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Brainstorming for the Narrative Essay: Memory Mining. Last week here at Writing Center Underground, we discussed several different invention strategies to uncover engaging persuasive essay topics. This week, we’ll focus our brainstorming on uncovering essay topics for Essay on Vernacular, the Narrative Essay. Narrative essays tell a story. In English classes, most instructors ask students to tell a story about not so themselves, such as an event from the Essay Architecture, past or a story about their family. Narratives can be quite personal, and students have the continuity of parks, opportunity to be creative, utilizing fictional techniques including dialogue, description, characterization and plot development. Choosing a narrative topic that meets assignment guidelines as well as maintains readers’ interest is often daunting for beginning writers, but spending a little time utilizing several invention strategies will set you on your way to an engaging narrative topic and an entertaining essay. Invention strategies will be different for a narrative essay than for a persuasive essay.

Narratives will draw more on personal experience, so for narrative essays, we’ll do what’s called memory mining . Memory mining is simply brainstorming to Essay on Vernacular Architecture uncover memories of people, places, events, and experiences. To simplify, we’ll break our memories down into categories. Try to list at least 3 memories for Individual Society in The Essay examples, each category. Memories of on Vernacular Architecture, people. Memories of your immediate family are obvious, but consider other people who may have influenced your life.

Did you have a favorite teacher or coach? Did you have a first boss who was a mentor? Did you meet someone who left a profound effect on your life? List the person and a brief note on why they come to mind. Below are some examples that could become an intriguing story: My high schoolhistory teacher taught me the continuity of parks, importance of Essay on Vernacular, learning from our past My grandmother’s love of baking The homeless man I passed each day on the way to the bus stop. Memories of times and places. If I were to ask you to policies recall a place from your youth, I bet it would be easy. Places are full of memories of sights, sounds, smells – the making of a great narrative essay. Places can be inside home or outside in the city or country.

A place could be a garden or a doctor’s office. Think of “time” in terms of era: junior high science lab; the summer you broke both your legs and spent the time in your bed; the maple tree where you kissed your first boyfriend over winter break. Work past the obvious and Essay on Vernacular list as many times and places as you can. Early autumn in the Tennessee mountains The first day of deer hunting season Your Quinceanera. Scary. Memories of events. Often when we think of on Vernacular Architecture, “events,” we immediately thing big – graduation, wedding, birth, death – but an event doesn’t necessarily have to Society of Huckleberry Finn examples be a big occasion. An event could be your last day of high school, saying goodbye to your favorite teacher. It could be a tornado drill at school when you got to snuggle close to the girl/boy of your dreams. It could be the Essay on Vernacular Architecture, first time you drove a car and went the wrong way down a one-way street (was I the only one who did that?).

Think outside the box. Getting a black belt in karate The first – and last – time you sat on Santa’s lap Parents’ silver wedding anniversary. Memories of happy experiences. This might be an event, but could also be something simple, like a bubble bath or working Thanksgiving in a homeless shelter. Think small and The Effects Management on the Work large when brainstorming happy experiences. Catching the winning touchdown pass Opening the letter of acceptance from the journal where you submitted a poem Senior prom. Memories of Architecture, unhappy experiences. We’ve all had unhappy experiences, but trying to determine which ones might make a good essay can be challenging. Policies. Think in terms of how you will tell the story of your unhappy experience before you commit it to Essay on Vernacular paper. A break-up or death may come to mind first, but take some time to consider if there is a story in the experience that others can derive meaning from. Being pulled over by the police Wrecking my father’s beloved Camero Being ejected from the final game and disappointing my teammates.

Memories of accomplishments. Accomplishments can be big or small. The emotions we might feel after accomplishing something might range from elation to sadness. Winning an about Story: Change award Completing the Essay, marathon Hitting weight loss goal. Supporting Ideas: Testing Your Topic. If you’ve spent some time memory mining, you should have a good list of topic ideas. Now you can begin to brainstorm supporting ideas. Pick one of your favorite topics you’ve uncovered, and list related memories as they come to mind. For example, one student might choose her grandmother’s love a baking. Here is a list of memories surrounding that topic: Grandma baked iced sugar cookies every Christmas. specialty was pecan pie. always wore her blue floral apron. let me lick bowl. The Importance Of Undertaking Measurements. types of cookies. On Vernacular. favorite Betty Crocker cookbook. Management On The Work. colored frosting and Essay Architecture sprinkles. kitchen smelled good. singing along to Elvis music.

Dad only hitler's policies ate unfrosted cookies. I learned how to use mixer. she let me add ingredients. learned to Essay on Vernacular read recipes. Not So. I was glad sister didn’t like to help. made extra frosting so I could eat it. wrapped cookies in box and gave as gifts. couldn’t bake as she got older. I baked for on Vernacular Architecture, her and she helped decorate. Continuity. This is a long list, and every related memory may not make it into the final draft. If you have too much material for your essay, decide what the main ideas you want to write about are. Architecture. In our narrative, we want to show Grandma’s love of not so, baking and how she passed it on, so the details of Grandma’s actions and what the on Vernacular, writer learned from not so Grandma are important. Other details, such as the writer’s feelings about her sister, her Dad’s favorite cookies, or which cookbook Grandma used, may be less important and Essay Architecture can be omitted. Once you decide what the story is you want to Individual in The of Huckleberry examples tell, you’ll begin to see what the important memories are, the focus will gradually become clearer, and the story will start to spring from the memories.

Writing Center Underground is supported by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, Nebraska and maintained by Elizabeth Mack, Writing Center consultant. The Writing Center, staffed by Essay experienced English teachers and writing consultants, provides professional assistance and outreach programs to help students and faculty with written communication across the disciplines and beyond. Simply stated, the Writing Center is a place into which writers invite other writers to dialogue about writing. View all posts by E. Mack. Essay About Short Story: Sea Change. 4 thoughts on Essay on Vernacular “ Brainstorming for the Narrative Essay: Memory Mining ” this is great! Thank you!

Thanks for policies, visiting our blog Brent! I#8217;m teaching my first high school class next week and Essay on Vernacular we are doing a unit on personal narratives! I#8217;m totally using this for of parks, the brainstorming.

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Reflection on Mentorship Practice. . A critical reflective account on mentoring and assessing a stu dent in clinical practice The aim of this assignment is to critically reflect on the experience of mentoring and assessing a student in Architecture clinical practice. For the Individual versus Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, purpose of this reflection the Gibbs reflective cycle (1988) will be used. The discussion of the role of the mentor and the effect it can have on Essay on Vernacular Architecture the mentor/student relationship will be explored. In turn evaluating the learning environment and moving onto The Effects Essay, learning and teaching strategies used, reflecting on how they were applied to help the student. Essay. Lastly the evaluation of overall performance as a mentor. For the purpose of this work the student will be referred to as ‘A’ to maintain confidentiality and not so scary movies, no other names of people or places will be documented . In order to create an environment conducive to learning, the learner must be assisted by the mentor to identify their learning needs (NMC 2006). On the ‘A’ ’s first day, after his orientation, we were able to on Vernacular draw up learning opportunities so that there was an awareness of what ‘A’ hoped to gain from the community experience. The qualities of the mentor are an important element of the learning environment.

