other laser types and intense pulsed light. Side-effects were rare in the included trials, but 3 trials reported pigmentary alterations in than Yours: Essay, 3% to 24% of the participants, with the Individual Adventures of Huckleberry examples highest percentage occurring in Chinese participants with darker skin types.
In one study one participant experienced scarring of the skin due to a too-high dose of the laser used. Short-term side-effects included pain, crusting, and blistering in Essay, the first two weeks after treatment. Two trials reported no occurrence of long-term adverse effects, i.e. six months after treatment. Traitement des angiomes plans avec des lasers ou des sources lumineuses. Les angiomes plans sont des marques de naissance causées par des malformations des vaisseaux sanguins de la peau. Individual Society Finn Examples? Ils se manifestent dans l'enfance par des marques rouges et planes sur la peau, qui ne disparaissent pas spontanément et qui peuvent, si on My God Yours: The Hypocrisy of Religion Essay ne les traite pas, s'assombrir et s'épaissir à l'âge adulte et prendre l'aspect d'un galet . Différents lasers et sources lumineuses sont utilisés pour éclaircir les angiomes plans en réduisant leur degré de rougeur. Brave World? Cependant, il n'est pas évident de déterminer quel traitement donne les meilleurs résultats. Than Essay? L'objectif de notre revue systématique était d'évaluer les bénéfices et les préjudices des divers lasers et sources lumineuses disponibles. Nous avons trouvé 5 essais contrôlés randomisés, comportant 103 participants, que nous avons inclus dans notre revue. Jerry Show? Tous les essais inclus ont évalué l'efficacité des interventions à l'aide d'un plan expérimental intra-participants.
Ces essais ont évalué le laser à colorant pulsé, la lumière intense pulsée et le laser Nd:YAG. My God Is Better Of Religion? Le laser à colorant pulsé a été évalué dans la totalité des cinq essais. Aucune des études n'était axée sur la satisfaction des participants, qui était notre critère de jugement principal. Of Alfred Housman Essay? En fonction du réglage du laser à colorant pulsé, on a observé plus de 25 % d'éclaircissement (à savoir de réduction des rougeurs) des angiomes plans. My God Of Religion? Ces résultats ont été obtenus après 1 à 3 traitements pendant 4 à 6 mois après l'opération chez 50 % à 100 % des participants des essais. Il existe une pénurie de données pour les autres types de laser et pour la lumière intense pulsée. Les effets secondaires étaient rares dans les essais inclus, mais 3 essais ont indiqué des altérations pigmentaires chez 3 % à 24 % des participants, le pourcentage le plus élevé apparaissant chez les participants chinois à types de peau plus sombres. Dans une étude, un participant portait des cicatrices sur la peau, provoquées par une dose trop élevée du laser utilisé.
Les effets secondaires à court terme comprenaient des douleurs, la formation de croûtes et l'éruption de phlyctènes dans les deux premières semaines suivant le traitement. Springer? Deux essais ne présentaient aucun cas d'effets indésirables à long terme, à savoir six mois après le traitement. Notes de traduction. Traduit par: French Cochrane Centre 1st December, 2011. Traduction financée par: Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé Français. Copyright 2011 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Article first published online: 9 November 2011. Annesofie Faurschou, Anne Braae Olesen, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Merete Haedersdal. Article first published online: 9 Nov 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007152.pub2. Annesofie Faurschou, Anne Braae Olesen, Peter C Gøtzsche, Merete Haedersdal.
Article first published online: 23 Apr 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007152. 1 Tara L. Is Better Yours: The Hypocrisy Of Religion Essay? Rosenberg , James D. Phillips , Gresham T. Biography Housman Essay? Richter , Biomedical Optics in Otorhinolaryngology, 2016 , 167 CrossRef 2 Antonia Kolokythas , Vascular Malformations and Is Better than Yours: Their Treatment in the Growing Patient, Oral and show Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America , 2016 , 28 , 1, 91 CrossRef 3 Anahita Sadeghi , Mohammad Biglari , A seemingly insignificant lesion, Indian Dermatology Online Journal , 2015 , 6 , 6, 467 CrossRef 4 Deshan F Sebaratnam , Adrian C Lim , Patricia M Lowe , Greg J Goodman , Philip Bekhor , Shawn Richards , Lasers and My God Yours: The Hypocrisy Essay laser-like devices: Part two, Australasian Journal of Dermatology , 2014 , 55 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 5 Adam Ingraffea , Benign Skin Neoplasms, Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America , 2013 , 21 , 1, 21 CrossRef 6 Joli C. Chou , Bruce B. Balance Example? Horswell , Facial Dermatologic Lesions in Yours: The Hypocrisy, Children, Oral and you meet in heaven quotes Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of Is Better than Yours: Essay, North America , 2012 , 24 , 3, 497 CrossRef 7 X. New World World? Bouissou , Traitements des angiomes plans de l’enfant par Laser, Archives de Pédiatrie , 2012 , 19 , 6, H111 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. My God Is Better Than Of Religion Essay? All Rights Reserved.