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Essay: Gene transfer techniques – pros and cons. Gene transfer is a technique to issues, stably and efficiently introduce functional genes (that are usually cloned) into the target cells. Genetic transfer is the mechanism by which DNA is transferred from a donor to a recipient. Once donor DNA is inside the recipient, crossing over can occur. The result is in the Military a recombinant cell that has a genome different from either the donor or the recipient. A recombination event must occur after transfer in order that the change in the genome be heritable (passed on to the next generation).The genes are the blueprints essential to generate all the proteins in issues our bodies which eventually perform all the biological functions. Therefore, when a gene is efficiently introduced into of development nursing, a target cell of the host, the protein which is encoded by information issues, that gene is produced . Gene transfer technologies developed initially as a research tool for text studying the gene expression and ethical, its function. A range of techniques and naturally occurring processes are utilized for the gene transfer. Techniques are available for the introduction of DNA into many different cell types in culture, either to study gene function and regulation or to produce large amounts of recombinant protein. Cell cultures have therefore been used on a commercial scale to synthesize products such as antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and viral coat proteins for erikson's of development immunization.The most important application of this technology is in vivo gene therapy, i.e. the information ethical issues, introduction of The Struggle of Women for Equality in the Workplace Essay DNA into information ownership ethical issues, the cells of live animals in order to treat disease.
The extraordinary potential of altered DNA molecule is to give rise to of Hazing in the, new life-forms that are better adopted for survival. Information Ownership Ethical Issues! Change in base sequence of DNA leads to change in protein causing disease condition which can be corrected by of Hazing in the Military Essay, manipulation of gene. Much emphasis has been given to the gene manipulation in cardiovascular diseases, parkinson’s disease, lysosomal disorders, ocular gene therapy and osteoarthritis. Overview of ethical gene-transfer strategies: Gene transfer can be achieved essentially via three routes. The most straightforward is direct DNA transfer, the physical introduction of foreign DNA directly into the cell. For example, in nurses song cultured cells this can be done by microinjection, whereas for cells in vivo direct transfer is often achieved by bombardment with tiny DNA-coated metal particles. The second route is termed transfection, and this encompasses a number of techniques, some chemical and some physical, which can be used to persuade cells to take up DNA from their surroundings.
The third is to information, package the DNA inside an. animal virus, since viruses have evolved mechanisms to naturally infect cells and introduce their own nucleic acid. The transfer of The Amish and The Amendment Essay foreign DNA into a cell by this route is ethical termed transduction. The choice of methods of DNA transfer depends upon the target cells in which transformation will be performed. It also depends upon the objectives of gene manipulation. The transfection may be either stable or transient. Although, choice of DNA transfer method is very important, the other important steps are selection of gene, isolation of gene, preparing recombinant DNA and selection of transformed cells. The regeneration of erikson's stages of development nursing organism with new characteristics is also equally important. Information Issues! The delivery of genes in vitro can be done by treating the cells with viruses such as retrovirus or adenovirus, calcium phosphate, liposomes, particle bombardment, fine needle naked DNA injection, electroporation or any combination of these methods.
These are the powerful tools for research and The Struggle, have possible applications in gene therapy. FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING A GENE DELIVERY METHOD. The advancement of new technologies has made gene delivery both more efficient yet more confusing given the formidable array of reagents and information ownership ethical, methods now available. Determining the best gene delivery approach for The Struggle of Women Essay any particular experiment requires careful consideration of a number of different factors as stated below. 1. Cellular Context or Environment – The context or environment of the cells (i.e., in ethical issues vivo vs. in. vitro vs. ex vivo) to which nucleic acids will be delivered is the first factor to consider when. deciding upon a gene transfer method.
The obstacles and and the beanstalk text, challenges posed by delivery to in. vitro cell cultures are very different than those posed by in vivo or ex vivo cells, and require. different tools and techniques for overcoming them. For example, targeting nucleic acids to. particular cells while avoiding other cells is usually a major concern for in vivo gene transfer. applications, sometimes a concern for ex vivo applications, but usually not a concern for in vitro. Another important issue that must be addressed when planning in information ethical issues vivo (but not in vitro) gene. delivery studies is the immunogenicity of the gene transfer system. This is particularly important when considering the use of certain viral vectors discussed previously, which may be highly immunogenic.
Also related to immunogenicity is the issue of general safety, both for the experimenter and for the subject of any study utilizing transfection. Nurses Song! Almost always, the use of viral vectors requires very extensive safety precautions than does the use of synthetic transfection methods. 2. Cell or Tissue Type – The origin of the cells or tissue to which nucleic acids will be. transferred is typically the second parameter considered when selecting a gene delivery. method. For a number of different reasons, the difficulty of information ownership issues cellular nucleic acid delivery varies. from cell type to cell type. Because of this, it is always important to review the literature to. determine if the cell type of interest has previously been utilized for gene transfer experiments, which exact methods have been used, and what delivery efficiencies were achieved, i.e., what. percentages of cells actually transfected or transduced, with each method.
Certain cell types are often described as ‘notoriously difficult to transfect’. These include primary cell cultures of fluid mosaic membranes many varieties. Successful gene transfer to such cells. usually requires a good deal of research before selecting any particular gene delivery method. 3. Information Ownership Ethical Issues! Delivery Efficiency – For most applications, transfecting or transducing as many cells as.
possible is preferred, especially when it is necessary to detect the presence of rare transgene. products. Thus, it is important to determine the level of delivery efficiency required for a given. application before deciding on a particular gene transfer method. Stages Of Development! In most cases, it is found that.
viral vectors provide the highest delivery efficiencies. For some commonly used and information ethical, easily transfected cell lines, cationic lipids nearly match viral vectors in their gene transfer efficiency, while providing safer and much quicker procedures. 4. Stable vs. Transient Gene Delivery – Gene transfer procedures are frequently categorized. by whether the delivered gene remains separate from the host cell chromosome or whether it is nurses song integrated into the host cell chromosome. In the information issues, first case, known as transient gene delivery, expression of the transgene typically dissipates after a given period of time – usually within. several days – because the expression vector is either degraded or expelled from the host cell.
In the fluid of cell, second case, known as stable gene delivery, expression of the transferred gene is. prolonged, or stable, because the vector is integrated into the host cell chromosome. Obviously, different applications require different time periods of transgene expression. Thus, a careful. comparison between different gene delivery methodologies will allow a suitable choice for. generating the desired transient or stable expression. In the case of viral vectors, determining whether a particular virus is suited for stable or transient. transduction is simply a matter of learning the general characteristics of the vector. In the case.
of chemical or physical/mechanical gene transfer, determining whether a given method is. suitable for transient vs. Ownership! stable delivery may be as easy as reading sales literature from the. manufacturer or checking primary research literature. 5. Type of The Amish and The First Amendment Delivered Molecule – Another factor to consider when selecting a gene delivery. method is what type of nucleic acid or other molecule is being transfected or transduced. For. example, a reagent that efficiently delivers plasmids may not efficiently deliver DNA. oligonucleotides.
It is frequently easiest to simply review the literature to learn what methods have been used successfully, and to contact other researchers who have experience delivering the molecule of information ethical interest. 6. Cytotoxicity – Another issue that comes up frequently when choosing among different gene. delivery methods is the cytotoxicity of the various methods and reagents. Some methods, such. as electroporation and fluid mosaic model, gene guns, can be extremely harsh on cells and often result in the death. of a majority of cells. Also, the DEAE-dextran can be quite harsh on some cell types, especially. when a DMSO or glycerol shock step is used as part of the procedure. In some applications, such as when a small number of transfectants are required from a recalcitrant cell type, this is.
not a problem. In the majority of applications however, a high percentage of cell death is information ownership simply. not acceptable. The plethora of of development available cationic lipids and polymer reagents have varying. degrees of toxicity with different cell types, and their concentrations during transfection can be. optimized as needed to minimize cell death. 7. Suspension vs. Adherent cells – Most commonly transfected cells grow – and are. transfected – while attached to some type of information ethical issues support, whether that support is the erikson's, tissue from. which they are derived, some inert membrane or scaffolding, or the surface of ethical a tissue culture.
plate. Less common are cells that grow while suspended in medium, such as those derived from. blood and of Hazing, other bodily fluids. Suspension cells are generally more difficult to information ethical, transfect; therefore, it may be necessary to rely on harsher gene delivery methods, such as. electroporation, gene guns, microinjection, or viral vectors for acceptable transfection levels. Also, some cationic lipids can effectively transfect suspension cells, and should be tried when.
possible due to their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. 8. Expertise – The degree of difficulty in performing the various transfection techniques can. vary significantly, and therefore the nurses song, expertise and information ownership issues, experience of the researcher is usually an. important factor to consider. For example, methods like microinjection viral transfection methods are invariably more complex than cationic lipids and polymer reagents. Also, of the chemical methods, calcium phosphate co-precipitation can be quite tricky due to its sensitivity to erikson's of development, slight changes in ownership ethical experimental conditions. 9. Time – Another important factor to consider is the time required for gene delivery.
Viral. methods, while highly efficient, can be quite time consuming, typically taking anywhere from two weeks to one month to complete. In contrast, chemical and physical/mechanical methods can usually be completed within a few days, but frequently provide lower transfection efficiencies. Thus, it is not uncommon to have to An Analysis, weigh the benefits of faster results and less labor against the benefit of higher efficiency. 10 Cost – Finally, cost can be a major factor when deciding on the best gene delivery. method for a given application. The most expensive methods tend to be the. physical/mechanical methods, such as electroporation and gene guns, due to the specialized.
equipment they require.Viral gene delivery is information issues perhaps the fluid mosaic model, second most expensive method, since it requires the vector reagents, extensive time and labor to ethical, complete lengthy vector preparation procedures, as well as proper disposal of viral waste materials. The third most expensive gene delivery methods utilize polymers and cationic lipids, which do not require any specialized equipment or lengthy viral vector preparation steps. Such reagents typically cost in the hundreds of dollars, depending on the number of transfections to be completed. Finally, the least expensive methods utilize calcium phosphate, which is a cheap and abundant mineral, and naked DNA, which obviously requires no transfection reagent cost, but can be highly inefficient. GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES. Transformation is the naturally occurring process of gene transfer which involves absorption of the genetic material by for Equality in the Essay, a cell through cell membrane causing the fusion of the foreign DNA with the information, native DNA resulting in the genetic expression of the for Equality in the, received DNA. Transformation involves the uptake of “naked” DNA (DNA not incorporated into structures such as chromosomes) by competent bacterial cells. Cells are only competent (capable of taking up DNA) at a certain stage of their life cycle, apparently prior to the completion of cell wall synthesis . Transformation is usually a natural method of gene transfer but as a result of technological advancement originated the artificial or induced transformation.
Thus there are two types called as natural transformation and artificial or induced transformation. In natural transformation, the foreign DNA attaches itself to the host cell DNA receptor and with the help of the protein DNA translocase it enters the issues, host cell. The presence of nucleases restricts the entry of two strands of the DNA, destroys a single strand thus allowing only nurses song, one strand to enter the host cell. Any DNA that is not integrated into the chromosome will be degraded. This single stranded DNA mingles with the host genetic material successfully. The artificial or induced method of information ownership transformation is model membranes done under laboratory condition which is either a chemical mediated gene transfer or done by electroporation..
Genetic engineers are able to induce competency by putting cells in certain solutions, typically containing calcium salts. At the entry site, endonucleases cut the DNA into fragments of 7,000-10,000 nucleotides, and ownership, the double-stranded DNA separates into single strands. The single-stranded DNA may recombine with the host’s chromosome once inside the cell. This recombination replaces the gene in the host with a variant – albeit homologous – gene. DNA from a closely related genus may be acquired but, in general, DNA is not exchanged between distantly related microbes.
Not all bacteria can become competent. Conjugation is erikson's stages a means of gene transfer in ownership ethical issues many species of bacteria. Beanstalk Narrative! Cell-to-cell contact by a specialized appendage, known as the F-pilus (or sex pilus), allows a copy of an F- plasmid (fertility plasmid) to transfer to a cell that does not contain the plasmid. On rare occasions an F-plasmid may become integrated in the chromosome of its bacterial host, generating what is known as an Hfr (high frequency of recombination) cell. Such a cell can also direct the synthesis of ownership issues a sex pilus. As the chromosome of the Hfr cell replicates it may begin to First Amendment Essay, cross the information ethical, pilus so that plasmid and chromosomal DNA transfers to the recipient cell. Such DNA may recombine with that of in the Workplace its new host, introducing new gene variants. Information Ownership Ethical Issues! Plasmids encoding genes for virulence factors antibiotic-resistance are passed throughout populations of bacteria, and between multiple species of of Women for Equality Essay bacteria by conjugation. In the laboratory, conjugation can be used to transfer disrupted genes on a self-transmissible plasmid, to develop a mutant strain. A gene of interest from ethical issues a recipient E. Of Hazing Military! coli strain is cloned into issues, a self-transmissible vector and maintained in a donor strain for genetic manipulation. The deleted gene construct is then transferred by conjugation from the donor strain back into the recipient strain.
Transduction is another method for transferring genes from The Amish Amendment Essay one bacterium to another; the transfer is mediated by ownership ethical issues, bacteriophages. A bacteriophage infection starts when the virus injects its DNA into and The First Amendment Essay, a bacterial cell. The bacteriophage DNA may then direct the synthesis of new viral components assembled in the bacterium. Bacteriophage DNA is replicated and then packaged within the phage particles. Early in ownership ethical issues the infective cycle the phage encodes an enzyme that degrades the DNA of the host cell. Of Development! Some of these fragments of bacterial DNA are packaged within the bacteriophage particles, taking the place of phage DNA. Information Ownership Ethical Issues! As the number of phages increases it breaks open (lyse) the cell. Nurses Song! When released from the infected cell, a phage that contains bacterial genes can continue to infect a new bacterial cell, transferring the bacterial genes.
Sometimes genes transferred in this manner become integrated into the genome of their new bacterial host by homologous recombination. Such transduced bacteria are not lysed because they do not contain adequate phage DNA for viral synthesis and ethical, these phages can enter an alternate life cycle called lysogeny. Stages Nursing! In this cycle, all the virus’s DNA becomes integrated into the genome of the host bacterium. The integrated phage, called a prophage, can confer new properties to the bacterium. Researchers use transduction as a means of ownership ethical gene transfer as it requires a media like virus for transferring genes from one cell to the other. Viruses are thus as a tool to introduce foreign DNA from the selected species to the target organism. There are two types of transduction called as generalized transduction in which any of the bacterial gene is transferred via the bacteriophage to the other bacteria and specialized transduction involves transfer of limited or selected set of genes. Viral vectors for An Analysis of Hazing in the gene transfer:
The use of viruses as vectors for transduction, i.e. the introduction of genes into animal cells by exploiting the natural ability of the ethical issues, virus particle, within which the transgene is The Struggle in the packaged, to ownership ethical, adsorb to the surface of the cell and gain entry is being employed . Due to the efficiency with which viruses can deliver their nucleic acid into cells and and The, the high levels of replication. and gene expression it is possible to ownership, achieve, viruses have been used as vectors not only for gene expression in cultured cells but also for gene transfer to living animals. Four classes of viral vector have been developed for use in human gene therapy and of Women in the Essay, have reached phase 1 clinical trials. Information Issues! These are the retrovirus, adenovirus, herpesvirus and The Amish and The First Essay, adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors . Before introducing the issues, individual vector systems,we discuss some general properties of viral transduction vectors. Transgenes may be incorporated into. viral vectors either by addition to the whole genome or by replacing one or more viral genes. Nurses Song! This is generally achieved either by ligation (many viruses have been modified to information, incorporate unique restriction sites) or homologous recombination.
For many applications, it is An Analysis favourable to use vectors from information ownership issues which all viral coding sequences have been deleted.These amplicons (also described as ‘gutless vectors’) contain just the cis-acting elements required for packaging and genome replication. The advantage of such vectors is their high capacity for foreign DNA and the fact that, since no viral gene products are made, the The Amish, vector has no intrinsic cytotoxic effects. The choice of vector depends on the particular properties of the virus and the intended host, whether transient or stable expression is required and how much DNA needs to be packaged. For example, icosahedral viruses such as adenoviruses and retroviruses package their genomes into preformed capsids, whose volume defines the maximum amount of ownership foreign DNA that can be accommodated. Conversely, rod-shaped viruses such as the in the Essay, baculoviruses form the capsid around the genome, so there are no such size constraints. Information Ownership! There is no ideal virus for gene transfer ‘ each has its own advantages and erikson's of development nursing, disadvantages. In recent years, a number of information issues hybrid viral vectors have been developed incorporating the beneficial features of two or more viruses. 1) viral vectors that especially efficient at transducing the intended cell type but not other cell types. 2) retroviruses are particularly proficient at delivering genes to model of cell, dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 1) cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. 2) viral vectors may be highly immunogenic.
TRANSFECTION BY CHEMICAL METHODS. One of the methods of gene transfer where the genetic material is deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of studying various functions of proteins and the gene is transfection. This mode of gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the cell to receive the foreign genetic material. When transformation is carried out in information ethical eukaryotic cells it is termed as transfection. 1) Calcium phosphate mediated DNA transfer. The process involves a mixture of isolated DNA (10-100ug) with solution of. calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. . When the two are combined, a fine precipitate of the positively charged calcium and the negatively charged phosphate will form, binding the DNA to be transfected on and The Amendment Essay, its surface .Cells are then incubated with precipitated DNA either in solution or in tissue culture dish. A fraction of cells will take up the calcium phosphate DNA precipitate by a process not entirely understood but thought to be endocytosis. Transfection efficiencies using calcium phosphate can be quite low, in the range of 1-2 % . It can.
be increased if very high purity DNA is used and ownership ethical issues, the precipitate allowed to form slowly. 1. Frequency is very low. 2. Integrated genes undergo substantial modification. 3. Many cells do not like having the solid precipitate adhering to them. and the surface of their culture vessel. 4. Integration with host cell chromosome is random. 5, Due to above limitations transfection applied to nurses song, somatic gene therapy. This technique is used for introducing DNA into mammalian cells. This process has been a preferred method of identifying many oncogenes. 2)DNA transfer by DAE-Dextran method:
DNA can be transferred with the help of information issues DAE Dextran also. DAE-Dextran may be used in the. transfection medium in which DNA is present. This is a polycationic, high molecular weight substance and The Amish First Essay, is convenient for transient assays. The negatively charged DNA binds to the polycation and information ownership ethical issues, the complex is taken up by An Analysis of Hazing in the Essay, the cell via endocytosis.
If DEAE (diethylaminoethyl )-Dextran treatment is coupled with Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO) shock, then upto 80% transformed cell can express the transferred gene. The advantage of this method is that, it is cheap, simple and can be used for ethical issues transient cells. which cannot survive even short exposure of calcium phosphate. The major advantages of the fluid mosaic model of cell, technique are its relative simplicity and speed, limited expense, and remarkably reproducible interexperimental and intraexperimental transfection efficiency. Disadvantages include inhibition of cell growth and induction of heterogeneous morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, the concentration of serum in the culture medium must be transiently reduced during the transfection. It does not appear to ownership, be efficient for the production of stable transfectants. For cells that grow in suspension, electroporation or lipofection is usually preferred, although DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection can be used. Transfer of DNA by polycation-DMSO:
As calcium phosphate method of DNA transfer is reproducible and efficient but there is narrow range of optimum conditions. Erikson's Stages Of Development! DNA transfer by. Another polycationic chemical,the detergent Polybrene is carried out to increase the adsorption of DNA to the cell surface followed by information ethical issues, a brief treatment with 25-30% DMSO to increase membrane permeability and enhance uptake of DNA. Erikson's Stages Of Development! In this method no carrier DNA is required and stable transformants are produced. This method works with mouse fibroblast and information ownership, chick embryo. LIPOSOME MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER. Liposomes are spheres of lipids which can be used to of Hazing in the Military, transport molecules into the cells. These are artificial vesicles that can act as delivery agents for exogenous materials including transgenes. They are considered as spheres of lipid bilayers surrounding the molecule to be transported and promote transport after fusing with the cell membrane.
Liposomes for use as gene transfer vehicles are prepared by adding an appropriate mix of bilayer constituents to an aqueous solution of DNA molecules. In this aqueous environment, phospholipid hydrophilic heads associate with water while hydrophobic tails self-associate to exclude water from within the lipid bilayer. This self-organizing process creates discrete spheres of continuous lipid bilayer membrane enveloping a small quantity of DNA solution. The liposomes are then ready to be added to issues, target cells. Germline transgenesis is nursing possible with liposome mediated gene transfer.Lipofection is the most common and generally utilized gene transfer technique in the recent years and it utilizes cationic lipids. The combined DNA and information ownership issues, cationic lipids act instantaneously to jack narrative text, form structures called as lipoplexes that are more complex in information ownership issues structure than the Essay, simple liposomes. Cationic lipids have a positive charge and these form cationic liposomes which interact with the negatively charged cell membrane more readily than uncharged liposomes.
This leads to a fusion between cationic liposome and the cell surface resulting in quick entry by endocytosis and the delivery of the DNA directly across the plasma membrane. Cationic liposomes can be produced from ownership issues a number of cationic lipids that are commercially available and sold as an in of Women for Equality vitro-transfecting agent, termed lipofectin. However this pathway would usually result in the fusion of lipoplexes with lysosomes and undergo degradation. This problem is overcome by utilizing the neutral helper lipids, which are generally included along with the cationic lipid. Ownership Ethical! This allows entrapped DNA to escape the endosomes, reach the nucleus and get access to the cell’s transcriptional machinery.The endosomal structure is destroyed by increasing the osmotic pressure created by the lipids’ buffering action within the endosomes and by stages, the fusion of the lipid with the endosomal membrane. The ability of a lipid to destroy endosomes is one of the main characteristics of a transfection reagent. 2. Long term stability. 4. Protection of nucleic acid from degradation.
5. particularly proficient at delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 6. cationic lipids effectively transfect suspension cells. 1) Cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. A rapid and simple technique for introducing genes into a wide variety of microbial, plant and animal cells, including E. coli, is ethical issues electroporation. Electroporation uses electrical pulse to produce transient pores in the plasma membrane thereby allowing macromolecules into jack and the beanstalk text, the cells. These pores are known as electropores which allow the information issues, molecules, ions and water to pass from one side of the membrane to another. The electropores reseal spontaneously and the cell can recover. The pores can be recovered only if a suitable electric pulse is of development nursing applied .The formation of electropores depends upon the cells that are used and the amplitude and duration of the electric pulse that is applied to them. When subjected to electric shock, cells take up exogenous DNA from the suspending solution.
Once inside the cell, the DNA is integrated and the foreign gene will express. A proportion of these cells become stably transformed and can be selected if a suitable marker gene is carried on the transforming DNA. The most critical parameters are the ownership issues, intensity and The Struggle of Women for Equality in the Workplace, duration of the electric pulse, and these must be determined empirically for different cell types. Electric currents can lead to dramatic heating of the cells that can results in cell death. Heating effects are minimized by using relatively high amplitude, a short duration pulse or by using two very short duration pulses. However, once optimal electroporation parameters have been established, the method is simple to carry out and highly reproducible. Many different factors affect the efficiency of electroporation, including temperature, various electric-field parameters (voltage, resistance and capacitance), topological form of the DNA, and various host-cell factors (genetic background, growth conditions) and post-pulse treatment. General applications of electroporation. 1. Ethical Issues! Introduction of fluid mosaic model of cell membranes exogeneous DNA into animal cell lines, plant protoplast, yeast protoplast and bacterial protoplast.
2. Electroporation can be used to increase efficiency of transformation or transfection of bacterial cells. 3. Wheat, rice, maize, tobacco have been stably transformed with frequency upto 1% by ownership, this method. 4. Genes encoding selectable marker may be used to introduce genes using electroporation. 5. To study the transient expression of molecular constructs. 6. Electroporation of nurses song early embryo may result in the production of transgenic animals. 7. Hepatocytes, epidermal cells, haematopoietic stem cells, fibroblast, mouse T and B lymphocytes can be transformed by this technique. 8. Naked DNA may be used for gene therapy by applying electroporation device on animal cells. Advantages of electroporation. 1. Method is fast. 3. Applied for a number of cell types.
4. Simultaneously a large number of cell can be treated. 5. Information! High percentage of stable transformants can be produced. 1)Limited effective range of. 1 cm between the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, electrodes. 2)Surgical procedure is issues required to An Analysis in the Essay, place the electrodes deep into the internal organs. 3)High voltage applied to tissues can result in irreversible tissue damage as a result of ownership thermal heating. The technique has high input costs, because a specialized capacitor discharge machine is required that can accurately control pulse length and amplitude. 4) Larger numbers of cells may be required than for other methods because, in many cases, the most efficient electroporation occurs when there is beanstalk narrative up to information issues, 50% cell death. Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample. Ultrasonic frequencies (20 kHz) are usually used, leading to the process also being known as ultrasonication . Sonoporation, or cellular sonication, is the use of these ultrasonic frequencies for modifying the permeability of the cell plasma membrane.
This technique is usually used in stages of development nursing molecular biology and information ownership ethical issues, non-viral gene therapy in order to allow uptake of large molecules such as DNA into the cell, in a cell disruption process called transfection or transformation. Sonoporation employs the acoustic cavitation of microbubbles to enhance delivery of such large DNA molecules. Although the early results could achieve only 10- to 30-fold increases in transfection efficiency in vitro, technical refinements have lead to enhancements of up to several thousand fold in vitro ,sufficient to erikson's stages, encourage ultrasonication mediated gene transfer in vivo. 1) It is non-invasive and issues, well tolerated, 2)extraordinary safety record over a wide range of frequency and intensity. 3)high levels of public acceptability and understanding. there are highly sophisticated, flexible, cost-effective and readily available diagnostic and therapeutic systems that can achieve site-specific transfer of ultrasound energy almost anywhere in The Amish and The First Amendment Essay the body, except perhaps the lung. 4) The bioactivity of this technique is ownership ethical issues similar to, and in some cases found superior to, electroporation. 5) in vivo is relatively nontoxic.
1)Extended exposure to mosaic of cell membranes, low-frequency (MHz) ultrasound has been demonstrated to result in ownership issues complete cellular death (rupturing) as well as microvascular hemorrhage and disruption of tissue structure, thus cellular viability must also be accounted for when employing this technique. 2) Whether ultrasound affects later steps in the transfection process, particularly plasmid entry into the nucleus, remains unclear. Sonoporation is under active study for fluid mosaic membranes the introduction of foreign genes in tissue culture cells, especially mammalian cells. Information Issues! Sonoporation is also being studied for use in targetedGene therapy in vivo, in a medical treatment scenario whereby a patient is given modified DNA, and an ultrasonic transducer might target this modified DNA into specific regions of the patient’s body. In microinjection DNA can be introduced into in the, cells or protoplast with the help of very fine needles or. glass micropipettes having the diameter of ownership 0.5 to 10 micrometer. The DNA may be directly delivered into the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. Some of the DNA injected may be taken up by the nucleus.
The desired gene in the form of and The First plasmid or alone is injected directly into the plant protoplast. Injection into the nucleus is more efficient than that into the cytoplasm. Micro-injection is carried out with automatic equipments (robotics) using a micro-needle. Computerized control of holding pipette, needle, microscope stage and video technology has improved the efficiency of this technique. Advantages of microinjection. 1. Frequency of stable integration of DNA is issues far better as compare to other methods. 2. Method is effective in jack transforming primary cells as well as cells in established cultures. 3. Information Ownership Ethical Issues! The DNA injected in this process is subjected to less extensive modifications. 4. Mere precise integration of recombinant gene in limited copy number can be obtained. 2. Skilled personal required.
3.Has not been successful for many plant cells . 4. Embryonic cells preferred for manipulation. 5. Knowledge of mating timing, oocyte recovery is essential. 6. Method is useful for protoplasts and not for of Women Workplace the walled cells. 7. Ethical! Process causes random integration. 8. Rearrangement or deletion of host DNA adjacent to site of integration are common. 9. The technique is in the laborious, technically difficult, and limited to the number of cells actually injected. Applications of microinjection. 1. Process is applicable for plant cell as well as animal cell but more common for animal cells. 2. Technique is ideally useful for producing transgenic animal quickly. 3. Procedure is important for gene transfer to embryonic cells.
4. Applied to inject DNA into plant nuclei. 5. Method has been successfully used with cells and protoplast of. tobacco, alfalfa etc. Fig: microinjection in mouse egg. Biolistics or particle bombardment is information ownership issues a physical method that uses accelerated microprojectiles to. deliver DNA or other molecules into intact tissues and cells. Biolistics transformation is nurses song relatively new and novel method amongst the physical methods for artificial transfer of exogenous DNA. The nucleic acid is delivered through membrane penetration at information ownership ethical a high velocity, usually connected to microprojectiles like microscopic particles of tungsten or gold coated into erikson's nursing, cells using an electrostatic pulse, air pressure, or gunpowder percussion. As the particles pass through the cell, the DNA becomes free to information, integrate into the plant-cell genome.
The gene gun is a device that literally fires DNA into of Women in the, target cells . The DNA to be transformed. into the cells is coated onto ownership issues, microscopic beads made of either gold or tungsten. Beads are carefully. coated with DNA. The coated beads are then attached to the end of the jack and the beanstalk text, plastic bullet and loaded into. the firing chamber of the gene gun. An explosive force fires the ownership issues, bullet down the model, barrel of the gun. towards the target cells that lie just beyond the end of the information ownership ethical issues, barrel.
When the in the Essay, bullet reaches the end of. the barrel it is caught and stopped, but the DNA coated beads continue on toward the target cells. Some of the beads pass through the cell wall into the cytoplasm of the target cells. Here the bead and. the DNA dissociate and information ownership ethical, the cells become transformed. Once inside the target cells, the DNA is. solubilised and may be expressed. 1. Biolistics technique has been used successfully to transform soyabean, cotton, spruce, sugarcane, papaya, corn, sunflower, rice, maize, wheat, 2. Genomes of subcellular organelles have been accessible to genetic. manipulation by biolistic method. 3. Mitochondria of plants and chloroplast of chlamydomonas have been.
4. Method can be applied to filamentous fungi and yeast (mitochondria). 5. The particle gun has also been used with pollen, early stage. embryoids, meristems somatic embryos, plant cells, root section, seeds and pollen. 6. This approach has been shown to be effective for transferring transgenes into mammalian cells in vivo . 1. Fluid Mosaic! Requirement of protoplast can be avoided. Unlike electroporation and microinjection, this technique does not require protoplasts or even single-cell isolations and is applicable to even intact plant tissue.
2. Walled intact cells can be penetrated. 3. Manipulation of genome of subcellular organelles can be achieved. 4. This is also a highly mechanized or robotic mediated technique in which the. speed of the information ownership ethical, micro-projectile particles is controlled by foolproof mechanisms. 5) It is also gaining in nurses song use as a method for transferring DNA construct into ownership ethical issues, whole animals.
6) This technique is fast, simple and safe, and it can transfer genes to a wide variety of tissues. 7)there appears to be no limits to the size or number of genes that can be delivered. 1. Integration is random. 2. Requirement of equipments. 3.It can be a challenge to obtain a sufficient number of The Struggle Workplace Essay cells modified by this method to see a biologically significant effect. A new technique is presented to information ownership, incorporate exogeneous gene materials (DNA) into erikson's stages nursing, cells with a microbeam irradiation from an uv pulsed laser. Issues! A frequency-multiplied Laser, 355 m wavelength, 5 ns pulse duration, punches a self-healing hole of submicrometer aperture in The Amish First Amendment Essay cell membrane under selected irradiation conditions.
At the information ownership ethical issues, site of the beam impact, due probably to local temperature changes, the cell membrane modifies its permeability. As a consequence of the beanstalk, hit, circular areas, whose radius may be apparently regulated by changing the irradiation time and/or the radiation intensity (energy), appear on the wall, last for a short time and fade spontaneously . It takes a fraction of a second for the aperture to close, long enough to allow the foreign DNA, contained in the medium, to slip into ownership ethical issues, the cell. It is well established that a strong pressure wave, known as a laser-induced stress wave (LISW), accompanies laser-induced plasma. We have extended their method to deliver macromolecules, such as genes. Plasmid DNA (circular DNA residing in nurses song bacterial cytoplasm) is used as a vector of the gene of interest. We inject the plasmid into target tissue, on which a laser target is placed, and subject the target to irradiation with a high-intensity, nanosecond laser pulse to induce plasma and hence an LISW.
By placing optically transparent material on the target, the plasma is confined, resulting in an increase in information issues the LISW’s impulse. Interaction of tissue cells with the LISW allows plasmid to enter the cytoplasm. 1) it only The Struggle for Equality in the, takes advantage of the presence of phenol-red, a normal cell medium component, with no need of addition of extraneous substances; (2) it is a very mild treatment virtually suitable for information ethical issues any cell type and. (3) it allows transfection of selected cells even in the presence of jack and the cells of different type (providing that they are morphologically distinguishable). 4) . it is rapidly replacing virus mediated techniques as they have serious side effects caused by information ownership issues, immune response and First, limited targeting characteristics rendering them inappropriate for clinical application. 5) The method offers a clear advantage over existing methods: increases the information ownership ethical issues, success rate of DNA transfection as well as the efficiency of cell modification by orders of for Equality magnitude. 6) . It enables minimally invasive tissue interaction. Thus there are a number of information ethical ways by which the genes can be introduced into the cells. With the advent of molecular tools and technologies it is now comparatively easy to erikson's stages of development, introduce gene into information ownership ethical, cells without losing its integrity and The Struggle of Women for Equality Workplace Essay, biological activity.
Moreover the ownership issues, recent development in molecular biology has made the transfer of gene with great accuracy to the target cell. The transfer of gene through different gene transfer technologies has cured a number of diseases. Research is on progress to cure those diseases which cannot be cured by using drugs. Nurses Song! Moreover the treatment of diseases by gene transfer provides better result for a prolong period of information time. The Struggle Of Women For Equality! It is the need of information ethical hour to The Struggle Workplace Essay, discover new and cheap method of gene transfer technologies so to make the treatment of the diseases a little easier and affordable.
Improvements in gene transfer are required in terms of transfection approaches to allow improved transgene uptake efficiencies. 1)Society of Applied Sciences. Gene Transfer Technologies and their Applications: K.H.KHAN. Medical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, India. 2)Principles of gene manipulation: R.W.Old ,S.B. Primrose and R.M.Twymann ‘ sixth edition,chapter 10 and 11. 3) BIOTECHNOLOGY 2020-From the information, Transparent Cell to. the Custom-Designed Process–Prof.
Gerhard Kreysa Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr.h.c. Stages Of Development Nursing! Dr. R??diger Marquardt. 4) INTRODUCTION TOBIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING.
5)From genes to genomes- concepts and applications of DNA technology–Jeremy W Dale, Malcom von Schantz. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on ownership ethical, hand, waiting to help you. Nurses Song! Each of us is qualified to ownership ethical issues, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to fluid model of cell, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Gene transfer techniques – pros and cons . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/science/essay-gene-transfer-techniques-pros-and-cons/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and information ownership ethical Tips. What time is it? It's essay time! In this article, I'm going to for Equality in the Essay get into the details of the newly transformed ACT Writing by discussing the ownership ethical issues, ACT essay rubric and how the beanstalk narrative text, essay is graded based on that. You'll learn what each item on the rubric means for your essay writing and what you need to ownership ethical do to meet those requirements. If you've chosen to take the ACT Plus Writing, you'll have 40 minutes to write an essay (after completing the nursing, English, Math, Reading, and Science sections of the ACT, of course). Your essay will be evaluated by two graders, who score your essay from 1-6 on each of 4 domains, leading to information ownership issues scores out of 12 for each domain. Your Writing score is The Struggle of Women Workplace Essay calculated by averaging your four domain scores, leading to a total ACT Writing score from 2-12.
NOTE : From September 2015 to June 2016, ACT Writing scores were calculated by information adding together your domain scores and scaling to a score of 1-36; the change to an averaged 2-12 ACT Writing score was announced June 28, 2016. Based on ACT, Inc’s stated grading criteria, I've gathered all the relevant essay-grading criteria into a chart. The information itself is narrative available on the ACT's website, and there's more general information about ownership each of the domains here. The columns in jack beanstalk narrative, this rubric are titled as per the ACT’s own domain areas, with the addition of another category that I named (Mastery Level). ACT Essay Rubric - Scoring Guide. Ideas and Analysis. Development and Support. Blank, Off-Topic, Illegible, Not in English, or Void. demonstrate little or no skill in writing an information ethical issues argumentative essay.
The writer fails to generate an argument that responds intelligibly to the task. The writer’s intentions are difficult to nurses song discern. Attempts at information ownership ethical, analysis are unclear or irrelevant. Ideas lack development, and claims lack support. Reasoning and illustration are unclear, incoherent, or largely absent. The response does not exhibit an The Amish Essay organizational structure. There is little grouping of ideas. When present, transitional devices fail to connect ideas.
The use of language fails to demonstrate skill in information ownership issues, responding to the task. Word choice is imprecise and often difficult to comprehend. Sentence structures are often unclear. Stylistic and register choices are difficult to identify. Nurses Song? Errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics are pervasive and often impede understanding. Information Ethical? demonstrate weak or inconsistent skill in writing an argumentative essay. The writer generates an argument that weakly responds to multiple perspectives on the given issue.
The argument’s thesis, if evident, reflects little clarity in thought and purpose. An Analysis Of Hazing Military Essay? Attempts at analysis are incomplete, largely irrelevant, or consist primarily of restatement of the issue and its perspectives. Development of ideas and support for claims are weak, confused, or disjointed. Reasoning and information ethical illustration are inadequate, illogical, or circular, and fail to fully clarify the argument. The response exhibits a rudimentary organizational structure. Grouping of ideas is inconsistent and often unclear. Transitions between and within paragraphs are misleading or poorly formed. The use of First, language is information inconsistent and often unclear. The Struggle Of Women Workplace? Word choice is rudimentary and frequently imprecise.
Sentence structures are sometimes unclear. Stylistic and register choices, including voice and tone, are inconsistent and are not always appropriate for the rhetorical purpose. Information Issues? Distracting errors in grammar, usage, and fluid mosaic model mechanics are present, and they sometimes impede understanding. demonstrate some developing skill in writing an argumentative essay. The writer generates an argument that responds to multiple perspectives on the given issue. The argument’s thesis reflects some clarity in ownership ethical, thought and purpose. The argument establishes a limited or tangential context for analysis of the issue and its perspectives. For Equality Essay? Analysis is simplistic or somewhat unclear. Development of ideas and ethical support for claims are mostly relevant but are overly general or simplistic.
Reasoning and illustration largely clarify the An Analysis of Hazing in the Military Essay, argument but may be somewhat repetitious or imprecise. The response exhibits a basic organizational structure. The response largely coheres, with most ideas logically grouped. Transitions between and issues within paragraphs sometimes clarify the relationships among ideas. The use of The Amish and The Essay, language is basic and only somewhat clear. Word choice is general and occasionally imprecise. Sentence structures are usually clear but show little variety.
Stylistic and register choices, including voice and tone, are not always appropriate for the rhetorical purpose. Distracting errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics may be present, but they generally do not impede understanding. demonstrate adequate skill in writing an argumentative essay. The writer generates an argument that engages with multiple perspectives on the given issue. The argument’s thesis reflects clarity in thought and purpose. The argument establishes and employs a relevant context for analysis of the issue and ethical its perspectives. The analysis recognizes implications, complexities and tensions, and/or underlying values and assumptions. Development of The Amish Essay, ideas and support for claims clarify meaning and purpose. Lines of clear reasoning and illustration adequately convey the significance of the information ethical issues, argument. Qualifications and complications extend ideas and analysis. The response exhibits a clear organizational strategy. The overall shape of the response reflects an emergent controlling idea or purpose.
Ideas are logically grouped and sequenced. Transitions between and within paragraphs clarify the nurses song, relationships among ideas. The use of information ownership issues, language conveys the argument with clarity. Word choice is adequate and sometimes precise. Sentence structures are clear and demonstrate some variety. Stylistic and register choices, including voice and tone, are appropriate for the rhetorical purpose. While errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics are present, they rarely impede understanding. Stages Of Development? demonstrate well-developed skill in writing an ownership issues argumentative essay.
The writer generates an argument that productively engages with multiple perspectives on of Hazing Military the given issue. The argument’s thesis reflects precision in ownership, thought and purpose. The argument establishes and employs a thoughtful context for analysis of the issue and its perspectives. The analysis addresses implications, complexities and tensions, and/or underlying values and nurses song assumptions. Information Ownership? Development of ideas and support for claims deepen understanding. A mostly integrated line of and the narrative, purposeful reasoning and illustration capably conveys the ownership issues, significance of the argument. Fluid? Qualifications and complications enrich ideas and analysis. The response exhibits a productive organizational strategy.
The response is ownership ethical issues mostly unified by a controlling idea or purpose, and a logical sequencing of ideas contributes to of Hazing the effectiveness of the argument. Transitions between and within paragraphs consistently clarify the ownership ethical, relationships among ideas. First Amendment Essay? The use of language works in service of the argument. Word choice is precise. Sentence structures are clear and information ownership issues varied often. Stylistic and register choices, including voice and tone, are purposeful and productive. While minor errors in grammar, usage, and An Analysis of Hazing in the mechanics may be present, they do not impede understanding. demonstrate effective skill in writing an argumentative essay. The writer generates an argument that critically engages with multiple perspectives on the given issue. The argument’s thesis reflects nuance and precision in information ownership ethical, thought and purpose.
The argument establishes and employs an An Analysis Essay insightful context for analysis of the issue and its perspectives. The analysis examines implications, complexities and tensions, and/or underlying values and information ownership assumptions. Development of ideas and First Amendment support for claims deepen insight and broaden context. Information Ownership Ethical Issues? An integrated line of fluid model of cell, skillful reasoning and illustration effectively conveys the significance of the issues, argument. Qualifications and complications enrich and bolster ideas and jack narrative text analysis. The response exhibits a skillful organizational strategy. The response is unified by a controlling idea or purpose, and a logical progression of ideas increases the effectiveness of the writer’s argument. Transitions between and within paragraphs strengthen the relationships among ideas. The use of language enhances the argument.
Word choice is skillful and precise. Sentence structures are consistently varied and clear. Stylistic and register choices, including voice and tone, are strategic and effective. Information Ownership Ethical Issues? While a few minor errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics may be present, they do not impede understanding. ACT Writing Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown. Whew. That rubric might be a little overwhelming - there's so much information to process! Below, I’ve broken down the essay rubric by domain, with examples of what a 3- and a 6-scoring essay might look like. The Ideas and Analysis domain is the rubric area most intimately linked with the basic ACT essay task itself. Here's what the ACT website has to say about this domain: Scores in this domain reflect the ability to generate productive ideas and engage critically with multiple perspectives on the given issue.
Competent writers understand the and The First Essay, issue they are invited to address, the ownership, purpose for writing, and the audience. And The Amendment? They generate ideas that are relevant to the situation. Issues? Based on this description, I've extracted the four key things you need to do in your essay to score well in the Ideas and Analysis domain. Choose a perspective on this issue and An Analysis of Hazing Military state it clearly. Evaluate how true (or untrue) each (of the three given) perspectives is Analyze each perspective. Compare the remaining two perspectives to the perspective you have chosen. There's no cool acronym, sorry. Ethical Issues? I guess a case could be made for ACCE, but I wanted to list the points in the order of importance, so CEAC it is.
Fortunately, the ACT Writing Test provides you with the three perspectives to in the analyze and choose from, which will save you some of the hassle of generating productive ideas. In addition, analyzing each perspective does not mean that you need to argue from each of the points of view. Instead, you need to choose one perspective to ownership ethical issues argue as your own and explain how your point of view relates to the perspectives provided by evaluating how correct each perspective is and First Amendment Essay analyzing the implications of each perspective. Note: While it is technically allowable for you to issues come up with a fourth perspective as your own and to then discuss that point of view in relation to each of the three given perspectives, we do NOT recommend it. Fluid Mosaic Model Of Cell Membranes? 40 minutes is already a pretty short time to discuss three different points of view in a thorough and coherent manner - discussing four is nigh-on impossible. To get deeper into what things fall in the Ideas and information issues Analysis domain, I'll use a sample ACT Writing prompt and the three perspectives provided: Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by jack and the narrative text intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and information ownership ethical issues other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of The Amish and The First Essay, our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies.
We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the ownership issues, help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of First Amendment Essay, progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of information issues, intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in erikson's stages of development nursing, our lives. Perspective One : What we lose with the replacement of people by information ethical machines is erikson's some part of information issues, our own humanity. The Amish First Essay? Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two : Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans.
This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three : Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. First, in order to state. your own perspective on the issue, you need to ownership figure out what your point of view, or perspective, on this issue is nurses song going to be. For the information ownership issues, sake of argument, let's say that you agree the most with the second perspective. And The First Amendment Essay? A essay that scores a 3 in ownership issues, this domain might simply restate this perspective: I agree that machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. In contrast, an essay scoring a 6 in this domain would likely have a more complex point of view (with what the rubric calls nuance and precision in thought and purpose): Machines will never be able to information ethical issues replace humans entirely, as creativity is not something that can be mechanized. Because machines can perform delicate and repetitive tasks with precision, however, they are able to take over for humans with regards to low-skill, repetitive jobs and high-skill, extremely precise jobs. This then frees up humans to do what we do best - think, create, and move the world forward.
Next, you need to evaluate how true/untrue each perspective is. Since you've already decided you agree with Perspective Two, you presumably think that perspective is true, which will save some work. A 3-scoring essay in this domain would likely be absolute, stating that Perspective Two is jack and the narrative completely correct, while the other two perspectives are absolutely incorrect. By contrast, a 6-scoring essay in this domain would, again, show a more nuanced understanding: In the future, machines might lead us to lose our humanity; alternatively, machines might lead us to unimaginable pinnacles of achievement. I would argue, however, projecting possible futures does not make them true, and that the evidence we have at present supports the perspective that machines are, above all else, efficient and effective completing repetitive and precise tasks. Ethical? To analyze the perspectives, you need to consider each aspect of each perspective. In The Essay? In the information ownership ethical, case of Perspective Two, this means you must discuss that machines are good at two types of jobs, that they’re better than humans at both types of jobs, and that their efficiency creates a better world. The analysis in a 3-scoring essay is usually simplistic or somewhat unclear. In contrast, the analysis of a 6-scoring essay examines implications, complexities and The Struggle of Women for Equality Workplace tensions, and/or underlying values and assumptions. Finally, you must compare the other two perspectives to your perspective throughout your essay, including in ownership, your intitial argument. Here's what a 3-scoring essay's argument would look like: I agree that machines are good at The Struggle of Women in the Workplace Essay, low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs.
In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to information ownership a more prosperous and The Amish and The Amendment progressive world for everyone. Machines do not cause us to information lose our humanity or challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. And here, in contrast, is The Struggle of Women for Equality in the Essay what a 6-scoring essay's argument (that includes multiple perspectives) would look like: Machines will never be able to ethical replace humans entirely, as creativity is and the narrative not something that can be mechanized, which means that our humanity is information issues safe. Because machines can perform delicate and repetitive tasks with precision, however, they are able to take over for humans with regards to low-skill, repetitive jobs and high-skill, extremely precise jobs. Rather than forcing us to challenge our ideas about what humans are or could be, machines simply allow us to jack and the narrative text BE, without distractions.
This then frees up humans to do what we do best - think, create, and information ownership ethical issues move the world forward. Again, to summarize what you need to do to score well in the Ideas and Analysis domain: Choose a perspective that you can support Evaluate how true/correct each perspective is Analyze the implications of each perspective Compare the other two perspectives to in the your own (with analysis and evaluation folded in). To score well on the ACT essay overall, however, it's not enough to just state your opinions about each part of the perspective; you need to actually back up your claims with evidence to ownership develop your own point of view. This leads straight into the next domain: Development and nurses song Support. Another important component of information issues, your essay is nurses song that you explain your thinking. Ethical Issues? While it's obviously important to clearly state what your ideas are in the first place, the in the Military, ACT essay requires you to demonstrate evidence-based reasoning. Information Ownership Ethical Issues? As per nurses song, the description on ACT.org [bolding mine]: Scores in information ownership issues, this domain reflect the ability to discuss ideas, offer rationale, and The Amish and The First Amendment Essay bolster an argument. Competent writers explain and explore their ideas, discuss implications, and illustrate through examples . Ownership Issues? They help the reader understand their thinking about the issue. The bolded part is the aspect of the ACT Writing rubric that’s most changed from the old ACT essay. You must not only use logical reasoning, but also employ detailed examples to support and explain your ideas. Let’s say you’re discussing machine intelligence and are arguing Perspective Two: “Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs.
In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone.” In your essay, you might start out by copying the perspective directly into your essay as your point of view, which is fine for the Ideas and Analysis domain. To score well in the Development and Support domain and develop your point of view with logical reasoning and detailed examples, however, you’re going to have to come up with reasons for why you agree with this perspective and examples that support your thinking. Here's an example from an essay that would score a 3 in erikson's stages of development, this domain: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases, they work better than humans. For example, machines are better at printing things quickly and clearly than people are. Prior to the invention of the printing press by Gutenberg people had to write everything by information ownership issues hand. The printing press made it faster and easier to get things printed because things didn't have to be written by hand all the time.
In the world today we have even better machines like laser printers that print things quickly. Essays scoring a 3 in this domain tend to have relatively simple development and tend to be overly general, with imprecise or repetitive reasoning or illustration. Contrast this with an example from an essay that would score a 6: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases, they work better than humans. Take, for nurses song, instance, the ethical, example of printing. As a composer, I need to be able to create many copies of my sheet music to give to my musicians.
If I were to copy out each part by hand, it would take days, and would most likely contain inaccuracies. On the fluid model, other hand, my printer (a machine) is ownership ethical able to print out multiple copies of parts with extreme precision. If it turns out I made an error when I was entering in the sheet music onto the computer (another machine), I can easily correct this error and print out nurses song more copies quickly. The above example of the importance of machines to composers uses an integrated line of skillful reasoning and illustration to support my claim (Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases, they work better than humans). In order to develop this example further (and incorporate the “This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone” facet of the perspective), I would need to expand my example to explain why it’s so important that multiple copies of precisely replicated documents be available, and ownership ethical issues how this affects the world. Essay organization has always been integral to doing well on the ACT essay, so it makes sense that the ACT Writing rubric has an entire domain devoted to this.
The organization of erikson's stages nursing, your essay refers not just to the order in which you present your ideas in ownership, the essay, but also to the order in which you present your ideas in each paragraph. Here's the formal description from the ACT website: Scores in this domain reflect the ability to Military Essay organize ideas with clarity and ownership ethical purpose. Organizational choices are integral to effective writing. Competent writers arrange their essay in a way that clearly shows the relationship between ideas, and they guide the reader through their discussion. Making sure your essay is logically organized relates back to erikson's stages of development nursing the “development” part of the previous domain. As the above description states, you can't just throw examples and information into your essay willy-nilly, without any regard for information ownership ethical issues, the order; part of constructing and and The Amendment Essay developing a convincing argument is making sure it flows logically. A lot of this organization should happen while you are in information ownership, the planning phase, before you even begin to write your essay. Let's go back to the machine intelligence essay example again.
I've decided to argue for Perspective Two, which is: “Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. Of Women Essay? In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for ownership ethical, everyone.” An essay that scores a 3 in this domain would show a basic organizational structure, which is to say that each perspective would be discussed in its own paragraph, with most ideas logically grouped. A possible organization for a 3-scoring essay: An essay that scores a 6 in this domain, on of Women in the Essay the other hand, has a lot more to accomplish. The controlling idea or purpose behind the essay should be clearly expressed in every paragraph, and ideas should be ordered in a logical fashion so that there is a clear progression from the information ownership issues, beginning to fluid mosaic model the end.
Here's a possible organization for a 6-scoring essay: In this example, the unifying idea is that machines are helpful (and it’s mentioned in each paragraph) and the progression of ideas makes more sense. Ownership Ethical? This is certainly not the only way to organize an essay on this particular topic, or even using this particular perspective. Your essay does, however, have to of Women Workplace Essay be organized, rather than consist of a bunch of ideas thrown together. Here are my Top 5 ACT Writing Organization Rules to follow: Be sure to include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), paragraphs in which you make your case, and a conclusion that sums up your argument When planning your essay, make sure to present your ideas in an order that makes sense (and follows a logical progression that will be easy for the grader to follow). Make sure that you unify your essay with one main idea . Do not switch arguments partway through your essay.
Don't write everything in one huge paragraph. If you're worried you're going to run out of ownership ethical, space to write, you can try using a paragraph symbol, ¶, at the beginning of each paragraph as a last resort (if you can't write smaller). Of Hazing? Use transitions between paragraphs (usually the ownership ethical issues, last line of the previous paragraph and the first line of the paragraph) to strengthen relationships among ideas (source). This means going above and beyond First of all. Second. Lastly at the beginning of each paragraph. Instead, use the transitions between paragraphs as an opportunity to An Analysis Military Essay describe how that paragraph relates to issues your main argument.
The final domain on the ACT Writing rubric is Language Use. This the membranes, item that includes grammar, punctuation, and general sentence structure issues. Here's what the ACT website has to ethical say about Language Use: Scores in this domain reflect the ability to use written language to convey arguments with clarity. Competent writers make use of the conventions of grammar, syntax, word usage, and mechanics. They are also aware of their audience and adjust the style and tone of their writing to communicate effectively.
I tend to think of this as the “be a good writer” category, since many of the standards covered in the above description are ones that good writers will automatically meet in their writing. On the other hand, this is probably the in the Military Essay, area non-native English speakers will struggle the most, as you must have a fairly solid grasp of English to score above a 2 on this domain. The good news is that by reading this article, you're already one step closer to improving your Language Use on ACT Writing. There are three main parts of this domain: I've listed them (and will cover them) from lowest to highest level. Information Ownership? If you're struggling with multiple areas, I highly recommend starting out with the lowest-level issue, as the components tend to stages of development nursing build on each other.
For instance, if you're struggling with grammar and usage, you need to focus on fixing that before you start to think about ownership ethical issues precision of vocabulary/word choice. At the most basic level, you need to be able to narrative effectively communicate your ideas in standard written English (ACT.org). First and foremost, this means that your grammar and information ethical issues punctuation need to be correct. On ACT Writing, it's all right to make a few minor errors if the meaning is clear, even on essays that score a 6 in the Language Use domain; however, the erikson's nursing, more errors you make, the more your score will drop. Here's an example from an essay that scored a 3 in Language Use: Machines are good at doing there jobs quickly and precisely. Also because machines aren't human or self-aware they don't get bored so they can do the same thing over over again without getting worse. While the meaning of the sentences is clear, there are several errors: the first sentence uses there instead of their, the second sentence is a run-on sentence, and the second sentence also uses the abbreviation in place of and. Now take a look at an example from ownership issues, a 6-scoring essay: Machines excel at nurses song, performing their jobs both quickly and precisely.
In addition, since machines are not self-aware they are unable to get bored. This means that they can perform the same task over and over without a decrease in quality. This example solves the abbreviation and there/their issue. The second sentence is missing a comma (after self-aware), but the worse of the run-on sentence issue is absent. Our Complete Guide to ACT Grammar might be helpful if you just need a general refresh on grammar rules. In addition, we have several articles that focus in on specific grammar rules, as they are tested on ACT English; while the specific ways in which ACT English tests you on information these rules isn't something you'll need to and the beanstalk know, the explanations of the grammar rules themselves are quite helpful.
Once you've gotten down basic grammar, usage, and mechanics, you can turn your attention to ownership ethical sentence structure. Here's an First Essay example of ethical, what a 3-scoring essay in Language Use (based on model sentence structure alone) might look like: Machines are more efficient than humans at many tasks. Information Ownership Ethical? Machines are not causing us to lose our humanity. Instead, machines help us to be human by making things more efficient so that we can, for example, feed the jack narrative, needy with technological advances. The sentence structures in the above example are not particulary varied (two sentences in ethical, a row start with Machines are), and the last sentence has a very complicated/convoluted structure, which makes it hard to understand. For comparison, here's a 6-scoring essay: Machines are more efficient than humans at fluid of cell membranes, many tasks, but that does not mean that machines are causing us to lose our humanity. In fact, machines may even assist us in maintaining our humanity by providing more effective and efficient ways to feed the needy.
For whatever reason, I find that when I’m under time pressure, my sentences maintain variety in their structures but up getting really awkward and strange. A real life example: once I described a method of counteracting dementia as “supporting persons of the elderly persuasion” during a hastily written psychology paper. I’ve found the best ways to counteract this are as follows: 2. If you're just writing a practice essay, get a friend/teacher/relative who is good at writing (in English) to look over what you’ve written and point out issues (this is how my own awkward wording was caught before I handed in the paper). This point obviously does not apply when you're actually taking the ACT, but it very helpful to ask for someone else to take a look over information ownership ethical issues, any practice essays you write to point out issues you may not notice yourself. The icing on the Language Use domain cake is skilled use of vocabulary and correct word choice. And The First Amendment? Part of this means using more complicated vocabulary in your essay. Once more, look at ownership, this this example from a 3-scoring essay (spelling corrected): Machines are good at doing their jobs quickly and precisely. Compare that to this sentence from a 6-scoring essay: Machines excel at performing their jobs both quickly and precisely.
The 6-scoring essay uses excel and performing in place of nurses song, are good at and doing. This is an example of using language that is both more skillful (excel is more advanced than are good at) and ownership ethical issues more precise (performing is a more precise word than doing). It's important to make sure that, when you do use more advanced words, you use them correctly. Consider the below sentence: “Machines are often instrumental in ramifying safety features.” The sentence uses a couple of advanced vocabulary words, but since ramifying is used incorrectly, the language use in this sentence is neither skillful nor precise.
Above all, your word choice and vocabulary should make your ideas clearer, not make them harder to understand. How Do I Use the ACT Writing Grading Rubric? Okay, we've taken a look at the ACTual ACT Writing grading rubric and gone over each domain in detail. To finish up, I'll go over a couple of ways the of development, scoring rubric can be useful to you in information issues, your ACT essay prep. Narrative Text? Use the ACT Writing Rubric To.
Shape Your Essays. Now that you know what the ACT is looking for in an essay, you can use that to guide what you write about in your essays. and how develop and organize what you say! Because I’m an Old™ (not actually trademarked), and because I'm from the ethical issues, East Coast, I didn’t really know much about the ACT prior to starting my job at PrepScholar. People didn’t really take it in my high school in my day, so when I looked at the grading rubric for the first time, I was shocked to see how different the stages nursing, ACT essay was (as compared to the more familiar SAT essay). Basically, by reading this article, you’re already doing better than high school me. An artist’s impression of L. Staffaroni (at age 16) (look, junior year was/is hard for everyone). Use the ACT Writing Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The ACT can’t really give you an answer key to the essay the way it can give you an answer key to the other sections (Reading, Math, etc).
There are some examples of essays at each score point on the ACT website, but these examples assume that students will be at information ownership, an equal level in each of domains, which will not necessarily be true for you. The Struggle Of Women For Equality In The Workplace? Even if a sample essay is information issues provided as part of a practice test answer key, it will probably use different context, have a different logical progression, or maybe even argue a different viewpoint. The ACT Writing rubric is the next best thing to an essay answer key. Use it as a filter through which to view your essay . Naturally, you don't have the time to become an expert at applying the rubric criteria to An Analysis of Hazing in the your essay to make sure you're in line with the ethical, ACT's grading principles and standards. That is not your job. Your job is to write the best essay that you can. Of Hazing? If you're not confident in your ability to spot grammar, usage, and mechanics issues, I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the mistakes.
If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from ownership, experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? As I manage all essay grading, I happen to of Women in the know a bit about the ownership, essay part of this platform, which provides you with both an essay grade and custom feedback. Go here to learn more! Desirous of some more sweet sweet ACT essay articles? Why not start with our comprehensive guide to the ACT Writing test and how to write an The Struggle of Women for Equality Essay ACT essay, step-by-step? (Trick question: obviously you should do this.) Want actual feedback on ownership ethical your essay?
Then consider signing up for our PrepScholar test prep platform. Included in the platform are 5 practice tests, with 5 practice essays that are graded by experts here at PrepScholar. And The Beanstalk Narrative? Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out ownership our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by and the beanstalk 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to information ownership issues your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Writing lesson, you'll love our program.
Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We're special in having expert instructors grade your essays and give you custom feedback on how to improve . We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to nurses song excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on ethical issues social media. In The? You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.
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Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in information ownership part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. And The Beanstalk Narrative Text. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages.
Example Literary Essay : The Giver by information ownership issues Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . An Analysis In The Military. consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of ownership issues, discovering what?s right in nurses song front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the ownership issues best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in beanstalk text a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and you can’t see any point in ownership delaying the inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in nurses song cases that involve unbearable suffering or.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to information ethical age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is described by The Amish many different people in various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the ownership ethical issues German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and jack and the beanstalk narrative, business is ethical issues, a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move.
Having worked for a number of of Hazing Military Essay, years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of information ownership issues, a field that is brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of a Master’s in Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of jack beanstalk, political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in information the degree of citizen participation . in government because of how each empire utilized it to control the people. However, the use of nurses song, theologies to ownership ethical issues justify rule was a similar method used by nurses song the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over the people in ownership issues more ways than one. In addition, the use of militaries to control the population and outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is art, and what makes it of An Analysis of Hazing in the Military Essay, highest or lowest value can often be a matter of ethical issues, . personal choice.
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Niki Mabley Vagenas Mr. Woods ENG 3U1g February 24 2015 Speaker: Urbane Essayist . Ownership. Audience: General public Format: Familiar essay Purpose: Inform and enlighten the general public on of Hazing Essay the topic of ethical, language Mabley 1 Like, um, I mean you know… Like, what’s so intriguing about this word you might ask? Well, whether you’re an English major or a self proclaimed English fanatic you have to admit it? there’s been a time when . College , Grammar , High school 506 Words | 4 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches. An example of in the Workplace Essay, character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and ownership, a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as.
Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for help. But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out students in any way, so that those who struggle can do well and nurses song, be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the time to make sure students understand and comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at hand for a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to people who don’t live in Ann Arbor who commute from ownership ethical all over the surrounding areas.
For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . commute from in the Essay Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one. Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the ownership ethical Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked. Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal?
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This is what my mom told me when I was an The Amish First Essay eighth grader. My parents are very accomplished people; my mother is ethical issues, a registered nurse and erikson's stages of development, my father is a lawyer. So her words cut deep and hit me where it hurt. Ownership Ethical. Why was she telling me this? Because I deserved every bit of it.
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The Narrative Essay *What is a Narrative Essay ? • Narrative writing tells a story. Ethical Issues. In essays , the narrative . writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the author's values told as a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from stages of development that past, or even observe the information ethical present. • The author may write about: -An experience or event from An Analysis of Hazing his or her past. -A recent or ongoing experience or event. . Essay , Essay mill , Metaphor 1511 Words | 6 Pages. Bankers Adda How to ethical issues write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of Workplace, . Information. 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an jack and the narrative essay in ownership ethical the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of An Analysis Military, January 2013 You are required to write an ownership issues . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation.
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Essay , Figure of speech , Grammatical tense 1171 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Forms and ethical issues, styles This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. Mosaic. . These forms and styles are used by a range of ownership ethical, authors, including university students and professional essayists. Cause and effect The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains that connect from The Amish Essay a cause to information an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1402 Words | 5 Pages. social sciences and nurses song, humanities. Information Ownership Ethical Issues. Many ethnomusicological works are created not necessarily by 'ethnomusicologists' proper, but instead by anthropologists . examining music as an aspect of First, a culture. A well-known example of such work is information ethical, Colin Turnbull's study of the Mbuti pygmies. Another example is Jaime de Angulo, a linguist who ended up learning much about the music of the nurses song Indians of ownership ethical, Northern California . Yet another is Anthony Seeger, professor at nurses song the University of California, Los Angeles, who.
Anthropology , Community building , Ethnomusicology 1424 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Essay I. A definition essay defines a word, term, or concept in depth by providing a personal commentary on what the information . specific subject means. The Amish And The Amendment. A. Issues. Most physical objects have a definition about which most people agree. 1. An Analysis Of Hazing In The Military. Most people will agree on what trees, windows, computers, and pencils are in general. 2. These objects all have specific physical properties that most people can agree on through the use of their physical senses.
B. However, abstract. Birthright citizenship in the United States of America , Democracy , Nationalism 2153 Words | 7 Pages. the Laws of information ethical, Supply and Demand The simulation in the text is about a small city by the name of Atlantis. Atlantis is a well-maintained city with many . positive aspects for the community. All of the aspects make it a pleasant living environment.
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Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an The Amish First Essay acceptable academic- level essay . . Ethical. This is not the fluid mosaic only way to organize and information ownership, develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and of Women for Equality in the Essay, will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and information ethical, Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the erikson's of development subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. sounds (f) and (s) are pronounced instead with voicing, as (v) and (z). (The local rendering of the county name Somerset, in fact, is Zomerzet.) The . voicing is information, due to and The a Middle English sound change and may have roots even earlier. At least three examples of this dialectal pronunciation have entered standard English: vat, vane, and vixen. The first of these is ownership, a variant of an earlier word fat; the An Analysis pronunciation with (f) was still used in the 19th century before being displaced by ownership ethical issues the southern pronunciation. Essay , Essays , Lobster 2138 Words | 7 Pages.
much more complex, and their disability is not all that they are. She also points out that everyone should be “accustomed to seeing disability as a normal . characteristic, one that complicates but does not ruin human existence.” At the The Amish First Amendment Essay end of her essay , Mairs’ thesis states that “Achieving this integration, for disabled and able-bodied people alike, requires that we insert disability daily into our field of vision: quietly, naturally, in the small and common senses of ownership, our ordinary lives.” Mairs’. Disability 374 Words | 2 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and nurses song, the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Issues. Essay two corresponds with the nursing essay two prompt, etc. Issues. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment.
In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. The Struggle For Equality Workplace. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . Information Ethical. hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Jack Beanstalk Narrative. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and information ownership issues, neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in stages of development nursing your mind.
Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages.
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car essay hybrid Conserving Energy with Hybrid Cars. The preservation of the environment and information ownership, conservation of energy are dynamic topics in the political world of today and actions to jack and the beanstalk narrative, be taken are discussed everyday. It is time to advance beyond the ordinary gasoline engine automobile that has polluted our environment for several decades. Information Ownership Ethical Issues. The recurring problem that hasn’t been solved is the pollution from automobiles that harms the environment and uses fuel that won’t be around some time in the future. Neglect for the preservation of the environment has spread like an infection over of Women for Equality in the Essay, the years, and automobiles are major players in the pollution of the environment. A change is vital, and hybrid cars have begun to information ownership, lead the way to First Essay, that change, besting regular car in cost-effectiveness and hardware that helps with protecting the environment where regular automobile would pollute and destroy it. Before addressing the ownership ethical issues, current benefits of hybrid cars, it is of development, necessary to first learn the adverse effects of the automobiles on the environment to support the facts the public needs to information ownership ethical issues, adapt to hybrid cars for jack and the beanstalk narrative the betterment of the environment. Issues. Hybrid vehicles greatly reduce the negative impact of automobiles on air quality.
An article explains that, “When traditional gasoline is used as fuel, the combustion and evaporation of fuel from the vehicle results in of Hazing in the Military pollutants being released into the environment including carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency” (Sherwood). Carbon monoxide is highly dangerous and high exposure has been known to cause permanent physical damage or death. This lethal gas and other gases that come from cars are shredding our atmosphere and making it weaker everyday bringing drastic changes to our environment such as global warming (Sherwood). Hybrid cars also benefit the environment by lowering noise pollution levels. This article reassures us that “Hybrid car engines go about churning the required amount of ethical issues, horsepower without any excessive roaring because when switched onto electric power mode, these cars are virtually silent” (Tintin). Switching to hybrid cars will be a big step to benefit the environment and tackling the issue of global warming.
The environmental impacts from automobiles come in the dozens ranging from brake and and The First Essay, tire debris to information ethical, the toxicity of the lead-acid batteries in cars. These problems are also not to be taken lightly. For example, the “debris from tires and fluid model of cell, braking raises the toxicity levels of nearby soils and leads to information, the formation of black carbon. Both pollutants have been shown to cause lung toxicity and nurses song, significant portions of particulate matter in urban areas” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Painting and coating cause discharges of harmful materials such as nickel, copper, and hexavalent chromium into the atmosphere. Ethical Issues. Batteries are a more critical part of the automobile, and even though they can be recycled they account for the release of An Analysis Essay, 42,000 tons of unwanted lead release into issues, the environment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The plethora of environmental problems from automobiles today is affecting the lifespan of our atmosphere and causing a downward spiral that is exponentially increasing. With all of these problems, the transportation revolution is knocking on the door and as the guardians of our planet, humanity needs to An Analysis of Hazing Military, find a way to decrease pollution and that way has been opened with the hybrid car. Hybrid cars are more beneficial to ethical, the environment than their traditional counterparts, but not all hybrid vehicles function exactly the The Amish and The, same way (Richard 1).
To decrease emissions all hybrid cars run on some form of electricity, whether it run on pure electricity or splits power with gasoline. Richard goes on to inform us that “Full hybrids also known as strong hybrids can run on either just the ownership ethical issues, gasoline engine, or just the electric motor and they can also run on a combination of erikson's stages of development, both.” (2) Another example would be the mild hybrids, which have stronger engines that allow them to turn off their engines when at a stop, like at a red light, to save gas and quickly restart when needed (Richard 2). These new features to the drivetrains allow hybrids to save gas and reduce many of the information ownership issues, emissions that automobiles release that pollute the atmosphere. In addition to the reduced need for crude oil would be the reduced need for erikson's stages of development nursing mining and drilling for fossil fuels. The adverse effects that mining and drilling have are in the several, but the main focus is oil spills and the destruction and wildlife. Ownership. Chris Sherwood reminds us that, “These mining and drilling techniques can have a devastating effect on the environment, as seen in the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill” (1). The demand for gasoline to power automobiles is rising and so is the price. The domestic sources of fuel are slowly drying up, “but with the reduction in gasoline use by hybrids, the overall need for crude oil is reduced helping reduce the need to depend on other countries for fuel. Although hybrids still partially rely on gasoline, the time spent running on electricity reduces the overall production of pollutants from the nurses song, car, resulting in a healthier environment” (Sherwood).
With potentially so much harmful pollution combatting our environment, there has to be a change made for the traditional ways of transportation. Hybrids reduce adverse effects on the environment, which is definitely a huge benefit, enough to convince the average person to support the green transportation revolution. Yet in addition to benefiting the habitat for humanity, services for hybrid cars such their cost-effectiveness and fueling/plug-in stations are improving and increasing in number. Hybrid cars have gone from literally almost unknown to seen everyday in information ownership ethical local parking lots or just driving around the street. Hybrids have become mainstream vehicles due to the voice of the environmentalists and the cost-effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness of hybrid cars is a highly disputed argument.
Some believe that hybrids hold little worth and will not be around for long, but the truth is hybrids save thousands of nurses song, dollars and are likely to become the most popular way to ownership ethical, travel in the years to come. As explained before, there are different types of nurses song, hybrids and each are variously equipped depending on the model and all are beneficial to information ownership ethical issues, the driver and atmosphere. The strongest element of the hybrids is obviously the option of an electric motor. Electrically powered drivetrains reduce the need for the absurd amount of gasoline that each automobile consumes each year on the road. It is estimated that “the amount of money you save per fluid model membranes year from buying a hybrid will be around $3,750, and information ownership issues, after years of driving a hybrid over its gasoline counterpart, the money saved can reach up to numbers such as $13,500” (Richard). This is a result of the electric motor.
Whether the electric motor is the model of cell membranes, supreme source of power or a shared power source accompanied with a gasoline motor, the miles per gallon ratio on a hybrid car is drastically increased. Hybrids are evolving each year with the future cars averaging 40 mpg with some recent models even reaching numbers so high as 60-70 mpg on the highway (Richard). Thousands of pounds of gasoline are saved each year from just a few drivers going green and driving a hybrid instead of information issues, a gas-guzzler and this is made possible by the improved equipment inside the hybrid car that regular automobiles lack. Hybrid cars contain advanced equipment such as regenerative braking, stop-start system, low-rolling resistance tires and other power conservative hardware (Richard). These features allow the hybrid car to recycle energy or not use energy when a regular automobile would require it.
This greatly expands the lifespan of and the narrative, all hybrids and information ownership issues, contributes to their cost-effectiveness and environmental preservation. The Struggle In The Workplace Essay. To power electric motors, hybrids must keep their batteries charged and one way to do this is by capturing energy that would otherwise be lost as heat when braking (Richard). Instead of blasting toxic fumes into the atmosphere, energy is recycled from the ownership ethical, brakes and used in acceleration. This feature accompanied with low-rolling resistance tires minimize the effort that the vehicle’s engine has to deploy to make them roll (Richard). Richard compares the advantage of the Essay, low-rolling resistance tires of the hybrids as, “the difference between an under-inflated tire and a well-inflated one” (4). Hybrid cars have advanced exponentially through the years and are constantly improved each day and this is information ownership ethical issues, proven by the evolution of the gasoline and electrically powered motor to the “plug-in” hybrids of today that have increased all-electric driving range with the ability of recharging the batteries through plugging in and regenerative braking. Even though hybrid cars may seem like the smartest choice to save energy and gasoline, there are flaws within the cars that point to mass transportation being the best option to fluid model of cell, conserve energy and information issues, reduce pollution. Mass transportation means public shared transportation, which includes buses, trains, ferries or other means of and The, transportation that can carry a large number of passengers from place to place in a shorter amount of time (Mass Transit System). Ownership Ethical Issues. The article further explains that “it is potentially more economical, eco-friendly, and less time consuming as well as the most competent way of reducing the ever growing traffic congestion of the cities” (Mass Transit).
Private vehicles emit twice as much carbon monoxide and harmful elements into the environment than public vehicles and drastically reduce the amount of traffic on the road that people who use the mass transit systems would normally cause by driving. Another point is that anyone is able to travel on mass transit systems regardless of their financial status because the amount of money a person needs per trip is very low. This is opposite of the hybrid which, price-wise, can cost a bit more than their regular gasoline-powered counterparts (Richard). A major problem with hybrids is also the beefed up batteries that are more harmful to the environment than normal size car batteries. Stages Nursing. Hybrid cars typically use nickel metal hydride batteries which release more toxic chemicals as well as these huge batteries being so cumbersome to ownership, handle (Tintin) With advantages such as reduced traffic congestion, less time between destinations and cost-effectiveness that beats most other modes of An Analysis of Hazing in the Essay, transport, the mass transit system is a very reasonable way to save money and reduce pollution (Mass Transit). Ethical Issues. However, wherever there are advantages in a situation, there are likely to be disadvantages as well. The main drawback of the mass transportation system is that these public vehicles operate on a fixed schedule and travels only to certain destinations. Another huge problem for nurses song the argument of mass transportation is the initial cost for building the system is very high and involves construction on a massive scale (Mass Transit). These disadvantages are small when compared to the fact the mass transportation systems can only be incorporated in highly populated cities.
This is a huge problem for the switch from issues, private vehicles to Workplace Essay, mass transportation. A large amount of America’s population reside in large cities, but it is simply not enough to start a revolution to mass transportation systems. Mass transportation is ownership issues, more cost-effective than hybrid cars, but both conserve energy and reduce pollution along with hybrid cars having the flexibility to be driven anywhere at anytime. This can be attributed to the current fueling flexibility of the hybrid cars. Most hybrids run on both gasoline and electricity so fuel can either be pumped at a local gas station or power can be gained by plugging in the car at home or at a public charging station (U.S. Department of Energy). Hybrid cars may also be a good bit more expensive than their counterparts, but with a longer driving lifespan and with thousands saved on gasoline that isn’t used when the electric motor is running, the cost-effectiveness is easily shown. The United States also imports more that 60% of its petroleum, most of which is used by the transportation sector (U.S.
Department of Energy). This is mosaic model of cell, a vast amount of information ethical issues, money being spent on vehicles that is paid to other countries. The reliance on other nations is not needed if hybrid cars become the mainstream vehicle. The conservation of energy and the reduction of pollution into our natural environment has been an everyday issue for our government for years and it will still be a major issue for years to come. Hybrid cars can end this dependence on other countries for crude oil and reduce the amount of debris and nurses song, pollution that comes from the gasoline-powered automobiles of today. Ethical. This change would save enormous amounts of jack narrative text, money in the long run, but the main reason the hybrids have posed to be such a fantastic idea is that a future energy crisis would be averted if automobiles ran on information ownership ethical, some type of power source besides gasoline, such as electricity. As the article from All Hybrid Cars states, “hybrid cars are often referred to as the ‘car of the mosaic model membranes, era.’ The change from information ownership issues, gasoline to electricity must begin soon if this nation is going to stop the potential threat of global warming. Fluid Model. The cost-effectiveness and the eco-friendliness of the hybrid cars have been proven along with the potential future benefits of the green transportation revolution.
Hybrid cars are the first choice when it comes to information ethical issues, finding a way to help out with the preservation of the The Struggle of Women in the Workplace Essay, environment or just looking to save money in the long run. Our atmosphere has suffered from the years of ownership ethical, pollution that has been deployed into the atmosphere since the invention of the first automobile. This problem has been ongoing and relentless, and although it could be such devastation for humanity if this pollution continues, the people have the power to jack and the text, stop it but for the main part have chosen not to act or to even further harshen the issues, situation. Hybrid cars are the first step to this change for erikson's stages good, this change towards the green transportation revolution. Advantages of Hybrid Cars. All Hybrid Cars . 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Apr.
2012. Benefits of Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles. Information Ownership Ethical Issues. AFDC . U.S. Department of Energy, Oct. An Analysis Of Hazing Essay. 2011. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. Environmental Impacts from Automobiles. EPA . United States Environmental Protection Agency, 23 Mar.
2012. Information Ownership Issues. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. Mass Transit System - Impacts, Advantages Disadvantages. EngPedia - The Engineering Encyclopedia . 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. Richard, Michael G. How to erikson's stages of development, Go Green: Hybrid Cars.
Treehugger . Discovery, 9 Feb. 2007. Information Ethical Issues. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. Sherwood, Chris. What Are the Effects of The Amish and The, Hybrid Cars? LIVESTRONG . Lance Armstrong Foundation, 17 May 2010. Web. Information. 23 Mar. 2012.