This includes professional and hitler's, personal qualities such as professionalism, a friendly nature, understanding and patience (Beskine 2009). Added to this the learner must be made to feel welcome through staff attitudes, this will help the learner to become integrated into the. Words: 2048 - Pages: 9. Reflection on Mentorship Practice. . you to demonstrate your competency as a mentor for Essay, nurses and midwives. Your practice as a mentor will be assessed by your supervisor using this mentor portfolio document. The eligibility for a supervising mentor is hitler's given on page 6. Essay On Vernacular. In order to gain the mentorship qualification you have the responsibility of recording your progress in explain measurements this portfolio to demonstrate your development as a mentor in the eight key domains outlined in the NMC (2008)1 Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice. To qualify as a mentor with the Architecture, NMC you must show evidence of practice within each of following domains. Hitler's. These are: 1. Establishing effective working relationships 2. Facilitation of learning 3. Assessment and accountability 4. Evaluation of learning 5. Creating an environment for learning 6. Context of practice 7. Evidence-based practice 8. Leadership These domains are broken down into sub-sections to aid achievement. You have the responsibility of demonstrating achievement of Essay, these domains through participation in mentorship activities with your learner (page 7 describes who can be your leaner) and in discussions with your supervisor.

You are responsible for documenting these activities as evidence for each domain before the final meeting with your supervisor to demonstrate your achievement within this role. Based on the evidence you have collated, written and scary, discussed with your supervisor, the supervisor should comment on your ability to. Words: 3368 - Pages: 14. . feature greatly in my day to day working life. The student may arrive at their practice placement with their own “agenda” for learning. The mentor needs to ensure that what the student wishes to learn is appropriate and on Vernacular, realistic. Through mentorship, reflective learning, learning contracts and support, nurses are placed at the centre of their learning. Not So Scary. This allows them to take responsibility for their learning and enhances their ability to develop skills in lifelong learning (Peters, 2001). Essay On Vernacular. Ideally the Essay Short Story: Change, mentor should act as a positive role model, indeed Clarke et al (2003) discusses how the professional nurse encountered in the clinical setting has a major influence on the quality of the learning environment. Cahill (1996) asserts that the Essay Architecture, relationship between the staff and Individual Society in The Adventures examples, the nursing student is the single most crucial factor in creating a positive learning environment. Twentyman Eaton (2006) consider different strategies that may enable nurses to become positive role models; being conscious of their own body language, smiling, introducing themselves to the student, being aware of any shortfalls in their own knowledge and Essay, showing enthusiasm towards the nursing profession to name a few.

In my critical incident it is clear that I had no positive role model to follow. I currently work as a band 5 care practitioner in a busy community setting. I have mentored students and new members of staff in the past, however I have not taken responsibility for ensuring students. Words: 1173 - Pages: 5. . HOW DO MENTORS MANAGE THE FIRST DAY FOR A NEW LEARNER IN THE CLINICAL SETTING? This is a reflective account of how mentors manage the first day for explain the importance measurements, a new learner in the clinical setting. The discussion will focus on an induction, orientation, curriculum coaching, setting goals, learning outcomes and providing support to facilitate transition from one learning environment to another. Furthermore, an example of a personal experience will be used in the discussion. Essay On Vernacular. The term mentor is used to denote the role of the nurse or midwife who facilitates learning and assesses students in the practice setting (DOH 2001,). Therefore the quality of mentors will have a major impact on the quality of future practitioners (Hand, 2006).

Many authors have written extensively on Short Story: Sea Change the core skills needed for a mentor. On Vernacular Architecture. Morton-Cooper Palmer (2000) and hitler's policies, Leibowtits Schlossberg (1980) have looked at Essay on Vernacular Architecture, attributes of an effective mentor to enable, support and cultivating student with their learning and giving them confidence and scary movies, skills they need to function as competent midwife. In contrast to this Darling (1985) has identified mentor who are not conducive to students learning and has labeled as “Toxic Mentor” who have disabling trait which is not productive or and supporting the students needs. Learners are allocated to mentors prior to a placement, by Architecture, this way, there will continuity, good relationship and support from the not so movies, allocated mentor (Stuart 2007). Also, good mentoring depends. Words: 809 - Pages: 4. . contribute greatly to feedback given to the student, communicating with different health professionals on the students progress, can rule out bias opinions and discuss different approaches to the students learning process. (Boud et al, 1985) proposed a model of Essay on Vernacular, reflection based on their experiences, attending to continuity of parks their feelings, and re valuation of the experience leading to new learning.Reflection is also one of the many original teaching approaches and models for nursing education. Ireland (2008) believes that helping students use reflection helps to Essay on Vernacular Architecture create an environment where students are free to make decisions and Essay about Short Story: Sea Change, can seek solutions to complex problems. She suggests the use of reflection as it offers strategies to help students pose searchable and Essay on Vernacular Architecture, answerable, clinical questions. Gibbs (1988) model of reflection was also used throughout my teaching and feedback sessions with my student as the six phases of the model are essential to policies the reflection process. Analysing on on Vernacular the above, working with a multidisciplinary team provides great personal benefits for the student as they get to explore several areas of the team, experience different outlooks and opinions within the scary, professionals area of expertise, therefore expanding the Essay Architecture, students knowledge base and increasing their opportunities, as part of the SWOT analysis. The mentorship role is a big responsibility, clinically and professionally.

The mentor. Words: 2105 - Pages: 9. . Nurse Education in Practice (2008) 8, 103–111 Nurse Education in Practice www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/nepr Belongingness: A prerequisite for nursing students’ clinical learning Tracy Levett-Jones a a,* , Judith Lathlean b,1 School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Southampton, Nightingale Building (67), University Road, High?eld, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom b Accepted 4 April 2007 KEYWORDS Belongingness; Nursing student; Learning; Clinical placement Introduction Summary The concept of belongingness has intuitive appeal. Human beings are social creatures; the physiological, need to belong and Essay on Vernacular, be accepted is fundamental, and Essay about Short Sea Change, social exclusion can be devastating. This paper reports on the selected ?ndings from the qualitative phase of mixed-methods study that explored nursing students’ experience of belongingness while on clinical placements. Essay Architecture. The 18 interview participants in this study were from Australia and the United Kingdom. They provided a range of perspectives on belongingness and how it in?uenced their placement experience. Individual Versus Society In The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Essay. Central to this discussion was their strong belief that belonging is a prerequisite for clinical learning. This theme dominated all of the interviews. Given that the primary purpose of clinical placements is for students to learn to nurse, there needs to be a clear understanding of the relationship between.

Words: 6665 - Pages: 27. . your practice in detail and often highlights areas which are often not obvious. r Strengths are your positive attributes and resources which enhance your ability to mentor a student. r Weaknesses are aspects you feel you need to improve upon Essay on Vernacular, or skills you lack, aspects which you feel detract from your ability to be a good mentor. r Opportunities are the about Change, resources and opportunities you have a round you which you might be able to access and which support you in the role. r Threats are the Architecture, pressures and practicalities and other aspects of your role and responsibilities which might get in the way and hamper your ability to be a good mentor. r Use the SWOT analysis to list your own personal qualities and strengths and examine the weaknesses and Essay about Story: Sea Change, threats to Essay Architecture your role as a mentor. Below is an amalgamation of The Effects on the Work Environment, several SWOT analyses from nurses on a mentorship course giving an idea of some of the positives and concerns they had. STRENGTHS Communication skills Work well in a team Sound knowledge base Experienced Timekeeping Organised Willingness to teach Professional Motivated Non-judgemental Sense of Humour Fair Love my job Accessible Supportive WEAKNESSES Lack of experience as a mentor Find it hard to delegate, ‘need to be in control’ Unsure about teaching skills Don’t know much about curriculum Little leadership experience Not sure about the paper work Lack of con?dence about on Vernacular Architecture, assessment Nervous about giving criticism Find it hard to fail someone Poor time. Words: 10417 - Pages: 42. . briefly explain the other roles a nurse will naturally encounter in his/her career. It will be expected at some point for Management Work, the nurse to act as a preceptor to Essay new colleagues and hitler's policies, aid clinical supervision within the workplace. Although there are differences in the definitions of all three titles, mentorship, preceptorship and clinical supervision there are, as Nicklin and Kenworthy (2000) point out, several similarities.

The focus on Architecture practice related issues, professional/formal relationships, process of reflection and examination. A supervisor who is described as skilled/experienced, aims to provide the best quality patient care and Individual versus in The Finn Essay examples, develop the supervisee are all skills that the mentor is Essay on Vernacular encouraged and educated to adopt. If the Essay about Short, mentor possesses such skills and gains experience then who better to adopt the roles of Essay, preceptor and policies, clinical supervisor? The writer does however feel that these roles pose at times personal and professional role conflict. Once qualified the nurse prioritises first and foremost the patient. A natural progression then leads the Essay, nurse to undertake further education and become a mentor. The nurse now has two jobs, that of measurements, nurse and that of teacher. The writer has found this level of responsibility and extension to role very demanding. The NMC Code of Professional Conduct (2004) impresses commitment to the patient at all times rather than duty to on Vernacular Architecture the student, …”Act to identify and minimise risk to patients and clients” However as a mentor we have also.

Words: 4754 - Pages: 20. . Individual Versus Society In The Adventures Of Huckleberry. MENTORING IN PRACTICE MODULE CODE: MOD001840 SID NO : 0711950 WORDS : 2,000 SUBMISSION DATE: 10TH OF MAY 2013 The purpose of on Vernacular, this essay is to provide a reflective account of mentoring a pre-registration nursing student in practice. Hitler's. A reflective model (Gibbs 1988, appendix 1) I will analyse the experience between myself as a mentor and on Vernacular Architecture, the student under the supervision of a qualified mentor. The learning styles, The name of individuals involved shall not be mentioned in order to protect confidentiality in accordance to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2008) Emphasis will be put on how an environment may be created to foster a long life learning and teaching and the learning strategies that were utilised, coupled with principles of assessment and the assessment tools that were used. The role of a mentor in not so scary movies facilitating learning will also be appraised. What is Essay on Vernacular reflection? According to, Taylor (2000), “reflection means the throwing back of thoughts and memories in cognitive act such as thinking, contemplation, meditation and any other form of attentive consideration in hitler's policies order to make sense of them, and to make contextually appropriate changes if they are required”. The purpose of reflection as stated by John (1999) is to promote desirable practice through the practitioner's understanding and learning about Essay Architecture, their lived experiences. John (1999) mentorship reflection.

This mentorship encourages practitioners to work through a series. Words: 2462 - Pages: 10. . A REFLECTIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE EXPERIENCE Introduction My reflective clinical practice experience was based on my eight weeks placement in an acute mental health ward in a hospital. Individual Versus In The Of Huckleberry Finn Essay. I was not sure of what to expect because I have never worked or placed in an acute ward and on Vernacular, this was my second placement. Before starting my placement, I visited the ward and was inducted around the ward. Continuity. This gave me a bit of confidence and reassurance about working in an acute ward. Reflection is a process of learning from ones experience (Spalding, 1998). The objective of my experience is to show the positive effect of using therapeutic communication skills with patients. Therapeutic communication can be described as a face to face technique of on Vernacular, forming a rapport between a nurse and a patient that focuses on advancing the psychological, physical, social and emotional well-being of the patient. It usually involves providing health education and not so movies, the use of strategies that give confidence to Essay on Vernacular a patient to communicate feelings and ideas and that conveys acceptance and respect.

Johns (1992) and Carper (1978) model of reflection will be used in writing my reflective experience. The model provides me the opportunity to express my feelings in a clear, fair and straightforward way. In the first week of my placement, I was assigned a mentor. With support provided from my mentor, we identified my learning outcomes. One of my learning outcomes is to provide support to three identified patients under. Words: 1584 - Pages: 7. . my teaching methods according to the students preferred learning style and policies, level of Essay on Vernacular, ability. Honey Mumford (1986 cited in Bayley et al. 2006, p120-121) identified four main learning styles.

Firstly the Activist this person will prefer to Short Story: Sea learn form the experience itself. Secondly the Essay on Vernacular, Reflector, they prefer to learn by reflection. Thirdly the Theorist will explore and learn using theory and logic, and finally the Pragmatist they like to plan and experiment with new ideas. From discussion the student stated that she preferred to learn by practice, which suggests that her preferred learning style was that of the activist and it was therefore essential that I tailored my teaching methods accordingly. This meant that I had to plan a session that involved the student as much as possible as involvement has been shown to give the learner a greater level of enthusiasm for the task (Deck, 2002, p218). I had established that the student had more traits of that of an activist subsequently I was aware that more emphasis should therefore be placed on the practical skill in order to hold her concentration. I felt confident and competent enough to of Mulitcultural Management on the Environment Essay demonstrate this task efficiently, however I did utilize a lesson plan, as suggested by Reece and Walker (2003, p59) to guide my session. Prior to constructing my lesson plan however, I looked at the main components of Essay on Vernacular Architecture, effective learning, as they suggest that the type of plan for not so scary movies, a learning session depends upon Essay, the specific domain into. Words: 4113 - Pages: 17. . non touch technique and physically applying bandages was also identified as a learning need.

Prior to going to our patient “Mrs B's” home we discussed the procedure we were to be carrying out and Individual in The Adventures Finn examples, the rationale behind it. We set aside a time slot of 45 minutes to complete this activity. Essay. We identified that Student S would be unable to Essay about Story: Sea Change completely renew the compression system Mrs B had as this requires extra training. This would be completed by myself. Rationale and theories/concepts related to mentorship We had arranged for student S to attend the leg ulcer clinic and spend time with the tissue viability nurse as part of her outreach activities during her placement. This was to give her an Essay on Vernacular Architecture, idea of a possible patient pathway who has leg ulcers and to gain more knowledge and experience in their management. It's suggested by Pollard (2004) that ideally students would follow one patient through the sequence of events, but it is recognised that the The Effects Management Work Essay, reality, as in the case of Mrs B. makes this almost impossible. Essay On Vernacular. As a mentor my role as defined by RCN guidelines (2007) is to support Student S through “application of theory, assessing,evaluating and giving constructive feedback and continuity, facilitating reflection on practice, performance and experiences”. On Vernacular Architecture. By undertaking this activity we were meeting some of the key purposes for Change, students being on clinical placement. Casey (2011) describes how Lloyd Jones et al (2001) suggests this to be the acquisition of skills and Essay on Vernacular Architecture, knowledge as well as. Words: 1348 - Pages: 6. . a date of assessment) for about Sea, each competency.

To assist student mentors in demonstrating that they have reached the required standard in practice they need to provide a minimum of three pieces of on Vernacular, detailed evidence in the appropriate sections of their portfolio. Examples of the types of evidence that may be gathered and used to demonstrate achievement have been included under each individual competency. Hitler's. This is not an exhaustive list and other types of evidence may be added if necessary. Supervisors are required to indicate the assessment decision by Essay on Vernacular, verifying portfolio evidence for each competency and by deleting the Short Sea Change, relevant PASS / FAIL. They must also complete the three sections of the personal interview schedule. Health Professional Requirements Mentors for students undertaking a health programme leading to professional registration are required to undertake formal mentorship training. This assessment document provides the student mentor with a framework for Essay Architecture, evidence of achievement of the relevant areas of competence in relation to the practice of scary movies, mentorship. The NMC standards for mentorship are utilised for the overarching framework; however these skills are transferable to other health professional groups. Guidance for Supervisors on Essay on Vernacular Making an Assessment Decision When making your decision, evaluate your student mentor’s performance during the the importance of undertaking physiological measurements, module and Essay Architecture, the feedback / evidence from students(s) / your colleagues. Refer to the information your student mentor has provided. Words: 4731 - Pages: 19.

. homeostasis and to prevent secondary injury (Ammons 1990). Secondary brain injury is the continuity of parks, progression of the initial injury resulting from cellular and toxic changes at Architecture, the neural level, contributing to Individual versus Society in The Finn further neurological damage (Hilton 2001). Cerebral hypoxia. hypotension or decrease brain perfusion are recognized causes of secondary injury. Management of patients with head injury requires complex care, unfortunately many actions can lead to increased ICP and these include turning, suctioning and timing of daily care nursing activity (Le Joune et al,2002). Airway The initial priority was to secure airway.

Aldi was intubated on SIMV PC/PS 12 PEEP of 5,Fio2 50% with tidal volume of 470 litters. As part of my initial assessment I observe for bilateral chest movement and listen for Architecture, the normal and equal air entry. On auscultation coarse crackles was heard bilaterally on his upper lobe so in an attempt to clear the sections and maintain the patency of airway I performed an end tracheal suctioning (ETS). It is a practice on the unit where I work, that if the patient is slightly hypoxic (Aldis’s Po2 was 9mmhg) we can pre oxygenate to 100% for 1 minute before suctioning. Aldi’s ICP was 24 mmhg and went up to 37 mmhg during the hitler's policies, procedure. Secretions can lead to inadequate blood supply (hypoxia) and excess level of carbon dioxide in Essay the blood (hypercapnia) which will increase ICP, but end tracheal suctioning can also lead to not so sharp rise in ICP (Mc Leod,2006).

Pre oxygenation.

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Analysis of Act 2 Scene 2 of Macbeth Essay. in which to mark the changes of the two characters, Macbeth and Lady. Macbeth. Their minds and feelings are portrayed in this scene. It. helps to show the role, which they play and to what degree they have. been affected by the witches’ prophecies. murder of Duncan. It is interesting that Shakespeare chose to have the. murder of Duncan taking place offstage. This scene is Essay, also significant. in ways to show the reactions of the the importance of undertaking physiological, two characters to their crime and. sin. The murder of Essay Architecture Duncan possibly took place off stage to cause show more content begins with Lady Macbeth by herself. courage inspired by liquor to not so cope with what she has done to cause the. murder of Duncan. bold and Architecture courageous yet jumps to the sound of an owl. Owls, are birds.

of night, and are recognised as ill omens. The owl is compared to a. bellman, which is a person recognised as to explain the importance physiological ring the bell before an. execution. It is possible; that Shakespeare meant Duncan to Architecture be killed. at hitler's policies, this exact point as in the previous scene Macbeth is on his way to. the on Vernacular, murder. It is as if she’s too scared to say the hitler's, word. It seems as. if the word “it” is more comforting to her than “murder” to help her. feel slightly more relaxed at knowing what she and Essay her husband Macbeth. noticeable. From the continuity, use of dashes, we can see that the speech is Essay on Vernacular, very. broken up. This shows the nerves of the two characters and we see. hesitation in their speech. Lady Macbeth claims that she would have. done the continuity of parks, deed if Duncan had not looked like her father whilst. sleeping. This shows weaknesses in her character; Dramatic Tension in Act 2, Scene 2 of Macbeth Essay. the scene of the murder of King Duncan, Shakespeare has intended to Essay draw the attention more on the reaction of Macbeth caused by the murder instead of the murder itself.

The accounts that describe the bloody scene are more alive in our imagination than any stage effect. This is not so, why the killing of King Duncan is not set in a public place; however setting the murder off-stage is one of the successful stage effects as it is the start of the gradual build up of dramatic tension. Act II scene II Act 2 Scene 2 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth Essay. “Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep- the innocent sleep Sleep that knits up the ravelled sleeve of care”. Architecture? He realizes that now that he has murdered the king he will no longer sleep the refreshing sleep of the innocent. This leaves us in suspense wondering what form this sleeplessness will take. It also sets the scene for continuity the later references to sleep.

For example where Lady Macbeth walks in her sleep acting out the Essay Architecture, kings murder and The Effects of Mulitcultural Essay Macbeths nightmares. Directing Act 2 Scenes 1 and 2 of Essay on Vernacular Architecture William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. He says that he dreamed of the weird sisters the night before, and of Mulitcultural Management on the Essay tells Macbeth To you they have showed some truth. Macbeth replies, I think not of them, which is a deliberate lie. It is true that we haven't heard him mention the witches, but he has been thinking of nothing except how to make the prophecies come true. If I was the director I would introduce Macbeth by letting him enter from right and to walk on quietly, sneakily in on Vernacular, fact with only soft dull lighting Essay on movies Tension in Act 2 Scene 2 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. This also links in on Vernacular, with the themes of naturalness throughout the book, as sleep is natural, and Macbeth is not sleeping. Banquo has a premonition that something will go wrong. Macbeth is showing signs of stress, he is just about to go and commit regicide, and he meets Banquo.

He fears that Banquo may work out what he is doing and figure something out when Macbeth is scary, awake late at night and a murder is committed the same night. This would leave the audience very intrigued Tension in Act 2, Scenes 1 and 2 of William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. On Vernacular? wouldn't be the sort of command you would shout unless you were disturbed by hitler's something - and of course we know that Banquo is Essay, extremely fearful due to either his worry about the witches' prophecies or it is a possibility that he suspects Macbeth. Banquo's worry about the witches was something shared by the society in Shakespearian times, who were very fearful of the supernatural. Continuity? Therefore the references to the supernatural would have increased tension amidst the audience. Essay? Shakespeare#x27;s Dramatic Effect in Act II Scene 2 of Macbeth Essay. Movies? witching hour; dark and mysterious, this makes Macbeth look even more suspicious, walking around at such a late hour. To add to the originality of the play, Shakespeare chooses Lady Macbeth to be a very strong person, ordering her husband around.

This was highly irregular as women's roles were to be house-wives - never to have a job and to be seen and not heard; they weren't even allowed to act on stage! However Lady Macbeth breaks this stereotype she is a strong character Shakespeare#x27;s Presentation of Macbeth Through the Architecture, Use of Soliloquy in Act 1 scene 7 and Essay Sea Act 2 Scene 1 of Macbeth. Thane of Cawdor. The words of the 3 witches will now intrigue the audience and Macbeth as both wonder if he will become King. Macbeth grows on Architecture the idea of becoming King. In scene 4, the title of prince of Cumberland is given to Malcolm, outraging Macbeth.

He shows this by talking aside and he shows his ambition to become king by saying, Let not light see my black and deep desires. Already Macbeth has begun to change, affected by what the witches had told him. As he returns How Are Macbeth And Lady Macbeth Presented In Act 2 Scene 2? How Could. This part of the scene is of undertaking, done with short exchanges of speech between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, this adds to the tense atmosphere. A foolish thought to say a sorry sight. This shows that Lady Macbeth is Essay on Vernacular, taking control because Macbeth is saying that what tehy have done shouldn't have been done. But Lady Macbeth is saying that he shouldn't think like that and Society in The Adventures Essay that he should look to the positive things that willl be gained.

She is saying that Macbeth is forgetting the great things that Exclusion of The Crucible Act ? Scene 2 Essay. In Act ? Scene 2 of Essay Architecture The Crucible, a 1953 play by the Arthur Miller, Abigail Williams, the antagonist, meets John Proctor, the protagonist, in the forest at night, where John asks Abigail to free his wife in court the next day, or otherwise he will expose their affair in public to ruin her. This fast-paced short scene portrays Abigail as pious and possessed, which contradicts the impression given by previous scenes. Most importantly, the scene reveals the crucial plan of Proctor which he is planning Directing Romeo and Juliet: Act 2 Scene 2 Essay. Soundtracks offer freedom every song helps to create the continuity, overall tone of a particular scene. Between each scene the lights will dim. From previous scenes Romeo has come across as a typical desperate boy. Essay On Vernacular Architecture? The first time he saw Juliet it's love at first sight.

Throughout the scene he can't keep his eyes off her. When the party ends Romeo will sneak to the back of the orchard. This is the beginning of scene 2. Juliet goes out onto the balcony and, thinking she is alone, speaks. She wishes Romeo

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The Old and New of Vernacular Architecture — A Review Essay

essay of Architecture, blackmail The Crime of Blackmail: A Libertarian Critique. There is explain physiological measurements, something deeply paradoxical about laws that criminalize blackmail. How is it that, as Glanville Williams put it, two things that taken separately are moral and legal whites together make a moral and legal black? [1] For the crime of blackmail involves the criminalization of two otherwise legal acts when they occur in on Vernacular Architecture, combination- for Management on the Work, example, the threat to disclose damaging information about another, and the offer to refrain from disclosing it for some valuable consideration. Were Alfred to Essay on Vernacular Architecture, (threaten to) disclose damaging information concerning Bi11's extramarital affairs, no offense recognized by law would be involved (even if there were something distasteful about such gossip); were Alfred to ask Bill for hitler's policies, $5000, again there would be no contravention of any proper law (even if it displayed a degree of chutzpah). But were Alfred to threaten Bill that he would disclose information concerning Bill's extramarital affairs unless Bill paid him $5000, his two-part act would – under current laws-constitute the crime of blackmail. Why should the Essay Architecture, conjunction of such otherwise legal acts have an entirely different legal status? [2] The paradox is heightened when we consider the reverse situation. Hitler's Policies! Bill learns that Alfred is in possession of damaging information concerning him. Essay On Vernacular! He seeks Alfred out, and offers him $5000 to keep silent. If Alfred accepts Bill's offer, and subsequently keeps mum, he should not be held to have blackmailed Bill.

Why should the situation be different when Alfred approaches Bill, and tells him that his silence will cost $5000? This is the heart of the libertarian critique of blackmail laws, and in this essay I propose to defend that critique against a number of arguments that have been advanced to justify them. Policies! Although my critique of such laws depends ultimately on my belief that criminal prohibitions are justified only when some material threat is posed to another (by means of force, fraud, or theft), my arguments here will show that various attempts to avoid or account for the paradox do not succeed, even on their own terms. Blackmail (along with other victimless crimes) should be decriminalized. [3,4] Some Definitional Preliminaries. Although standard instances of blackmail involve a threat to Essay on Vernacular Architecture, disclose damaging information if some monetary payment is not made, the of parks, range of possibilities is somewhat wider. Leo Katz, for example, suggests as alternative threats:

Pay me $10,000- or I will: cause some really bad blood at the next faculty meeting, . . . seduce your fianc, . Essay On Vernacular! . . persuade your son that it is his patriotic duty to volunteer for combat in Vietnam, . . . give your high-spirited, risk-addicted 19-year-old daughter a motorcycle for Christmas, hasten our father's death by leaving the explain, Catholic church. [5] Demands as well as threats may vary: usually it is for on Vernacular, money, but it could also be for sexual favors or some other valued consideration. And usually it is for the blackmailer's private and undeserved gain, though it need not be. Imagine, writes Eric Mack, that you can deter a factory owner from (safely) burning his plant to the ground (and thus thoroughly eliminating many employment opportunities) for the sake of destructive glee only by threatening to reveal his secrets. Or imagine a case in which one party, by legally permissible trickery and Underhanded dealing, acquired what another party truly deserves. Wouldn’t it be perfectly moral for the morally deserving party to blackmail the first party into transferring that valued good- especially if what was threatened was precisely the [revelation] of the trickery and underhandedness? [6] In this essay, however, our concern will be largely with paradigmatic informational blackmail in which money is sought for silence. Blackmail should not be confused with extortion. In the latter, a threat to do something that would otherwise be illegal is made in demanding something from another: If Charles threatens to break David's knees or burn down his house if David does not give him $5000, Charles is guilty of Essay Short, extortion, not blackmail, Extortion is Essay on Vernacular, properly considered illegal. Is There Really a Paradox of explain of undertaking physiological measurements, Blackmail? One might argue that there is nothing particularly paradoxical about blackmail.

George Fletcher, for one, claims that the supposed paradox is not untypical of many acts that are regarded as criminal: many good acts are corrupted by doing them for a price. [7] Fletcher instances bribery, prostitution, and payment for confessing to a crime. And Wendy Gordon notes that, our right to vote can neither be transferred gratuitously nor sold. [8] But are these plausible counter instances? The problem with bribery is that it fosters inappropriate motivations in those who are otherwise duty-bound to provide certain services. Were bribes no more than tips for services- openly given and received- there would be nothing wrong with them. What makes bribery problematic is not the conjunction of service and on Vernacular, money, but the fact that money given secretly becomes an Essay Story: Sea, incentive to forgo duty and/or to on Vernacular Architecture, do it only when more is Short Story: Sea Change, giver than one is contractually obliged to accept. Prostitution is on Vernacular Architecture, a classic victimless crime and should not have been criminalized in the first place. The problem with paid-for confessions is that needy people- and not necessarily guilty people- will be induced into confessing to offenses, with no guarantee that those who are convicted will be those who have offended. An offender may still be on the loose, and those paid to apprehend criminals will have no incentive to look for him. Of Mulitcultural Management Work Environment Essay! As for the right to vote, it could have been otherwise. The only reason that political votes (unlike votes in publicly traded corporations) cannot be sold is that a majority has agreed not to commodify them.

Blackmail and Essay, Other Commercial Transactions. At first blush, blackmail is like any other commercial transaction: Alfred has a product to sell (secrecy) that Bill wishes to buy. However, some writers have claimed that blackmailers differ significantly from other sellers since, unlike other sellers, they would give away their product were they not able to sell it. [9] Perhaps so, perhaps not! [10] In any case it is not easy to see any significance to the difference. For other sellers, perhaps, the product to be sold represents all investment on their part, and therefore something they would be unlikely to continuity, give away, whereas the incriminating information that the blackmailer possesses is on Vernacular Architecture, much more likely to have been gained without significant investment. May be the difference lies in motivation, Wendy Gordon suggests that blackmail should be outlawed because the blackmailer acquires information for the sole purpose of obtaining money or advantage from the victim, and . . , has no intent or desire to publish the information, except as an instrument toward this purpose. [11] But why should the blackmailer's intent be of any interest to the law unless the conduct in question has independently infringed another's rights? It is not generally of legal concern why we conform our behavior to what the law allows or requires. Intent only becomes an issue once the law is measurements, broken. But since Alfred's disclosure of Bill's infidelities does not constitute conduct of a kind the Essay Architecture, law would ordinarily prohibit, it should not be of not so, any legal interest to know why Alfred may or may not choose to on Vernacular, disclose the information he has about Bill. [12] Scott Altman suggests a further difference: whereas in ordinary commercial transaction, both buyer and seller will be beneficiaries, in of parks, blackmail the Essay Architecture, primary beneficiary is the blackmailer. [13] But why should the in The Finn Essay examples, person who buys silence not also be seen as benefiting from the transaction? He has purchased another's silence, something that presumably, benefits him. It is true that, antecedent to the blackmailer's approach, the blackmailee was not seeking to purchase the Essay on Vernacular Architecture, silence of others, but that was because he believed that his secret was safe, and did not need to Individual versus Society Adventures of Huckleberry Essay, be secured through purchase.

Blackmail and Coercion. Defenders of laws against blackmail often claim that blackmail is coercive: by threatening to disclose certain damaging information if Bill does not pay $5000, Alfred coerces Bill. [14] Or so it is Architecture, said. However, the idea of Work Essay, coercion cannot clearly be extended to such cases. In paradigm cases, Alfred coerces Bill into parting with $5000 if he tackles Bill and steals his wallet containing $5000, or if he puts a gun to Bill's head and threatens to pull the Essay, trigger should Bill refuse to hand over $5000. But if Alfred simply tells Bill that he will disclose his extramarital affairs unless Bill pays $5000, nothing is threatened except Bill's reputation. And one's reputation is not something one owns as one might own one's body or a piece of property. Reputation is a form of social recognition to which one does not have a right as one might have a right to one’s property [15] Should Alfred spread the physiological, information without making any claim for money, he will have done nothing illegal. Why should it become illegal just because Alfred tells Bill that he will keep quiet if Bill pays him $5000? Perhaps the argument from coercion can be expressed as follows: The blackmailer's act is coercive because he proposes to reveal information that he is Essay on Vernacular, obligated not to disclose. [16] But this will not do either. Explain! Even if Alfred were obligated not to reveal the information, it would still not show the threat to reveal it to be blackmail; rather, it would be a coercive threat, for Essay on Vernacular, example, extortion. It would indeed be legally wrong for Alfred to reveal what he told Bill in hitler's policies, confidence, but the threat to disclose it unless Bill pays Alfred to keep quiet would be a legal wrong not because it is blackmail, but because it breached Alfred's contractual obligation to Bill.

But if there is no obligation for Architecture, Bill to keep the damaging information to himself, then and only then would there be no coercion involved in making it known, Should Alfred accidentally find out about Bill's extramarital affairs, he is under no obligation at all regarding its disclosure. [17] Why, then, should his informing Bill that he will reveal what Bill has been up to be coercive? Maybe the argument is movies, that Alfred acts coercively because he seeks to exact Bill's money without his consent. [18] Although no literal gun is being pointed at Bill's head, something else is- serious damage to Essay on Vernacular Architecture, his life, reputation, job prospects, or whatever- should he refuse to pay. This account, of course, would not work with cases in which Bill, on hearing that Alfred possesses (and is likely to reveal) the information, seeks him out to offer him hush money, but perhaps the Individual in The of Huckleberry Finn examples, supporter of blackmail laws may not mind cutting these cases adrift from the Architecture, scope of such legislation. Once again, however, we need to remind ourselves of the disanalogy with the explain physiological measurements, gunman. Absent monetary considerations, if the gunman pulls the trigger a legally significant wrong is done to Architecture, his victim, whereas, if Alfred spills the beans on Bill's philandering no crime is Essay Story:, committed. May be one could liken Alfred's act to that of Edward who, seeing Faye drowning, will not throw her a rope unless she agrees to pay him $5000. [19] This is surely exploitative of Faye's situation, but is it coercive? Were Edward to have pushed Faye into Essay on Vernacular Architecture, the water in the first place, there would indeed be an argument for The Effects of Mulitcultural Management Work, saying that the demand for $5000 was coercive; but ex hypothesi he did not, and Essay, so, given that he does not violate a legal obligation in not throwing a rope to her, it is about Short Story: Sea, hardly coercive for him to demand something for his assistance. [20] Bill's follies, likewise, are his own doing, and Essay Architecture, not the result of a set up by Alfred, and if Alfred has come into possession of information that could be Bill's undoing, may he not offer to withhold it on Individual Society in The Adventures Finn Essay examples, his own terms? Blackmail and Exploitation. Perhaps, as I suggested in the last paragraph, blackmail should be seen as exploitative. That is, in blackmailing Bill, Alfred takes advantage of Bill's vulnerability. If so, should this justify its legal proscription?

Note, first of all, that the notion of exploitation is Essay, none-too-clear; it is, for example, used by Marxist writers to policies, characterize ordinary capitalist labor relations: in making a profit, employers of labor are said to return to their employees less than the full value of their labor. Their vulnerable position (their need to eat, support families, and on Vernacular Architecture, so forth) makes them vulnerable to such shortchanging. But even with a less expansive and less tendentious understanding, there is Essay Short Story: Sea, a gap between exploiting another's vulnerabilities and Essay on Vernacular Architecture, doing something that should be considered illegal. If George exploits Harold's generosity to get a loan, or Ivan exploits John's poor management of a rival business or even John's sudden and debilitating illness to gain a larger share of the market or to put John out of business, neither George nor Ivan have done anything illegal, however opportunistic they may have been. So, if Alfred exploits Bill's vulnerability to Work Environment, make some extra money for himself, why should his act be proscribed by Architecture law? Blackmail and Individual Adventures Finn examples, Privacy. It might be argued that blackmailers threaten a right one has to privacy. There is, it may be said, certain information about oneself over which one should have control. Essay On Vernacular! It is one's own business, and not the business of others. If it is to be given out, it is hitler's policies, appropriately given out only if one has consented to its being shared.

If others come by that information accidentally or because someone with whom one has shared it has violated confidentiality, that is too bad. The third party is not guilty of any wrongdoing in having or sharing the on Vernacular Architecture, information. Not So Scary Movies! However, if the third party, realizing that one wanted to keep the information to oneself, now chooses to use it as leverage for self-enrichment then that person is Essay, violating the about Story: Change, privacy rights of another no less improperly than the person who taps one's telephone or bugs one's house or looks in one's personal files. But there are significant differences between these various cases. The person who taps one's phone or bugs one's house or looks at one's files has undoubtedly violated one's property rights in some way- has trespassed, at least. Even private detectives are limited in what they may be permitted to do to obtain information. But the argument from privacy would outlaw private detectives altogether, just because they make a business of getting information that others want to on Vernacular, keep secret. [21] The blackmailer need not violate any so-called privacy rights [22] to hitler's, obtain his information: a sharp eye, an open ear, and a little advantageous positioning may be all that is necessary. Were the potential blackmailer simply to Essay on Vernacular, pass on the information to Individual versus Society of Huckleberry Finn, other interested parties no legal offense would be involved.

Why should that change if the blackmailer seeks to take advantage of what he knows by seeking cash for silence? Even after their so-called victims have paid up, blackmailers sometimes come looking for more. The damaging information after all, may not have passed out of their heads or hands. It may therefore be argued that the only way to Essay, keep blackmailers from Society of Huckleberry, repeatedly approaching those who have bought their silence is to ban blackmail altogether. [24] But repeated attempts at blackmail maybe prevented much more easily if blackmail is decriminalized. Architecture! All that is required is that blackmailers sign a contract with the blackmailee that stipulates the blackmailers' permanent silence in return for The Effects Management Environment Essay, a payment of $X. Then, if the blackmailer breaks his agreement (something he can do even when blackmail is illegal), he can be held liable for whatever damages might be stipulated or otherwise determined by the courts. On Vernacular Architecture! In such cases, there will be something legally wrong about about repeated blackmail that does not apply to the first occasion. What is more, to outlaw blackmail in the first instance because blackmail demands may be repeated in the future is not to punish someone for a past crime done but for a (potential) future crime- hardly what we have in mind when we speak of criminal justice.

If this were allowed to be a general legal principle, moreover, we would have to entrench in on Vernacular Architecture, the law the about Short Story:, concept of preventive detention, for all members of groups statistically over represented in the criminal category. In any case, the argument from repeated blackmail would hold in only a limited number of cases- those in which there was some likelihood that a further approach would be made or that the agreement would be breached. It would hardly provide a general argument against blackmail. The Consequences of Blackmail. Most who favor blackmail prohibition do so on Essay Architecture, non-consequentialist grounds. They see something inherently problematic about the transaction that constitutes blackmail.

Nevertheless, perhaps to scary movies, boost such arguments, they often supplement them with observations about the effects that decriminalizing blackmail would probably have. Richard Epstein, for Essay Architecture, example, suggests that were blackmail to versus in The Adventures, be legalized, it would encourage the Essay on Vernacular, formation of corporations such as his hypothetical Blackmail, Inc., an organization devoted to ferreting out embarrassing (or worse) information on Environment, people and then blackmailing them to have it kept quiet. [25] Assuming the profitability of such an enterprise, a blackmailee might find himself the target of Architecture, numerous independent approaches and, to meet the financial obligations incurred by this, might be led (or even encouraged) into committing crimes to explain the importance physiological measurements, pay for his chronic secrecy need. But are such fears well founded? Epstein does not ever show that a world without anti-blackmail laws would spawn a Blackmail, Inc. Essay! And even were it to do so, it would not provide a sufficiently strong reason to outlaw it or blackmail. The tastelessness or unseemliness of a social institution is not a sufficient reason to ban it or enterprises that exploit it. We would have as good reason to ban malicious gossip or The National Inquirer . And the social pressure that might lead a person into committing crimes to pay for secrecy would not differ substantially from the social pressure to continuity, be somebody or impress others, motivations that may be just as likely to on Vernacular Architecture, lead people to commit crimes. [26]

A more limited consequentialist argument has been suggested by Jennifer Gerarda Brown. [27] She suggests that were blackmail in cases of incriminating information legalized, there would likely be a reduction of crime. The criminally inclined would face the real possibility that they would have to split the profits of their criminality or otherwise pay to cover up their crimes, and such costs would constitute a significant deterrent to Individual versus Adventures Finn Essay, criminal activity. But this is actually an argument in favor of legalizing blackmail, not prohibiting it. As we noted at the beginning, there is a real difficulty about legally differentiating payer- initiated from seller-initiated silence. If Bill learns that Alfred possesses damaging information that he might be inclined to disclose to Essay on Vernacular, others, and offers Alfred $5000 to keep quiet, it is Essay about Story: Change, hard to argue that Alfred has either coerced or exploited Bill, or that the on Vernacular, transaction should be outlawed. The awkwardness of allowing such a differentiation of cases has led some writers to develop strategies for keeping them together. The Effects Essay! Thus Scott Altman has claimed: Evidentiary and definitional problems with payer initiation can undermine any power it has to separate coercive from non-coercive transactions. Some bargains appear payer-initiated because the payer initially suggests the deal. But the payer might only learn of the Architecture, other party's intent to reveal the embarrassing information after that party discloses this intent in order to elicit an offer or payment.

Because this case cannot easily be distinguished from genuine payer initiation, permitting payer initiation can insulate paradigmatic blackmail cases from punishment. [28] Similar arguments used to be employed against all forms of euthanasia, lest it should become a cloak for murder. The solution, were we to persist in explain the importance of undertaking physiological, outlawing seller-initiated silence, would be essentially the same: the development of procedures that would allow- for Architecture, most cases- clearer discriminations to be made. But since we do not accept the arguments against blackmail laws in the first place, this rescue is unnecessary. Blackmail and Victimization.

Defenders of blackmail laws persist in versus Society in The Adventures, calling the blackmailee a victim. Essay Architecture! Once seen as such, blackmailers are easily tarred with wrongdoing. Yet this characterization trades on explain the importance physiological measurements, the conflation of two distinct senses of victim. On one account, a victim is anyone who is damaged or harmed by some event: there are earthquake victims and victims of disease. Essay On Vernacular Architecture! Blackmailees might be seen as victims or potential victims in this sense. The information possessed by the blackmailer, if disclosed, will damage them in Essay about Short Sea, some way. And one might argue that if one kind of damage has been averted it has been averted only at a cost, and on Vernacular, - at a stretch - that one is a victim of continuity, circumstances that have a cost.

But the term victim may also be used in on Vernacular, a more restricted sense - as when we speak of someone being victimized. Here we have in mind someone whose rights have been violated, someone who has been illegally wronged by another. Is the person who is blackmailed a victim in this second sense? It would seem not: if Alfred were to disclose the damaging information about Bill no right of Bill's would have been violated. That he should refrain from doing what he had a right to do in exchange for some monetary consideration does not change the matter. (29) Those who persist in on the Environment Essay, speaking of blackmailees as victims can mean victim only in the first sense. Yet it is only in the second sense, that victims might have some legitimate legal claim against others. The libertarian conviction is not simply that some instances of blackmail should not be criminalized but that it should never be criminalized.

The libertarian therefore needs to Architecture, confront some hard cases. (a) Suppose Ken tells Leon that if Leon does not pay him $1000, he will report that Leon is guilty of a crime, which he is already suspected of committing. The libertarian would not forbid Ken from versus Society of Huckleberry Finn Essay, making this demand, or, if Leon does not pay, he would not prevent Ken from making the false report. Architecture! Ken has free speech rights, including the right to speak falsely about another. True, the police-and courts-may subsequently accept Ken's word about Leon, so that Leon is unjustly punished, but if they do that, that injustice is on them for Short Sea Change, failing thoroughly to investigate Ken's report. On Vernacular! As noted above, any damage to of Mulitcultural Management on the Essay, Leon 's reputation is not damage to something over which Leon has any rights. (30) While the foregoing is perfectly compatible with libertarian theorizing, it will strike many as repugnant.

After all, the law underlies the social order, even our very civilization. If one may with impunity place a spoke in the whee1 of justice in this manner, it bespeaks ill of the libertarian philosophy. But there is a solution to this quandary, even apart from the radical substitution of libertarian for statist courts. (31) And that is to pay or tie up witnesses so that they are contractually obligated to tell the truth upon pain of contract violation. One of the great injustices of our present court system is that witnesses are in on Vernacular Architecture, effected drafted into testifying, and, so, for on the Work Essay, that matter, are jurors. It would be legally illicit to bear false witness under such circumstances. But, contrary to Essay on Vernacular Architecture, Altman, the impropriety would then be one of extortion, or contract violation, not blackmail. b) What if Michael learns that Nicholas has embezzled $l million from his company, but suggests to Nicholas that for a payment of explain measurements, $56,000 he will not report it?

Surely, one might argue, Michael has a duty to report what Nicholas has done, and any attempt to profit from an on Vernacular Architecture, agreement not to explain measurements, reveal it should be criminalized. Architecture! Although some libertarians might balk at cases of this kind, it is hitler's, certainly open to others - myself included - to argue that whatever moral duty might be claimed to report the Essay Architecture, crimes of another (and not to profit from continuity of parks, them), nevertheless there is no basis for legally requiring that the crimes of another should be reported. Such positive duties- like the positive duty to be a good Samaritan- has no place in Essay on Vernacular Architecture, criminal law. Blackmail laws are often taken for granted. Indeed, such is the Individual versus Society of Huckleberry Finn examples, moral objecctionableness of blackmail in many people's minds that they cannot imagine how the Essay on Vernacular, decriminalization of blackmail could possibly be supported.

But, like many other practices considered morally and socially objectionable, their objectionableness does not immediately or easily translate into a matter for the criminal law. It has been my contention that this is true of continuity, blackmail. Architecture! As the of Mulitcultural Management on the Environment, paradox of blackmail should have alerted us, there's indeed something deeply problematic about criminalizing an act that conjoins two other acts that, in themselves, are not criminal. * Walter Block, author of Defending the Undefendable , is Professor of Economics at the University of on Vernacular, Central Arkansas , Conway , Arkansas . Email: wblock@mail.uca.edu . The author wishes to thank John Kleinig for of parks, his editorial support, which far surpassed the ordinary call of Architecture, editorial duty. 1. Not So Scary! Williams, Blackmail , [1954] CRIM. L. Essay On Vernacular Architecture! REV. 79, at 163 (1954). It was Williams who originally spoke of the paradox of blackmail.

The morality of the constituent acts is, perhaps less clear than their legality. But my concern here is with the justification of blackmail's criminalization not with its morality per se. 2. The Effects Of Mulitcultural Management Work Environment! It might be claimed that using the Essay, example of extramarital affairs- though typical -unfairly prejudices the case in favor the opponent of blackmail. Many would feel that the Change, philanderer deserved what was coning to him- whether it was blackmail or exposure. If the information were of a different but still mortifying kind - disclosure that a bank executive always took a rubber duckie into on Vernacular, his bath, or wet his bed, or had a black/Jewish grandmother- would we feel as sanguine about the blackmailers opportunism? Perhaps not, but this would not show that the blackmailer should be punished for seeking to get something in return for silence. 3. Authors offering arguments in favor of the present prohibition of blackmail are numerous. They include: Alldridge, Attempted Murder of the Soul : Blackmail, Privacy and Secrets . 13 OXFORD J. LEGAL STUD. 363 (1993); Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Story: Sea Change, Blackmail , 141 U. PA. L. REV.

1639 (1993); Becker, The Case Against Blackmail, unpublished MS (1985); Berman, The Evidentiary Theory of Blackmail: Taking Motives Seriously, 65 U. CHI. L. REV. Essay On Vernacular! 795 (1998); Boyle, A Theory of Law and Information . Copyright, Spleens , Blackmail, and Insider Trading, 80 CALIF. L. REV. 1413 (1992); Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , 141 U. PA.

L. REV. 1935 (1993); Campbell, Why Blackmail Should be Criminalized: A Reply to Walter Block and David Gordon, 21 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. Individual Essay Examples! REV. 883 (1933); Campbell, The Anomalies of Blackmail , 55 LEGAL Q. Rev. 382(1939); Coase, The 1987 McCorkle Lecture: Blackmail , 74 VA. L. REV., 655 (1988); Daly Giertz, Externalities, Extortion, and Efficiency; Reply, 68 AM. ECON. On Vernacular Architecture! REV.

736 (1978); DeLong, Blackmailers, Bribe Takers, and the Second Paradox , 141 U. P.A, L. REV. 1663 (1993); Ellsherg, The Theory and Practice of the importance physiological measurements, Blackmail, in BARGANING: FORMAL THEORY OF NEGOTIATION 343 (O.R. Young, ed. 1975); Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., 50 U. Essay Architecture! CHI. L. Continuity Of Parks! REV., 553 (1983); Evans, Why Blackmail Should be Banned , 65 PHIL. 89 (1990); Feinberg, The Paradox of Blackmail , 1 RATIO JURIS 83 (1988); J. FEINBERG, HARMLESS WRONGDOING (1990); Fletcher, Blackmail . The Paradigmatic Case, 141 U. On Vernacular! PA. L. REV. 1617 (1993); C. Of Mulitcultural Work Environment! FRIED, CONTRACT AS PROMISE 102 (1981); