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Penelope, Virtuous Wife of Odysseus. Penelope was the wife of Odysseus who waited over twenty years for. him to return home to her. She was the daughter of Icarius of Sparta, brother of Tyndareus. Thus, she was the cousin of Helen and Clytemnestra. She bore only one son, Telemachus, to Odysseus. Her name is ?????????? — Penelope — ‘spindle loosener’ from Indo-European ‘(s)pen(-d)-‘, ‘to pull, spin’; ‘el- ‘to destroy’; and op- ‘to work, perform, bring about’.
This name was given her because of the cyberpunk trick she pulled on the suitors. She probably had a different name before that. What Penelope did was to show that when a man and a woman are. faithful to one another, then things will work out for the best. She was loyal and devoted, and she knew how to put a. man to the test. Her proposal to test the and capitalism wooers with the bow of. Odysseus gave Odysseus the advantage that he needed. One important role is female that she anchors the kingship of. Ithaca.
At the time of the Trojan war kings were determined by a. matrilineal scheme. Rasputin Russian. Penelope was the queen and female cyberpunk, Odysseus became. king by marrying Penelope. If Penelope were to give up on. Odysseus then the man she married would become king of essay, Ithaca. The wooers were hoping she would choose one of them. She did not begin her life in this way though.
It was her father’s brother, Tyndareus, who was king. Odysseus was one of the original suitors of Helen and came to the Spartan court for that purpose. It is possible that the hand of Penelope was a reward to female cyberpunk Odysseus arranged by Tyndareus. It was Odysseus who had proposed the oath that settled the suit for Helen. Tyndareus was grateful that Helen’s suitors did not organize against him. Descriptive Essay. But Odysseus gained little by marrying Penelope. In fact, though it was normal for the man to move to the woman’s land and rule, Penelope left with Odysseus to be queen in his land. They must have loved each other deeply for Odysseus to choose this option.
(Image Left) “Then the goddess, flashing-eyed Athena, took other counsel. Female Cyberpunk. She made a phantom, and likened it in form to a woman, Iphthime, daughter of great-hearted Icarius, whom Eumelus wedded, whose home was in Pherae. And she sent it to the house of riba plan, divine Odysseus,  to Penelope in the midst of cyberpunk, her wailing and lamenting, to bid her cease from weeping and tearful lamentation.” Homer, Odyssey 4.795. It is interesting to note that even Odysseus was put to the test. Penelope’s father, Icarus is said to have offered his daughter to anyone who could best him in a footrace. It is said that Odysseus did this. But one wonders why there would have been such a race if there was no kingdom to win. She was also an example of the benefit of familial love. It.
was the case that during the Trojan wars many of the soldiers won. women as prizes. The women thus won were no better than slaves. If they were valued for sex then they were used for about sex. Female Cyberpunk. Some. women were valued for The Role in a Country's Towards a Liberal Democracy their skills such as nursing, or cooking. These women became servants in the warrior’s home. Before the. Trojan war Agamemnon and Clytemnestra were king and queen of. Mycenae. They were separated by the Trojan war for over 10 years.
You can only imagine how Clytemnestra must have felt when. Agamemnon returned with Cassandra, one of the most beautiful and. intelligent women in the world, as a prize. There was no familial. love here. And if Agamemnon was to female remain king he would have to. keep Clytemnestra happy because of the matrilinial nature of his.
kingship. It is no wonder Clytemnestra killed him. Now compare. this situation to the one with Odysseus and Penelope. Penelope could have chosen a husband from rasputin russian revolution one of the wooers. Her new husband would be king.
He would then take care of her and. kill Odysseus if he returned. Female. Odysseus could have stayed with. Calypso forever. The Role Cultural In A Progress Towards Democracy. But since Penelope and Odysseus shared a. familial love for one another, she confounded the wooers, and he. came home with gifts, but no women prizes. Another role Penelope had was to recognize Odysseus.
Because. Penelope and Odysseus loved one another, their intimacy allowed. her to cyberpunk know things about Odysseus that other persons did not know. She provided the test of the bow not to find which wooer was best, but to find which one was Odysseus. What she did is extremely important to consider since it really is the basis for society. She could not appeal to force as so often is used to settle differences. Rather she appealed to essay custom and female, used her knowledge of The Role Cultural Towards Democracy, custom to influence the female cyberpunk suitors. This is remarkable in view of the fact that the suitors constituted a small army that could force their way upon Penelope, her son, and their loyal servants as soon as they were organized.
But Penelope interfered with their organization. In the development of society customs are developed and customs often become laws. War At Corcyra. One can see in the story of Penelope the ancient Greek emphasis on law. In so far as she can Penelope encourages the suitors to obey the laws as defined by custom. In book XVIII Penelope states,”But I have a bitter humiliation of to bear, Your way of wooing a wife was never seen before. Those who would win a woman of rank and wealth, vie with one another in offering herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, and cyberpunk, feasting the and capitalism similarities lady’s friends , and heaping gifts one her; they do not devour the wealth of another without compensation..” She explains the custom here.
But it is also an opportunity to get the cyberpunk wooers to compete rather than unite. In this way Penelope interefered with their organization. And Capitalism Similarities. There are other suggestions about what she did to female cyberpunk influence the suitors. In book XV it is said, “She does not often appear when those men are present; she keeps clear of them and goes on The Role Play in a Country's Towards Democracy with her weaving in her own rooms.” She also attended to her appearance as is stated in book XVIII “… for you are the pearl of female, women for beauty and intelligence too!” In the descriptive essay development of society customs are developed and customs often become laws. As with the case of Penelope the law can be used to cyberpunk protect the riba vulnerable against the mighty. Penelope uses her knowledge of custom to see that custom is interpreted by the suitors in her favor.
In fact this is basis of justice. You can look upon what Penelope did as guile but this is not actually correct. In the Odyssey it is plain the female wooers are the evil ones. In book III Nestor says, “…they do say that there are a great number of Thucydides and The Civil Corcyra, men in your house, seeking your mother’s hand in marriage against your will, full of evil schemes.” Then he says, “Who knows if some day he(Odysseus) may come and take vengeance for their violence.” Ultimately this vengeance is female cyberpunk a threat to society. In book XXIV Athena asks Zeus, “Will you still contrive war upon war and battle upon Genetically Modified Organisms: The Facts battle. Will you make peace between these two parties.” Then Zeus replies, “But I will tell you what seems like the right thing. Now that Odysseus has had his vengeance, let them make up the quarrel, and let him continue to be prince as before; but let us pacify the blood-feud for female cyberpunk the dead sons and brothers; let them all be friends as before, and and The Civil War at Corcyra, let peace and plenty abide with them.” Ultimately this is the place of law, to state what is evil and how it shall be punished. Once law is applied there is no need for vengeance and peace and prosperity can return. One of the points that can be made of the cyberpunk story is that even though women are weaker than men there are tools available to keep them from The Role Cultural Country's Progress Towards a Liberal being overpowered. The main tool is the rule of law, but even before laws customs could be used. Also when men do evil they should be punished, but not so as to start a feud or cycle of vengeance.
There is no reason to believe that Odysseus and Penelope lived happily ever after. The son of Odysseus by Circe, Telegonos, searched for his father and killed Odysseus by female accident. He then took Penelope as his wife. Descriptive Essay. In this he accomplished what the female cyberpunk suitors of Penelope could not an took control of the Kingdom of Ithaca according to that custom. He might do this so the kingdom would not fall into essay, the hands of female, some non-relative.
Penelope is Essay about Genetically Organisms: The Facts supposed to have born a son, Italus, to Telogonus. Click on one of the female following to Genetically Organisms: The Facts see a picture of. More recent pictures of Penelope: Odyssey: A Journey Back Home (1997), VHS. Ulysses, king of Ithaca, has just won the Trojan War. Female Cyberpunk. Now he wants to return home to his beloved wife, Penelope, son, Telemachus. A new look at this classic tale of faith, courage, patience family unity. For children. Van Nortwick, Thomas, The Unknown Odysseus , University of Michigan, 2008. To ask a question about this topic note the topic (Penelope) and. Penelope and Her Impact on Greek Art and Culture.
Question: How is Penelope a moral heroine for later generations? Answer: She was true to her husband in spite of compelling reasons to. give him up. She managed to raise her son by her husband by herself and. she kept his estate as well as anyone could. When her husband returned she. was able to assist him in defeating his adversaries. Question: Do you have any quotes from Penelope? Answer: There are many quotes from Penelope in the Odyssey. Here is her last challenge to the Suitors: ‘Listen, my lords. Essay Modified The Facts. You have fastened on the house, in the long.
absence of its master, as the female scene of Cultural Play Country's Progress Towards a Liberal, your perpetual feasts, and. you could offer no better pretext for you conduct than you wish. to win my hand in marriage. That being the prize, come forward. now, my gallant lords; for I challenge you to female try your skill on. the great bow of King Odysseus. And whichever man among you. proves the handiest at riba stringing the bow and cyberpunk, shoots an arrow. through every one of the twelve axes, with that man I will go, bidding goodbye to this house which welcomed me as a bride, this. lovely house so full of all good things, this home that even in.
my dreams I never shall forget.’ Question: What virtues does Penelope possess? Answer: She was loyal and devoted, and she knew how to put a. man to Thucydides and The Civil Essay the test. Cyberpunk. Her proposal to test the wooers with the bow of. Odysseus gave Odysseus the advantage that he needed. Question: What are the and The Civil War at Essay strength and weakness of female, Penelope in. Odyssey and of that time period? Answer: Her great strength was her constancy. Her husband had. left her well provided for. The Role Cultural Progress Democracy. She was beautiful, and female cyberpunk, talented as.
well. Russian Revolution. Her main weakness was that she cried a lot while her. husband was gone. Question: Why is cyberpunk Penelope only described as “faithful” Answer: That is her most notable quality, but not her only.
Question:do you have any paintings or poems related to Penelope’s. out-smarting her suitors? Answer: The Qdyssey by Homer is plan of works a poem in the original Greek. This is where the story of Penelope is told. Cyberpunk. A picture is russian revolution available of. Penelope at her loom: Question: Is Penelope a conventional greek women or is she the one who break. Answer: Penelope was an exceptional Greek woman. Question: Why was Penelope an exceptional Greek women?Thanks. Answer: Penelope waited for her husband to return from the cyberpunk war even 20. years.
This is in spite of the fact that she had plenty of money and could. have chosen another husband easily. In fact fifty or more suitors wanted, and expected her to do this. But she remained loyal to her husband. The.
first ten years was not so hard because there was news from Troy and. Odysseus was always par of about Genetically Modified The Facts, it. The second ten years was harder because. Odysseus was hidden on the Island of Ogygia and everyone thought he was. Question: How is Penelope different from the role of women in Ancient Greek to. Answer: Penelope is cyberpunk a queen who possesses considerable property. She also. determines who will be king.
During the Cultural Factors Play Country's Towards Democracy classical period there were no queens. and women were not allowed to own property in most of female cyberpunk, Greece. When. Clytemnestra was killed, the practice of Essay Genetically The Facts, determining the king by who the. queen married, was ended. Question: Thank you for you time and help!
I am writing an female cyberpunk essay about similarities, Penelope, and. basically had the same view on what you wrote, but what I wanted to know is. how is she characterized in terms of what themes and ideas is her character. associated, and how her role contributes to the narrative? If you could help. me and explain more about cyberpunk, it I would really appreciate it! Answer: Penelope forms an important part of rasputin russian revolution, his goal, home. Circe and Calypso are.
tempters that promise anonymity for Odysseus, but Penelope promises. fulfillment. Through her scheming she also manages to female maintain his home. against the demands of the wooers. Essay. Her tests for them are more of the female cyberpunk same. but they finally serve to prove Odysseus worthy and he conquers them. Socialism And Capitalism. She is. not a heroine in the same sense as Odysseus, but she is cyberpunk a heroine in her own. Question: Why did Odysseus choose Penelope over Calypso? Answer: Calypso symbolized oblivion. Rasputin. With Calypso Odysseus would live as an eternal nobody.
Penelope symbolized home. By returning to cyberpunk Penelope Odysseus would claim his eternal fame as a hero. Question: what is the real image of Penelope in the Odyssey and why is she considered a stereotype? Answer: The reality of Penelope is quite blurred by the fact that she lived. over 3250 years ago and that the only stories about her were written down. at least 250 years after the riba plan of works author of the story lived. Yet, in spite of their. great age these stories are very compelling on several levels and seem to. bear truths of universal value. Penelope is the stereotype of the female faithful.
wife because she waited 20 long years for essay her husband to return from war. Question: How does the female feminist look at the character of similarities, Penelope? Answer: Penelope bent social convention to female get her way. Question: Why is Penelope being pressured to marry? Can she not remain. Answer: Penelope is Queen of Ithaca and whoever she marries will become King. She has the additional pressure of having to appease the wooers because they. constitute an Factors Play in a Country's Progress Towards a Liberal army stronger than her own. As long as she can keep them. competing with each other they will not organize and become an army that. defeats her.
The leader of the wooers could conquer her, kill her, and declare. himself king. Female Cyberpunk. It is to descriptive essay Penelope’s credit that this never happens. Question: In what ways does Penelope take part in the development of. Answer: In Book I Penelope says: ‘So dear a head do I long for in constant memory, namely, that. man whose fame is noised abroad from Hellas to mid Argos.’ A little later in Book IV she says: ‘Long ago when ye were children, ye marked not your fathers’ telling, what manner of man was. Odysseus among them, one that wrought no iniquity toward. any man, nor spake aught unrighteous in the township, as is.
the wont of divine kings. One man a king is like to hate, another he might chance to love. But never did he do aught. at all presumptuously to any man. Nay, it is plain what. spirit ye are of, and female cyberpunk, your unseemly deeds are manifest to. all, nor is there any gratitude left for kindness done.’ “For erewhile I lost my noble lord of the lion. heart, adorned with all perfection among the Danaans, my. good lord, whose fame is noised abroad from Hellas to rasputin revolution mid. Then she refers to Odysseus as,
Question: What about Penelope as the cyberpunk one being tested in the Odyssey? Answer: I do not think so. The suitors are not much of a temptation. They are never presented in a way that seems close to Odysseus. But. her skill is often overlooked.
The suitors represent an army of considerable. force. But she keeps them disorganized and ineffective. Revolution. She maintains. her household in female cyberpunk spite of their rampage. Question: Do you have any original paintings of Penelope and her husband. Answer: There is no painting that was done when they were alive. But later.
paintings were made during the classical Greek period. See them above. For. Question: How Penelope identify Odysseus. Answer: Penelope asked her maids to bring her bed to her. Odysseus rebuked. her because he had made the Essay Genetically Organisms: bed out of female, a living tree which was rooted in rasputin russian the. ground and could not be moved.
Penelope knew the man who knew these details. of her bed must be Odysseus. Question: Where can I find pictures of Penelope. Answer: Click on the links above to see the pictures. Question: Where can I fin information about Laertes-Odyssey”s father. Answer: All the information about Laertes is in the Odyssey.
Question: is there any picture of Nestor’s palace? Answer: Maybe. No classical art illustrates Nestor’s palace because it. was gone almost 800 years before. But archeological work has uncovered a. Mycenaean palace at Pylos, Nestor’s home.
So far there has been no. archeological identification made, but this is still possible. Cyberpunk. See the. Question: What is penelope’s personality like? Answer: She is referred to as constant Penelope.
She was intelligent and. obviously a talented weaver. Question: Please discuss metaphor in relation to the Odyssey. And The War At Corcyra. I think that. many of the larger issues of the Odyssey were glaringly absent in this. discussion of this important work. Answer: The Odyssey is a poem, full of metaphor. Cyberpunk. But this topic is too.
big. Riba Plan. Which aspect or metaphor would you develop? Question: Did Penelope ever feel pitty for what happened to Helen? Answer: Her steward Eumaeus had the following opinion of Helen: “But he hath perished, as I would that all the stock of Helen had perished. utterly, forasmuch as she hath caused the loosening of many a man’s knees.” (Odyssey, Book XIV) Later she says to Odysseus: “Nay even Argive. Helen, daughter of female, Zeus, would not have lain with a. stranger, and taken him for plan of works a lover, had she known that the. warlike sons of the Achaeans would bring her home again to. her own dear country. Howsoever, it was the god that set. her upon this shameful deed; nor ever, ere that, did she.
lay up in her heart the thought of cyberpunk, this folly, a bitter. folly, whence on us too first came sorrow.” (Odyssey, Book XXIII) She could have been disgusted with her as her steward was, but instead. she felt Helen had been a victim of the deities whims and not responsible. Question: what’s the role of Penelope as a mother during that 20 years? Answer: During the twenty years of Genetically The Facts, Odysseus’ absence penelope maintained. his household and raised his son. Question: I am doing a paper the question is Image of women in cyberpunk the bilbe and.
odyssey. I have to portray two sweet women and two evil could you tell me more. about Penelope and similarities, why she was so great. Answer: Penelope was very constant and faithful. Two women who did evil. things are Medea and female, Clytemnestra. And The Civil Essay. Two women who did kind things are Antigone. Question: how did Penelope change from the female cyberpunk begining of the story to the end. of it. Did her character change a lot? Answer: The actual time frame of the Odyssey is perhaps only about Modified Organisms: The Facts, a month during.
which time Penelope changes very little. Question: what makes her so differentfrom other females in the Odyssey? Answer: Penelope is very wise and skilled at manipulating men. She is female cyberpunk also. very loyal and rasputin revolution, waits 20 years for female her husband’s return.
Question: What is Homer attempting tosay through the similarities character? Answer: Penelope forms the cyberpunk goal of Odysseus but you should remember that. the Odyssey is not a work of fiction. Homer was constrained to tell the essay truth, not to manipulate characters according to his own design. Homer was able to.
make changes in how the story was told and to emphasize one thing over another. Question: How do Penelope and helen compare to female other Greek wives? Answer: Penelope and Helen were both queens. In the classical period there. were no queens. No wife was devoted as Penelope or as beautiful as Helen, but the Greek wives were very important and respected. Question: How maternal is Penelope? Answer: Maternal enough to descriptive essay have given birth to a son and female cyberpunk, raised him to. adulthood.
But not so maternal as to have sex with every suitor who came. through her door, so by the time she was forty she had only riba plan, one child. instead of a dozen. Question: What do you make of the numerous times that PEnelope is referred. to as “Circumspect Penelope,” paying particular attention to the context in. which she is referred to as such? Answer: You really need to look at female cyberpunk the original Greek to see what word is.
being translated. In the riba plan translation provided by the Gutenberg project. she is described as wise Penelope 45 times and constant Penelope 8 times. The word circumspect appears nowhere in this translation. Question: How does Penelope deal with the male warrior-culture. in Greek society and retributive justice? Answer: She keeps her suitors competing with each other rather than allowing. them to unite. She cannot defeat them so she keeps delaying them. She does.
not deny them but really gives them nothing but hope. Question: How does Penelope deal with the powers and. responsibilities women assume in their society? Answer: Penelope does an excellent job of manipulating things to go her way. She has an excellent control of the powers normally available to a woman and. she uses these powers to great effect. Question: how are odysseus and penelope portrayed as a couple. Answer: They are devoted to each other. Question: what was her personality like. Answer: She was very constant.
Question: What were Penelopes physical characteristics? Answer: She was a beautiful woman. Question: if you had to pick someone that Penelope would be most like these. days who would it be? Like if she came as someone else into the 21st century. who would she be? Answer: I would pick Hillary Clinton. Question: What skills does Penelope use throughout the Odyssey that makes. her a strong woman character? Answer: Her patience and her wisdom.
Question: Who was the god of the sea? Question: Is Penelope good looking? Answer: Yes. Penelope was a beautiful woman. Question: What is penelope weaving during the absence of Odysseus? Answer: In ancient Greece activities were divided by sex and. weaving was a task performed by women. Tasks were also divided by. class but even a women of the highest class could weave. The result.
was that Penelope spent most of her time weaving. She would have. woven articles of clothing and cyberpunk, items for the household including. drapes, towels, and rugs. She manipulated the wooers by claiming to. be weaving a shroud for the father of Odysseus, Laertes. This.
was a cloth covering for his body after he died for use during his. Question: Can I have more information on Penelope goddess of fate? Answer: Penelope seems to be confused with the goddess of fate because both. Question: Penelope seemed to be very compassionate toward. Odysseus. Can you explain why? Why didn’t she fall in love. with another suitor? Wasn’t there one similar to Odysseus? Answer: If there had been one moral suitor, he would have sent the others. away and left himself.
The suitors were all just pretenders. If. Odysseus had died Penelope could have easily found another husband. The. suitors were looking for an easy way to advance themselves and rasputin revolution, she wanted. someone who could do worthy work. As it was she did not know that Odysseus. had died and she did not want to forsake him. After all she bore his child. Actually, no one would have stood up to Odysseus. He has proved himself to.
be worth the attentions of humanity for over 3000 years. His deeds are still. Question: Do you have a picture of female, Laertes? I need it asap. Answer: These represent the way the Greeks would have imaged him:
Question: Why do you compare Penelope to Hillary Clinton? Answer: Both stood by their husbands in spite of their wanderings. Question: OK! I really need to know what the assistant to the queen would be like. Would. she be considered a slave?
What kinds of tasks would she do for Organisms: The Facts the queen? What would she wear? How old would she be? Would she have any liberties? Please help me. Female Cyberpunk. I need to make a fictional character and The Role Cultural in a Towards, write about her and. I want to do some queen’s personal assistant.
Answer: In the heroic time of cyberpunk, ancient Mycenae when Penelope was queen, her. assistant would be a slave. Eurycleia was such an assistant: Question: what was penelope weaving at the time she was. Answer: A shroud for her father in Cultural Play in a Country's Progress law. Question: How would you compare and contrast Penelope and.
Answer: Penelope was a constant goal to female cyberpunk a wandering man. Calypso was a. wavering diversion for a man who was stuck. Answer: Telemachus was the son of Odysseus and Penelope. Question: I am doing a project pertaining to the Odysseus. I have to. design a wardrobe that someone in the poem would have worn.
Can you tell me. if there was any special design on her clothing that Penelope wore as a. symbol of Ithaca? Answer: The wardrobe of Essay Genetically Modified The Facts, Penelope is quite a challenge. The classical. Greeks pictured her in peplos or chiton, but archeology suggests an. outfit more like the Minoans. This means fancy flounded skirt, girdle. and vest that reveals the breasts.
Penelope was most likely a Mycenaean. but no remains have been found on Ithaca. Question: I am trying to find the letter that Penelope wrote to Odysseus. Answer: Homer does not mention such a letter. A letter written by. Ovid can be found at: Click here.
Question: Penelope plays the role of a “passive” hero only because she. merely hold of those who would marry her she does not do anything actively. to restore order in her community. Could you please give me some insight. Answer: The suitors together would constitute a small army of 50 men. If Penelope does anything to cause them to band together then they have the.
power to cyberpunk get their way. What she does causes them to stay divided and. unable to Essay Modified Organisms: force their will upon her. In this way she maintains some control. over them. She cannot defeat them so she uses her resourses to female cyberpunk prevent them.
from defeating her. She is not really passive, but rather is divisive. Question: What are some characteristics of an epic? a long descriptive poem, composed within an essay oral tradition, words are chosen according to a traditional scheme, the rhythm and rhyme is female cyberpunk chosen according to a traditional scheme, describes ancient heroes and their adventures. Question: What did Odysseus wear?
When he arrived in Phaecia he was naked. Nausicaa gave him soft robes to wear. When he arrived in Ithaca he put on rasputin revolution rags as a disguise. When he fought the wooers he put on female armour. Question: Why do you think Penelope’s reunion was not the end othe book and descriptive, why he includes the events of book XXIV? Answer: The story ends when he unites his family and recovers his authority. He would not keep Penelope without that. Question: What does Penelope show as she unravels the shroud she waved?
Question: Thanks so much for cyberpunk the wealth of info ont his site. I have one question? What is the comparison and contrast between Penelope in The Odysseus and Lysistrata in Lysistrata. Answer: The ancient Greeks thought Penelope was a real person while this. does not seem to be true of Lysistrata. To read about Penelope you must. consult a number of independent sources. All about Lysistrata comes from a. play by the same name. Question: I need to Essay about compare and contrast Penelope with Andromache. Can you.
Answer: Both Penelope and Andromache were devoted wives who received a. speech about how they were to female cyberpunk be confined to descriptive essay housework and leave war to female cyberpunk men. Penelope regained her husband while Andromache lost hers. Penelope was. able to raise her baby to manhood, while Andromache lost hers in rasputin the sack of. Troy. Andromache became a spoil of Troy, but her second husband did not last.
long. Female. Her third husband provided more satisfaction than either of the first. two. It was predicted in Thucydides and The Essay the Iliad that if Hector was killed she would. become someone’s slave drudge. But instead she became a queen. Question: im studying Captain Correli’s mandolin and my teacher says there. is a correlation between Pelegia who sews a waistcoat for her lover at war. and Penelope sewing in the story of ‘aeneid’.
I hope this makes sense to you. Please can you give me some information on penelope’s sewing. Answer: Here is the section in the Odyssey: “She (Penelope) set up a great tambour frame in cyberpunk her. room, and began to work on an enormous piece of fine needlework. ‘Sweet hearts,’ said she, ‘Odysseus is indeed dead, still do not. press me to marry again immediately, wait–for I would not have. skill in needlework perish unrecorded–till I have completed a. pall for the hero Laertes, to descriptive be in readiness against the time.
when death shall take him. He is very rich, and female cyberpunk, the women of the. place will talk if he is Thucydides War at Corcyra laid out without a pall.’ This was what she said, and we assented; whereon we could see. her working on her great web all day long, but at night she. would unpick the stitches again by torchlight. She fooled us in. this way for three years and we never found her out, but as time. wore on and she was now in her fourth year, one of her maids who. knew what she was doing told us, and we caught her in the act of.
undoing her work, so she had to finish it whether she would or. no.” Odyssey, Book II. Question: If the kingship at the time of the Odyssey was passed through a. matrilineal system, how is it that Odysseus is king in Ithaca, where his. father Laertes was king before, and female, Penelope isn’t queen of Sparta, where she. is from? Can this matrilineal system be seen in any other ancient Greek works? Why when people recite their geneologies in The Odyssey do they name their. fathers and grandfathers, if rights to a kingdom were passed through a.
Answer: In a patrilineal system Odysseus would receive Ithaca from his. father upon his father’s death. But Laertes was still alive when Odysseus. became king upon of works his marriage to Penelope. It seems more likely that Odysseus.
received Ithaca as part of Penelope’s dowery. Notice that Laertes can do. nothing about the suitors. Female. The matrilineal system can be seen with. Clytemnestra as well. Rasputin. Clytemnestra became queen of female cyberpunk, Mycenae by marrying. Tantalus. When Agamemnon killed Tantalus he obtained Mycenae by marrying. Clytemnestra.
Oedipus became king when he married Jocasta. Question: how could you say Odysseus and descriptive essay, Penelope is a devoted couple when Odysseus did jump into other women’s bed while he was in his journey? Answer: It was not expected that a Greek man would only have sex with his. wife. Odysseus preferred Penelope to cyberpunk the other women and continually tried to. Question: What were wooers? Answer: Unmarried men who wanted to marry Penelope and thereby inherit. her money and her realm. The husband of Penelope became the king of Ithaca. Question: what is Odysseus’s mom’s name? Answer: The mother of Odysseus was Anticlea (?????????)
Question: Compare and contrast traits of Penelope and Calypso. Answer: This can be done by socialism and capitalism similarities reading the Odyssey. Question: The painting of “Penelope at ther loom”. Where can I find the information on that piece? Such as: Were it made? what was the purpose? What media were used? By whom? why this episode or situation? Question: How did Penelope test the wooers with the bow?
Answer: Here is the speech she gave to the suitors: “Listen to me you suitors, who persist in abusing the. hospitality of this house because its owner has been long. absent, and without other pretext than that you want to marry. me; this, then, being the prize that you are contending for, I. will bring out the mighty bow of Odysseus, and whomsoever of female, you. shall string it most easily and send his arrow through each one. of twelve axes, him will I follow and quit this house of my. lawful husband, so goodly, and similarities, so abounding in wealth. But even. so I doubt not that I shall remember it in my dreams.”
Actually it is not a test but a ruse. In the female cyberpunk end Odysseus ends up with the. bow and the wooers end up weaponless. Socialism Similarities. This allows Odysseus to kill most of. the wooers before they gang up on female him. Question: You keep saying that penelope is a beautiful woman. How so? What were her features and characteristics like?
Answer: Homer makes little reference to Penelope but he does have Agamemnon. say: “Not that your wife, Odysseus, is. likely to about Modified The Facts murder you, for Penelope is a very admirable woman, and has an excellent nature.” (Odysseus, Book XI). Of course her beauty. also helps to attract the suitors. So we can say she has beautiful features.
but we cannot provide more detail. Question: How tall was she? Answer: Calypso says of Penelope: “…I am no whit less tall or well-looking. than she is…” (Odyssey, Book V). So Penelope is nearly as tall and as. beautiful as a goddess. Athena made her: “…taller and of a more commanding figure..” (Odyssey, Book XVIII) Question: Did Penelope suffer more than Odysseus? Probably not. But suffering is hard to quantify.
Both suffered a lot. Question: When Penelope doesn’t give up weaving and weaves all day and undoes it all night, does that convey the message that you should never give up, or does it convey that you must at one point give in to female cyberpunk the inevitable, because you can’t go on like this forever? Answer: Neither. Penelope is trying to do things her way, the way that will. preserve her home and family. She is riba able to trick those wooers who want her. to do things their way and break up her family and perhaps destroy her home.
The moral is to trick evil people if you can so you can get them to do what is. right in spite of their evil. Question: What is female Penelope’s power and what is Circe’s Power. Answer: Circe is Essay a goddess while Penelope was a mortal. As a goddess Circe is in control of female, magic.
As a mortal Penelope has only her wits for riba of works power. Question: What did she have to female do with the Iliad? Answer: Penelope is not mentioned in the Iliad. Penelope was at home while Odysseus was at Troy during the time of the Iliad. Question: What impact does Penelope have on Odysseus? Answer: Penelope becomes the life goal of Odysseus. She is the symbol. of all that is of works right, just, and female, fulfilling.
Question: is penelope a goddess or the queen? Answer: Homer says she is a mortal queen. Question: Can you please share the detailed description of Penelope and. Odysseus’ marriage bed? Answer: This is found in about Modified the Odyssey. Od. 23 – “ A bush of long-leafed olive was growing within the court, strong and vigorous, and cyberpunk, girth it was like a pillar. Round about this I built my chamber, till I had finished it, with close-set stones, and I roofed it over well, and added to it jointed doors, close-fitting.  Thereafter I cut away the leafy branches of the long-leafed olive, and, trimming the trunk from the root, I smoothed it around with the adze well and cunningly, and made it straight to the line, thus fashioning the bed-post; and plan of works, I bored it all with the female cyberpunk augur. Beginning with this I hewed out my bed, till I had finished it,  inlaying it with gold and silver and ivory, and I stretched on it a thong of essay, ox-hide, bright with purple.” Question: What ruse did the Greeks use to destroy Troy ? Answer: They used the Trojan Horse. Question: I have commissioned four tapestries to be hand woven on the life of.
Penelope. Female Cyberpunk. We would like to incorporate imagery, iconography, symbols and. attributes of her into the tapestries. Please give us some ideas as to. objects that would represent her and her life that could be included into.
these tapestries. Essay. The four scenes that we wish to female reproduce are Odysseus’ Departure, Penelope’s Wait, The Suitors, and The Contest. Any other ideas. would be greatly appreciated. Answer: What about Penelope’s youth and The Role Factors Play in a Country's Towards Democracy, her bethrothal? She must have. been quite a girl to have so fetched the heart of Odysseus. She probably.
did not sit at home twiddling her thumbs. What was her education like? Did. festivals and public events affect her? Odysseus found out cyberpunk about Penelope. when he went to woo Helen. Imagine what a mess that was. Shouldn’t you have a. picture about that event? The most common image of Penelope is her weaving at Factors Play in a Progress Towards her loom.
Question: does Penelope have a specific role in the Odyssey? does she differ. from her male counter parts physically, mentally and female cyberpunk, socially? Where does her. power lie in Ithaca? Does the way Homer represents her in the poem tell us. anything about Odysseus and rasputin, the other males involved in female her production as a. character and person?
Answer: This is a good paper topic that will help the rasputin revolution writer come to a. better understanding of the Odyssey. But remember that the female cyberpunk work is The Role a Liberal not a. fiction under the cyberpunk author’s control, rather it is a spiritual truth about. Question: Where did she live? Answer: In a Mycenaean palace on ancient Ithaca, an island on the west. coast of Greece. No remains of riba plan, a Mycenaean palace are found on cyberpunk modern day. Ithaca leading one to descriptive speculate that modern and ancient Ithaca differ. Question: Do you think that Penelope recognized Odysseus before Book 23? Answer: Penelope seems to female cyberpunk be aware of the riba plan of works difficulty that Odysseus would be.
in when he returns. But she is also concerned that she not be duped by an. imposter. By bringing out his bow she sets up a situation where she can. tell if he is an imposter, and if he is not, he will be able to deal with. Question: Why does Penelope entertain the suitors so long and female, fail to. recognize Odysseus when he returns?
Answer: With Odysseus away Penelope is in charge. If she gives in to essay one. of the suitors then she will become subservient to him. She will no longer. be able to female cyberpunk protect her son who would probably be killed. As long as she.
entertains the suitors then they will stick to the customs of a guest and she. will remain the host in charge. If she tried to throw them out they might. organize and force her to do their will. Essay About Modified Organisms: The Facts. She did not want to recognize. Odysseus because that would reveal him to his enemies.
The suitors are. potential, formidable army who have no benefit from the return of Odysseus. If he is not already dead, they would do well to kill him. And she could not. afford to recognize an imposter. Female. An imposter could easily take over and. harm her family. She had to similarities test each claimaint carefully. Question: Can you apply Odysseus’ idea of a good marriage (that the cyberpunk man and socialism, woman have minds in deep accord) to compare the marriage of Odysseus and Penelope, Menelaus and cyberpunk, Helen, Alcinous and Arete, and Factors Country's Progress Towards Democracy, Agamemnon and Clytemnestra? Answer: The relation between men and cyberpunk, women in ancient Greece was very. confused with men thinking one thing and women another.
In most cases. neither had their way. I do not think Odysseus is a very good guide to. marriage. Riba Plan. The reason why the marriage of Odysseus lasted is because Penelope was a very talented wife and Odysseus was a man worthy of her.
When I thought about why Odysseus preferred Penelope to the Goddess Calypso (and Circe, for that matter) It occurred to me that one difference between a goddess and a mortal is that a mortal can sin while a goddess cannot. Now some men prefer a sinful woman and so the marriage may have been good because Penelope liked to sin in a way that Odysseus liked. The point of this observation is that what held the two together may have nothing to do with deep mental accord. Now it is a truism to say a married couple get along because they are compatible. Female. But this is just as true for many shallow ways as anything deep. You know this compatibility is important so who is the better judge, the couple or their parents? The most interesting aspect of the couples that you list is what system was used to determine compatibility in each case and did it work. Does this say anything about how compatibility can be found today? Question: the treatment of women in Ancient Literature — How is Penelope treated by society in the Odyssey? How are Penelope and Jocasta similar ? Answer: First you should realize that society in russian the Odyssey is ambiguous.
Is it Mycenaean society or Archaic Greek? Homer embellished the older stories with his current observations. Female. Because of our distance it is hard for us to Essay about tell the difference. One odd connection between the two women is that the men in cyberpunk both cases act as if they win the woman they get the kingdom. We do not understand this. Descriptive. It seems as though Penelope is freer to female cyberpunk choose her mate than Jocasta, but this may not be the Essay about The Facts case.
In the end she chooses a test to female decide her mate just as a test was devised for descriptive Jocasta. We would hope that personalities would make the couple compatible, and cyberpunk, it is up to the individuals to decide what constitutes compatibility. Using a test to determine a mate seems to be a relic of socialism and capitalism, Mycenaean social structure which involved goddess worship. To them the female seemed more connected to fertility than the female male because of the visibility of the russian offspring that the female women produced. Of Works. And this fertility connected the female to the earth and its resources. During the Classical period the status of cyberpunk, women was reduced because it was thought the male provided the form of the baby while the female provided only the substance. This caused the plan female to be disconnected from the resources of growth and production and only a separate resource. Female Cyberpunk. One of the The Role Factors in a Country's Progress Towards a Liberal purposes of sequestering the females in ancient times was so that the male knew that the offspring were formally his.
So the cyberpunk status of women went from divine to chattel. But if the females were sequestered as Penelope certainly was, what impact could society have had on Penelope? Though there is no emphasis on the sequestering of Jocasta, this certainly seems to have been the case. The only Thucydides Civil War at Corcyra Essay, interaction of Penelope with society is female her manipulation of her suitors by rules of etiquette which she is able to enforce by guile. Jocasta seems to be less effective in this regard. You might say that Penelope’s arguments are emotional and effective while Jocata’s arguments are rational and ineffective. Penelope’s actions are often taken as a model of socialism, feminine behavior. Female Cyberpunk. Does this suggest that a female in ancient society can accomplish more by being emotional? Perhaps this is why ancient women were not schooled as often as the men. Question: How old was Penelope when Odysseus returned back home to Ithaca? Answer: Odysseus was one of the Essay about Genetically Modified The Facts suitors of Helen in about 1201 BCE.
He was allowed to marry Penelope at cyberpunk that time as a result of his assistance in providing a husband for of works Helen in female cyberpunk a safe way. Penelope may have been 13 at that time as this was the normal marriage for women. So her birth might have been about 1214 BCE. Helen did not leave with Paris until about 1195 BCE. The Trojan war did not start until about riba, 1186 BCE. So Penelope was about 28 at the start of the Trojan War. The war lasted ten years and Odysseus did not return for female cyberpunk ten years after that.
So when Odysseus returned to Ithaca in about 1166 BCE, Penelope was about 48 years old. Question: I am doing a research project and need to know a little more about Penelope and and The, her role in the story of Odysseus. It’d also help to know if her role still plays a part in our generations today. Female. Such as if her part in socialism and capitalism similarities the story is also used for plots in female cyberpunk movies or television shows or if she is used as an Genetically inspiration for female cyberpunk art, plays, books, etc. So, how does Penelope still stay relevant in our generations today? Answer: Penelope is Thucydides and The Essay still relevant today because she is in touch with a range of matters of importance to female cyberpunk women. Plan. Women do better in cyberpunk a society that is lawbound since they are smaller than men, weaker than me, and incapacitated when they are pregnant.
Penelope understands this and emphasizes the rule of law so no one takes advantage of her. Any of the descriptive essay suitors could have taken the law into his own hands and done what he wished but Penelope is able keep the suitors separate and female, responsible to the custom of the time, her best approximation of law. It is interesting how she uses feminine wiles to The Role Play Progress Democracy accomplish this. Her ability to remain feminine and still accomplish her goals is female cyberpunk what most people find admirable. Essay Modified The Facts. This is quite a challenge for working women today. Works about Penelope: Monteverdi’s opera, Il Ritorno d’Ulisse in Patria, produced at Venice in 1640. PENELOPE, Film by Ben Ferris The Penelopiad: The Myth of Penelope and Odysseus, by Margaret Atwood. Question: How is Penelope a hero and what are the characteristics? Answer: Penelope is not a hero, rather she is a heroine.
She was courageous and favored by the gods but her feats do not involve great strength or success in battle. Rather she operated through careful manipulation of her situation. She lived at cyberpunk a time when customs were different from what they are today. The most difficult custom she had to descriptive deal with was the fact that her person was identified with the realm that her husband ruled. Her husband was the king of the realm she was identified with. If her husband was beaten in battle she was obligated to marry the female victor. If her husband died her new husband became the king of the realm. She may have had some choice as to riba who her husband might be, though there is some suggestion in the Odyssey that when her husband died she would return to her father’s household and female, he would determine the new husband. After her husband left for the Trojan War she waited for his return.
After the war was over and he still did not return and no one new what happened to him so many thought he had died. Penelope did not want to give up on him because the options for her were not that good if he died. In particular her son would have been deprived of any inheritance and might have been killed had he had to deal with a step-father. So she decided to maintain a status quo. Thucydides Civil Essay. What is female cyberpunk plain is Genetically Organisms: The Facts that she loved her husband and thought little of anyone else. She had some customs against her but she decided to female cyberpunk use others that would favor her. The single men decided that her husband might be dead and that if he was dead and she married one of them he would be king. So they descended upon her house to try to woo her. Riba Plan. This was a problem for Penelope because she had to female treat these men as guests according to and The War at the custom of the time.
But for female her part she was eager to Factors in a Progress Towards a Liberal Democracy point out that wooing had its own customs. She got them to compete with one another in various ways. Female Cyberpunk. On thing she did was to get them to give her gifts. She also seemed to rasputin russian revolution flatter ones that were less dominant. Then what they wanted was for her to female cyberpunk make a decision as to who she favored. Rasputin Russian Revolution. But what she is famous for cyberpunk is how she put this decision off.
What she did was to declare that that she wanted to finish weaving the death shroud for her father-in-law so he would be buried properly when he died. This was a custom of the riba of works day. She was able to prolong the female cyberpunk weaving of this shroud over riba of works three years by weaving during the day and unraveling at night. For his part her father-in-law remained alive. Female Cyberpunk. Finally the wooers discovered her deception and Essay about Genetically, they were angered. But she continued to keep them divided until her husband finally returned. Cyberpunk. What she finally agreed to was a contest involving her husband’s bow.
If a man could string the bow and shoot an arrow through the holes in similarities ax heads that had been lined up she would marry the man. She devised this scheme because she had seen her husband do this many times. This scheme worked very well because none of the wooers could even string the bow. Female. And when Odysseus was given the bow he was able to slaughter the russian revolution wooers with it. The point of this last act was that the wooers were a small army of female, able men who easily could have exerted control over Essay Modified Organisms: Penelope and her family any time they organized and took control. But Penelope kept them divided and they never controlled anything.
Because of this Odysseus was able to kill them and return to cyberpunk being king. The Role In A Country's A Liberal Democracy. As an example of what could have happened there was the example of that happened to female cyberpunk Agamemnon at the hands of Clytemnestra. Penelope is a heroine and Clytemnestra is socialism similarities a murderer. Clytemnestra acted like a man and female cyberpunk, was condemned for it. Penelope kept her feminine charms and russian, used them against the wooers by manipulating the female customs available to her. Penelope is a heroine and Clytemnestra is a murderer. To be a hero Penelope would have had to kill the wooers herself. What is Eurycleia doing when Penelope finds her in the realm of the dead. I have a question….. what two goddesses is Penelope compared too and descriptive, why?
In our culture today, infidelity rate amongst women are high not just because they can or they were sexually tempted but i guess because they are now more emotionally and morally vulnerable and lack self control. Is it still possible to find a woman as faithful as Penelope. hey there! I hope someone answer my questions advance thank you? 1. Why does Penelope consider storytelling “A low Art”? 2. Female Cyberpunk. How does Penelope’s portrayal deffers from the traditional portrayal of Odysseus? what do you think of Odysseus? 3. How much ancient history do you think is based in fact and how much an gossipand exaggerations?
4. Riba Plan Of Works. Do you think the story is colored ny biases of the storyteller? 5. Does this story change the way you look at the Literature and History? why or why not? I need your answer now. please notice me. I have a question. Why does penelope say that she “sounds like an owl” when she tries to warn other women? 1.what does she have to say about the “official version” of what happened? Why does she point this out? 2. How does Penelope’s portrayal deffers from the traditional portrayal of Odysseus? what do you think of Odysseus?
3. How much ancient history do you think is based in fact and how much an gossipand exaggerations? 4. Why does she call herself “a stick used to female cyberpunk beat other women with? Do you agree with her? 5. Does this story change the way you look at the Literature and and capitalism similarities, History? why or why not? I need your answer . plsss. 1. Female Cyberpunk. Why does Penelope consider storytelling a low art? 2. How does penelope’s portrayal differ from the traditional portrayal of odysseus? what do you think of odysseus? 3. Factors In A Country's Progress Democracy. Based on penelope’s perspective, how is she different from how the epic portrays her? what do you think of penelope’s character in the preceding story? 4. Female Cyberpunk. What does she have to say about the “official version” of what happened? Why does she point this out?
5. Why does she call herself “a stick used to beat other women with? Do you agree with her? 6. Why does penelope say that she “sounds like an owl” when she tries to warn other women? 7. Modified The Facts. How much ancient history do you think is based in female fact and how much an gossip and exaggerations? 8. The Role Cultural Factors Play In A Country's Progress A Liberal Democracy. Do you think the story is colored by the biases of the storyteller? 9. Do you think history is colored by the biases of the historian?
10. Does this story change the way you look at the Literature and History? why or why not? what was the name of the second husband. I am studying “The Story of Penelope” tapestry at the Boston MFA. What do you think the inscription “Penelope Coivnx Seper Vilixis Ero” at the base of the tapestry might mean, and how does it relate to her story? The Role of Women in the Art of Ancient Greece. Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors.
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ninth grade homework Writing standards for ninth and tenth grades define the knowledge and cyberpunk skills needed for socialism and capitalism, writing proficiency at these grade levels. By understanding 9th and 10th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 9th and 10th Grade Writing? In grades nine and ten, students plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Female Cyberpunk? Ninth grade and tenth grade students practice all forms of writing and are expected to produce error-free essays that demonstrate their awareness of audience and purpose. Students edit their essays for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of standard American English. An emphasis is placed on writing coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. What Writing Standards Measure. Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of what students are expected to learn in each grade.
Organized into five key areas, writing standards focus on: writing process, writing purposes (what students write), writing evaluation, writing conventions (grammar, usage, and mechanics), and research/inquiry for writing. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as benchmarks in writing proficiency for grade nine and grade ten. Grades 9 and 10: Writing Process. Writing standards for all grades focus on the writing process as the primary tool to help students become independent writers. Essay? In grades 9 and 10, students are expected to use each phase of the process as follows: Prewriting: Students in 9th and 10th grades use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and female plan their writing.
Students generate ideas from multiple sources (e.g., brainstorming, discussion, research materials), and use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, diagrams, outlines) to develop a personal organizational style. And The Corcyra Essay? Students make a plan for cyberpunk, writing that addresses purpose, audience, controlling idea, logical sequence, and a timeframe for completion. Similarities? Drafting: In ninth grade and female tenth grade, students develop drafts, alone and collaboratively, by organizing and reorganizing content. Drafts establish a controlling thesis that conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject and employ a logical organizational pattern with substantial and relevant supporting details. In ninth and tenth grades, students are expected to maintain a consistent tone and focus and use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, appropriate modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice. The Role Cultural Factors In A Progress A Liberal Democracy? Students analyze the language techniques of professional authors, (e.g., figurative language, denotation, connotation), to female, establish a personal style, demonstrating a command of language with confidence of expression.
Revising: In 9th grade and 10th grade, students revise selected drafts by improving the logic and riba of works coherence of the organization and controlling perspective, and developing meaningful relationships among ideas. Other revision techniques used by ninth- and tenth-graders include checking the female cyberpunk accuracy of supporting details, (e.g., facts, statistics, expert opinions, definitions) and working on the precision of word choice, voice, and riba plan of works tone to suit the occasion, audience, and purpose. Cyberpunk? Editing: Students edit their writing to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, and appropriate word choice. Rasputin Russian Revolution? Ninth- and tenth graders also proofread for appropriateness of cyberpunk organization, content, style, and language conventions, using resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus). Revolution? Publishing: Using technology, students in grades nine and ten publish their work frequently in a format appropriate to purpose (e.g., for display, multimedia). Female Cyberpunk? Published pieces use such design techniques as margins, tabs, spacing, and columns, as well as graphics (e.g., drawings, charts, graphs). Use of socialism and capitalism technology: Ninth grade and tenth grade students use advanced publishing software and graphic programs to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts.
Grades 9 and cyberpunk 10: Writing Purposes. In grades nine and ten, students write in and The Civil War at Corcyra Essay a variety of cyberpunk forms for Factors Play in a Progress, various audiences and purposes (e.g., to explain, inform, analyze, entertain, reflect, persuade). Students exercise the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce essays of at least 1,500 words each. Specifically, writing standards for 9th and 10th grades stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative/Creative: Ninth and tenth grade students write in a variety of narrative, expressive, and reflective forms, including biographical and autobiographical narratives and female cyberpunk short stories. In these essays, students relate a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events through concrete sensory details (e.g., sights, sounds, smells), and the explicit actions and Modified The Facts gestures of the characters. Ninth- and tenth-graders develop the plot or events further by creating dialogue and interior monologues to depict the cyberpunk characters’ feelings and locating scenes and incidents in specific places.
Students are expected to use literary devices and make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and in a Country's a Liberal sensory details. In addition, students learn to pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood. Expository: Students in 9th and 10th grades write a variety of expository essays, including analytical essays, research reports, and essays that speculate on the causes and effects of cyberpunk a situation. Students assemble evidence in support of Thucydides War at Corcyra a thesis, including information on all relevant claims and perspectives, and compose introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs. Expository essays in these grades should address readers’ potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations, and make distinctions between the relative value and cyberpunk significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.
In writing expository essays, ninth- and tenth-graders are expected to convey information and technical terms from primary and secondary sources, accurately and coherently, as well as integrate quotations and citations into the text while maintaining the descriptive flow of ideas. Students also incorporate visual aids into their expository essays, using technology to organize information on charts, maps, and graphs. Persuasive: Students in ninth and cyberpunk tenth grades write persuasive essays that structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion. Persuasive essays in these grades should use specific rhetorical devices to rasputin revolution, support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic through reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy). Ninth- and tenth-graders are expected to clarify and defend positions with precise and cyberpunk relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and essay logical reasoning. Students should also refute opposing arguments by addressing readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and female expectations. Responses to Literature: Ninth and tenth grade students are expected to demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary works. Students should support their ideas through accurate and rasputin detailed references to female cyberpunk, the text or to rasputin, other works, and female cyberpunk show an understanding of the stylistic devices used and the effects created. Students should also identify and socialism similarities assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. Business Documents: Students in grade nine and grade ten write a variety of business and work-related documents, including business letters, memos, emails, speaker introductions, resumes, applications, and cover letters for applications.
The goal of business writing in these grades is to provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately. Students strive to highlight central ideas and pay attention to vocabulary, tone, and style by considering the female nature of the relationship with, and riba the knowledge and interests of the recipient. Ninth- and tenth-graders are expected to follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that enhance readability and impact. Technical Documents: Students in 9th grade and female 10th grade write technical documents (e.g., how-to-manuals, procedures, assembly directions, meeting minutes) with the rasputin goal of reporting information and conveying ideas logically and correctly. Students are expected to offer detailed and accurate specifications and include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e.g., a troubleshooting guide). Technical documents in these grades should also anticipate readers’ problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings. Ninth- and tenth-graders may also be asked to write detailed travel directions and design an accompanying graphic using the cardinal and cyberpunk ordinal directions, landmarks, streets and revolution highways, and distances. Grades 9 and 10: Writing Evaluation. Ninth and tenth grade students evaluate the writing of others, as well as their own writing. Students make suggestions to female, improve writing and assess their own writing for descriptive, both mechanics and content. In grades nine and ten, students are expected to respond productively to peer reviews of their own work.
Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of cyberpunk his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to rasputin, set goals as a writer. Grades 9 and 10: Written English Language Conventions. Students in ninth and tenth grades are expected to produce legible work that shows a command of standard English conventions, including accurate spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. In particular, writing standards for grades nine and ten specify these key markers of proficiency: —Understand sentence construction, including parallel structure, subordination, and proper placement of modifiers. —Compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain clauses (e.g., main and subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerunds, participles, absolutes, and infinitives) in their various functions, as well as the correct use of fragments for effect. —Exhibit proper English usage and control of grammar, paragraph and sentence structure, diction, and syntax. —Demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, consistency of verb tenses, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and possessives. —Use appropriate manuscript requirements, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material (e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with appropriate citations.
—Identify and female correctly use the and The War at mechanics of punctuation, including commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, hyphens, quotation marks, italics or underscoring, and female ellipses. —Ninth- and tenth-graders pay particular attention to about Genetically Modified The Facts, capitalization of names of academic courses and proper adjectives. — Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek, Latin, and female cyberpunk Anglo-Saxon root words. —Understand foreign words commonly used in English (e.g., laissez faire, croissant). —Students use fluent and legible handwriting skills. Grades 9 and 10: Research and Inquiry.
In ninth and and capitalism similarities tenth grades, students use appropriate research methodology and a variety of print and electronic sources to gather information for research papers and other writing assignments. Students use writing as a research and learning tool in female cyberpunk the following ways: Use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic. Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g., library, electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources. Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents). Represent information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and socialism learning logs. Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style). Analyze strategies that writers in different fields use to female cyberpunk, compose. Essay About Genetically? Use writing as a study tool to clarify and female cyberpunk remember information.
Ninth and Tenth Grade Writing Tests. In many states, students in grades nine and ten take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and descriptive essay paper or on a computer. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in female cyberpunk which they must write an essay in response to riba plan, a writing prompt. On 9th and 10th grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. In some states, students’ revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on reading passages. Students are asked to indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of female a paragraph might be strengthened. The Role Cultural Country's? Tests may also require students to proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to female cyberpunk, a reading passage. In addition, 9th and 10th grade students are given classroom-based writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations.
State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to socialism and capitalism similarities, what they’ve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in ninth and tenth grades consists of encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the female written word, and riba plan offering guidance on writing homework. Talk about writing and share appropriate articles and books with your child.
Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the cyberpunk procedures for using a new piece of home equipment. Any writing is similarities valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 9th and 10th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Cyberpunk? Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to use the strategies of writing process to revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 9th and of works 10th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an excellent complement to ninth and tenth grade writing curriculums.
Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for ninth and tenth grades. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state.
Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of female cyberpunk state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of riba plan Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.
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What #8216;No Child Left Behind#8217; Left Behind. Share this article. What #8216;No Child Left Behind#8217; Left Behind. The metamorphosis of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) from No Child Left Behind (NCLB) into cyberpunk the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is being hailed as a historic triumph of bipartisan compromise (HTBC). Why, we haven#8217;t seen such lopsided approval votes in Congress since . Play Progress A Liberal? . . well, since Democrats and Republicans put aside their petty differences and agreed by overwhelming margins to let Bush invade Iraq. All right, fine. I#8217;m not suggesting the new education law is analogous to that #8212; or even that it merely trades one Orwellian legislative label for female cyberpunk, another.
ESSA does represent a substantive shift: It returns a fair amount of control over education policy to the states. This has led to Factors Play Country's a Liberal Democracy celebration in some quarters and worry in others. I believe both reactions are misconceived, or at least overstated. Let#8217;s start with those who are worried. Their argument is that NCLB put equity on female the agenda, calling our attention to the inexcusable inadequacy of the schools attended by most poor kids of color and about Genetically The Facts forcing states to do something about it.
That federal oversight is now being dialed back. To which I#8217;d respond: While the cyberpunk inadequacy and descriptive essay inequity certainly were (and are) inexcusable, NCLB was never a reasonable response. Indeed, as many of us predicted at female, the start, it did far more harm than good #8212; in general, and with respect to addressing disparities between black and Essay about Genetically Organisms: white, rich and poor, in particular. Standardized testing #8212; especially when it#8217;s done to female every child every year, and when bribes and threats are employed to coerce better results #8212; was never necessary to tell us which schools were failing. Heck, you could just drive by them and make a reasonable guess. (The eminent educator Nel Noddings once called that #8220;the windshield test.#8221;) For years, I#8217;ve been challenging NCLB#8217;s defenders to name a single school anywhere in the country whose inadequacy was a secret until students were subjected to yet another wave of standardized tests. But testing isn#8217;t just superfluous; it was, and remains, immensely damaging #8212; to low-income students most of all.
As I argued 15 years ago, standardized exams measure what matters least about The Role Cultural Factors Play Country's Towards a Liberal learning and serve mostly to make dreadful forms of teaching appear successful. Pressure to raise scores has driven out many of our best teachers and female many of our most vulnerable students. It has taken second-rate schools and turned them into third-rate test-prep factories. What#8217;s true of riba testing is, not surprisingly, true of the law that should have been called the Many Children Left Behind Act. Tests constitute not only its enforcement apparatus but its very definition of success and failure. As no less a champion of marginalized children than Jonathan Kozol concluded, #8220;NCLB widens the gap between the female races more than any piece of educational legislation I’ve seen in 40 years. . . . [Its] gains aren’t learning gains, they’re testing gains.#8221; At the same time, NCLB failed to provide struggling schools with what they needed to Essay Genetically improve. In fact, some of the same people pushing for this harsh exercise in top-down control simultaneously (a) oppose more funding for public schools, especially any plan that seems redistributive, (b) habitually blame schools and teachers for female, deeply rooted economic and racial injustices, and Essay about Genetically Organisms: (c) in some cases have explicitly yoked an agenda of privatizing our public schools to a test-driven version of accountability that reached its apotheosis in NCLB. (Or, rather, it did until the Obama administration intensified the damage with Race to the Top.) We can argue about whether NCLB was meant to improve public schooling and female failed, or whether its intent was to undermine public schooling in favor of a market-based approach. What is inarguable is that it never diagnosed, let alone remedied, deficiencies in and The War at Corcyra the quality of female learning ; it was focused only on the results of wholly inadequate and misleading tests. The most charitable thing we can say about the people who drafted, enforced, and defended NCLB is that they don#8217;t understand the difference between those two things.
They fail to see that higher test scores are not merely meaningless (because they primarily reflect socioeconomic status); they#8217;re often a bad sign (because of rasputin russian what has to be sacrificed, educationally speaking, in order to achieve them). From those lamenting the demise of what was sold to cyberpunk us as federal support for riba, #8220;closing the achievement gap#8221; (read: punishing low-scoring schools), we turn now to female those who are celebrating the new law. Cultural Play Country's? If test scores are at the heart of ESSA just as they were at the heart of NCLB, it is curious to hear cheers from female critics of the latter. The new law may be the best deal we can expect from this Congress, but that doesn#8217;t mean it#8217;s a meaningful step forward. In fact, if potential activists assume something important has finally been accomplished, its effect may be dangerous. For the last few years, federal policy has consisted largely of and capitalism issuing conditional waivers from NCLB, a tacit admission that having every student score at or above the proficient level by 2014 was a goal that few unmedicated observers ever took seriously. The abandonment of cyberpunk this goal makes that admission explicit #8212; after the fact. And reducing the unprecedented degree of federal control of schooling #8212; again, even more oppressive under Obama than under Bush #8212; is also welcome. But the Essay about Genetically Modified The Facts outrageous and incalculably damaging reality of female testing students every single year #8212; extraordinary from a worldwide perspective, in fact virtually unheard of for The Role Play Towards a Liberal Democracy, students below high school age #8212; continues in female cyberpunk ESSA. Annual testing is something we#8217;ve been conditioned to accept and even to view as tolerable compared to the reality of multiple tests a year, what with benchmark exams in between the other exams, districts piling on The Role Cultural in a Country's Towards a Liberal Democracy with their own assessments, new Common Core tests, and cyberpunk so on.
Far from challenging this reality, the law that President Obama just signed cements it into place. And beyond the issue of and The Civil Essay how often they#8217;re administered, standardized tests #8212; still yoked to overly prescriptive, top-down standards #8212; remain the primary way by which kids, teachers, and schools are going to be assessed. Conservatives, in effect, have been saying to the federal government, #8220;We demand that you stop imposing your terrible standards and tests on our communities. It#8217;s the states#8217; job to destroy critical thinking and cyberpunk curiosity, and we#8217;ll do that with our terrible standards and tests, thank you very much.#8221; If you#8217;re a teacher, it may not make much difference if oppressive dictates originate in Washington, D.C., the rasputin russian state capital, or even the district office. The point is still that your skills as a professional educator, and the unique interests and needs of a particular group of kids, don#8217;t count for much. ESSA remains the Eternal Standardization of Schooling Act. The new law not only mandates annual testing #8212; and female tries to socialism and capitalism counter parental efforts to opt out their children (by demanding 95 percent participation in those tests) #8212; but offers as a definition of failure the female cyberpunk #8220;lowest-performing 5 percent of all schools.#8221; A relative definition like that sets up education as a contest, guaranteeing that, no matter how well everyone does, some schools will always be classified as inadequate. Descriptive Essay? The menu of interventions threatened for female, #8220;failing#8221; schools, moreover, is depressingly familiar: taking them over, turning them into charters, and so on. If you#8217;re willing to wade through nearly 400 pages of legislative language, you#8217;ll find any number of other wince-worthy provisions.
ESSA encourages the use of computer adaptive testing, which is welcome news mostly to rasputin russian revolution companies that sell that technology. It opens the door to privately funded #8220;Pay for Success#8221; initiatives similar to Goldman Sachs#8217; money-making preschool scheme in Utah. And it endorses non-university #8220;school leader preparation academies.#8221; But, again, the problem isn#8217;t limited to particular stipulations. The point is cyberpunk, that, even with more authority re-devolving to the states, the broader foundations of what has been the Cultural Play Country's Progress Towards educational status quo in America for a generation are allowed to cyberpunk continue and in some cases are actively perpetuated: the creep toward privatization, the traditional approaches to similarities pedagogy and curriculum, the female cyberpunk bribe-and-threat manipulation of educators and children, and, above all, the reliance on standardized testing. For worse and for worse, the Thucydides Essay heart of NCLB lives on.
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carls essay Dr. C. George Boeree. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children. His father was a successful civil engineer and cyberpunk, his mother was a housewife and devout Christian. His education started in the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of plan of works, Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to female become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined. He went on to the University of Wisconsin as an agriculture major. Later, he switched to religion to study for the ministry. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for six months.
He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of and capitalism, his basic religious views. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the cyberpunk, Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. While there, he took a student organized seminar called “Why am I entering the ministry?” I might as well tell you that, unless you want to change your career, never take a class with such a title! He tells us that most of the essay, participants “thought their way right out of female, religious work.” Religion’s loss was, of riba of works, course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in 1931. He had already begun his clinical work at the Rochester Society for cyberpunk, the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. At this clinic, he learned about Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on the road to developing his own approach. He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940.
In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Thucydides, Psychotherapy. Female! Then, in 1945, he was invited to set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory. In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Wisconsisn. Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education. Descriptive! In 1964, he was happy to accept a research position in La Jolla, California. He provided therapy, gave speeches, and female cyberpunk, wrote, until his death in descriptive essay 1987. Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on years of experience dealing with his clients. He has this in common with Freud, for example. Also in common with Freud is that his is a particularly rich and mature theory -- well thought-out and logically tight, with broad application.
Not in common with Freud, however, is the fact that Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. Female Cyberpunk! In other words, he sees mental health as the normal progression of about Organisms:, life, and he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of that natural tendency. Cyberpunk! Also not in common with Freud is the fact that Rogers’ theory is a relatively simple one. Also not in rasputin russian common with Freud is female cyberpunk, that Rogers’ theory is particularly simple -- elegant even! The entire theory is built on a single “force of life” he calls the Thucydides and The Civil, actualizing tendency . It can be defined as the built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible. We’re not just talking about survival: Rogers believes that all creatures strive to make the female, very best of their existence. If they fail to do so, it is not for descriptive, a lack of desire.
Rogers captures with this single great need or motive all the other motives that other theorists talk about. He asks us, why do we want air and water and food? Why do we seek safety, love, and a sense of competence? Why, indeed, do we seek to female discover new medicines, invent new power sources, or create new works of art? Because, he answers, it is in our nature as living things to riba do the very best we can! Keep in female mind that, unlike Maslow’s use of the plan, term, Rogers applies it to all living creatures.
Some of his earliest examples, in fact, include seaweed and female cyberpunk, mushrooms! Think about it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north? He also applied the idea to ecosystems, saying that an and capitalism similarities, ecosystem such as a forest, with all its complexity, has a much greater actualization potential than a simple ecosystem such as a corn field. If one bug were to become extinct in a forest, there are likely to be other creatures that will adapt to fill the gap; On the other hand, one bout of “corn blight” or some such disaster, and you have a dust bowl. The same for us as individuals: If we live as we should, we will become increasingly complex, like the forest, and female cyberpunk, thereby remain flexible in the face of life’s little -- and riba, big -- disasters. People, however, in the course of female cyberpunk, actualizing their potentials, created society and culture.
In and of itself, that’s not a problem: We are a social creature, it is our nature. But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own. Rather than remaining close to rasputin other aspects of cyberpunk, our natures, culture can become a force in its own right. And Capitalism Similarities! And even if, in the long run, a culture that interferes with our actualization dies out, we, in all likelihood, will die with it. Don’t misunderstand: Culture and female cyberpunk, society are not intrinsically evil!
It’s more along the lines of the birds of paradise found in Papua-New Guinea. The colorful and dramatic plumage of the males apparently distract predators from females and the young. Natural selection has led these birds towards more and more elaborate tail feathers, until in some species the male can no longer get off the ground. At that point, being colorful doesn’t do the male -- or the species -- much good! In the same way, our elaborate societies, complex cultures, incredible technologies, for all that they have helped us to survive and prosper, may at the same time serve to harm us, and possibly even destroy us. Rogers tells us that organisms know what is good for them. Evolution has provided us with the senses, the tastes, the and The Civil War at Essay, discriminations we need: When we hunger, we find food -- not just any food, but food that tastes good. Food that tastes bad is likely to be spoiled, rotten, unhealthy. Female Cyberpunk! That what good and bad tastes are -- our evolutionary lessons made clear! This is called organismic valuing . Among the many things that we instinctively value is positive regard , Rogers umbrella term for things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, and so on. It is riba plan of works, clear that babies need love and attention.
In fact, it may well be that they die without it. Cyberpunk! They certainly fail to thrive -- i.e. become all they can be. Another thing -- perhaps peculiarly human -- that we value is positive self-regard , that is, self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image. We achieve this positive self-regard by experiencing the positive regard others show us over our years of growing up. Without this self-regard, we feel small and helpless, and again we fail to become all that we can be!
Like Maslow, Rogers believes that, if left to their own devices, animals will tend to and The Corcyra eat and drink things that are good for them, and consume them in balanced proportions. Cyberpunk! Babies, too, seem to want and like what they need. Somewhere along the line, however, we have created an environment for ourselves that is significantly different from the one in which we evolved. In this new environment are such things as refined sugar, flour, butter, chocolate, and Modified, so on, that our ancestors in Africa never knew. These things have flavors that appeal to cyberpunk our organismic valuing -- yet do not serve our actualization well. Over millions of years, we may evolve to find brocolli more satisfying than cheesecake -- but by then, it’ll be way too late for you and me. Our society also leads us astray with conditions of worth . As we grow up, our parents, teachers, peers, the media, and others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. We get a drink when we finish our class, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and most importantly, we get love and affection if and only if we “behave!” Getting positive regard on “on condition” Rogers calls conditional positive regard . Because we do indeed need positive regard, these conditions are very powerful, and we bend ourselves into a shape determined, not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by a society that may or may not truly have our best interests at russian heart. A “good little boy or girl” may not be a healthy or happy boy or girl! Over time, this “conditioning” leads us to have conditional positive self-regard as well.
We begin to like ourselves only if we meet up with the standards others have applied to us, rather than if we are truly actualizing our potentials. And since these standards were created without keeping each individual in mind, more often than not we find ourselves unable to meet them, and therefore unable to maintain any sense of self-esteem. The aspect of female cyberpunk, your being that is and The Civil Essay, founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and female, receives positive regard and self-regard, Rogers calls the real self . It is the “you” that, if all goes well, you will become. On the other hand, to the extent that our society is about Organisms: The Facts, out of synch with the actualizing tendency, and female cyberpunk, we are forced to live with conditions of Modified Organisms: The Facts, worth that are out of cyberpunk, step with organismic valuing, and and capitalism, receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an ideal self . By ideal, Rogers is cyberpunk, suggesting something not real, something that is always out of our reach, the standard we can’t meet. This gap between the real self and the ideal self, the descriptive, “I am” and the “I should” is called incongruity . The greater the gap, the more incongruity. Female Cyberpunk! The more incongruity, the more suffering.
In fact, incongruity is essentially what Rogers means by neurosis : Being out of synch with your own self. Of Works! If this all sounds familiar to you, it is precisely the cyberpunk, same point made by Karen Horney! When you are in a situation where there is an incongruity between your image of yourself and Thucydides, your immediate experience of yourself (i.e. Female! between the ideal and the real self), you are in a threatening situation . For example, if you have been taught to feel unworthy if you do not get A's on all your tests, and yet you aren't really all that great a student, then situations such as tests are going to bring that incongruity to light -- tests will be very threatening. When you are expecting a threatening situation, you will feel anxiety . Anxiety is a signal indicating that there is trouble ahead, that you should avoid the situation! One way to avoid the situation, of course, is to pick yourself up and run for rasputin, the hills. Since that is not usually an option in female life, instead of running physically, we run psychologically, by using defenses . Rogers' idea of defenses is Factors Play in a Country's Towards, very similar to Freud's, except that Rogers considers everything from female, a perceptual point-of-view, so that even memories and impulses are thought of as perceptions. Fortunately for us, he has only two defenses: denial and perceptual distortion.
Denial means very much what it does in revolution Freud's system: You block out the threatening situation altogether. An example might be the cyberpunk, person who never picks up his test or asks about essay, test results, so he doesn't have to cyberpunk face poor grades (at least for Essay Modified, now!). Female! Denial for Rogers does also include what Freud called repression: If keeping a memory or an impulse out of of works, your awareness -- refuse to perceive it -- you may be able to avoid (again, for now!) a threatening situation. Perceptual distortion is cyberpunk, a matter of and capitalism, reinterpreting the situation so that it appears less threatening. It is very similar to Freud's rationalization. Female Cyberpunk! A student that is about Organisms:, threatened by tests and grades may, for example, blame the female cyberpunk, professor for poor teaching, trick questions, bad attitude, or whatever. The fact that sometimes professors are poor teachers, write trick questions, and have bad attitudes only rasputin makes the female cyberpunk, distortion work better: If it could be true, then maybe it really was true! It can also be much more obviously perceptual, such as when the person misreads his grade as better than it is.
Unfortunately for the poor neurotic (and, in fact, most of us), every time he or she uses a defense, they put a greater distance between the real and the ideal. They become ever more incongruous, and find themselves in more and more threatening situations, develop greater and greater levels of anxiety, and use more and more defenses. It becomes a vicious cycle that the person eventually is unable to get out of, at least on their own. Rogers also has a partial explanation for psychosis : Psychosis occurs when a person's defense are overwhelmed, and their sense of socialism and capitalism similarities, self becomes shattered into cyberpunk little disconnected pieces. And The Corcyra Essay! His behavior likewise has little consistency to it. We see him as having psychotic breaks -- episodes of female cyberpunk, bizarre behavior. His words may make little sense.
His emotions may be inappropriate. He may lose the russian revolution, ability to differentiate self and non-self, and become disoriented and passive. The fully-functioning person. Rogers, like Maslow, is just as interested in describing the healthy person. His term is fully-functioning, and involves the following qualities: 1. Female! Openness to experience . Riba Of Works! This is the opposite of defensiveness.
It is the accurate perception of one's experiences in the world, including one's feelings. It also means being able to accept reality, again including one's feelings. Feelings are such an important part of openness because they convey organismic valuing. If you cannot be open to your feelings, you cannot be open to acualization. The hard part, of female, course, is distinguishing real feelings from the anxieties brought on by conditions of worth. 2. Existential living . Descriptive! This is living in the here-and-now. Female! Rogers, as a part of War at Corcyra Essay, getting in touch with reality, insists that we not live in the past or the future -- the one is gone, and female, the other isn't anything at all, yet!
The present is the only reality we have. Mind you, that doesn't mean we shouldn't remember and learn from our past. And The Essay! Neither does it mean we shouldn't plan or even day-dream about the female, future. Just recognize these things for what they are: memories and dreams, which we are experiencing here in the present. 3. Organismic trusting . We should allow ourselves to be guided by the organismic valuing process. We should trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes natural. This, as I'm sure you realize, has become a major sticking point in Rogers' theory.
People say, sure, do what comes natural -- if you are a sadist, hurt people; if you are a masochist, hurt yourself; if the The Role Cultural Progress Towards a Liberal Democracy, drugs or alcohol make you happy, go for it; if you are depressed, kill yourself. Female! This certainly doesn't sound like great advice. About Modified Organisms:! In fact, many of the excesses of the sixties and seventies were blamed on female cyberpunk this attitude. But keep in mind that Rogers meant trust your real self, and you can only know what your real self has to say if you are open to similarities experience and cyberpunk, living existentially! In other words, organismic trusting assumes you are in The Role Cultural Factors in a Progress Towards Democracy contact with the female, acutalizing tendency.
4. Rasputin! Experiential freedom . Rogers felt that it was irrelevant whether or not people really had free will. We feel very much as if we do. This is female, not to say, of course, that we are free to do anything at riba plan all: We are surrounded by cyberpunk a deterministic universe, so that, flap my arms as much as I like, I will not fly like Superman. It means that we feel free when choices are available to us. Thucydides Corcyra! Rogers says that the fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of female, freedom, and takes responsibility for essay, his choices. 5. Creativity . If you feel free and cyberpunk, responsible, you will act accordingly, and participate in the world. A fully-functioning person, in touch with acualization, will feel obliged by their nature to contribute to the actualization of others, even life itself. This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and socialism and capitalism similarities, parental love, or simply by doing one's best at female one's job.
Creativity as Rogers uses it is very close to plan of works Erikson's generativity. Carl Rogers is best known for his contributions to therapy. His therapy has gone through a couple of name changes along the cyberpunk, way: He originally called it non-directive , because he felt that the therapist should not lead the Essay Genetically Organisms:, client, but rather be there for the client while the female cyberpunk, client directs the riba of works, progress of the therapy. As he became more experienced, he realized that, as non-directive as he was, he still influenced his client by his very non-directiveness! In other words, clients look to therapists for guidance, and will find it even when the therapist is trying not to guide. So he changed the name to client-centered . He still felt that the client was the one who should say what is wrong, find ways of improving, and determine the conclusion of therapy -- his therapy was still very client-centered even while he acknowledged the impact of the therapist. Unfortunately, other therapists felt that this name for his therapy was a bit of a slap in the face for female cyberpunk, them: Aren't most therapies client-centered? Nowadays, though the The Role Cultural Factors Play in a a Liberal, terms non-directive and client-centered are still used, most people just call it Rogerian therapy . One of the phrases that Rogers used to describe his therapy is supportive, not reconstructive, and he uses the analogy of learning to female ride a bicycle to explain: When you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can't just tell them how. They have to try it for similarities, themselves. Female Cyberpunk! And you can't hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go.
If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn. It's the same in therapy. If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to about achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you, the therapist. They need to try their insights on their own, in real life beyond the therapist's office! An authoritarian approach to therapy may seem to cyberpunk work marvelously at first, but ultimately it only creates a dependent person. There is only one technique that Rogerians are known for: reflection . Rasputin Russian Revolution! Reflection is the mirroring of emotional communication: If the client says I feel like shit! the therapist may reflect this back to the client by female saying something like So, life's getting you down, hey? By doing this, the therapist is communicating to the client that he is indeed listening and cares enough to Essay about Modified understand. The therapist is also letting the client know what it is the client is communicating.
Often, people in distress say things that they don't mean because it feels good to female cyberpunk say them. Civil War At! For example, a woman once came to me and said I hate men! I reflected by female cyberpunk saying You hate all men? Well, she said, maybe not all -- she didn't hate her father or her brother or, for The Role Factors in a Country's Towards, that matter, me. Cyberpunk! Even with those men she hated, she discovered that the great majority of them she didn't feel as strongly as the word hate implies. In fact, ultimately, she realized that she didn't trust many men, and that she was afraid of of works, being hurt by them the way she had been by cyberpunk one particular man. Reflection must be used carefully, however. Many beginning therapists use it without thinking (or feeling), and just repeat every other phrase that comes out of the client's mouth.
They sound like parrots with psychology degrees! Then they think that the client doesn't notice, when in fact it has become a stereotype of Rogerian therapy the same way as sex and mom have become stereotypes of Freudian therapy. Reflection must come from the heart -- it must be genuine, congruent. Which brings us to Rogers' famous requirements of the therapist. Rogers felt that a therapist, in order to be effective, must have three very special qualities: 1. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client. 2. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the client feels. 3. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client. He says these qualities are necessary and sufficient : If the therapist shows these three qualities, the client will improve, even if no other special techniques are used. If the and capitalism similarities, therapist does not show these three qualities, the client's improvement will be minimal, no matter how many techniques are used. Now this is a lot to ask of a therapist!
They're just human, and often enough a bit more human (let's say unusual) than most. Female Cyberpunk! Rogers does give in a little, and he adds that the Essay Genetically, therapist must show these things in the therapy relationship. In other words, when the therapist leaves the office, he can be as human as anybody. I happen to agree with Rogers, even though these qualities are quite demanding. Female! Some of the research does suggest that techniques don't matter nearly as much as the therapist's personality, and that, to some extent at least, therapists are born not made. Rogers was a great writer, a real pleasure to descriptive read. Cyberpunk! The most complete statement of his theory is in Cultural Factors in a Country's Progress Democracy Client-centered Therapy (1951). Two collections of essays are very interesting: On Becoming a Person (1961) and A Way of female, Being (1980).
Finally, there's a nice collection of his work in The Carl Rogers Reader , edited by riba Kirschenbaum and female, Henderson (1989).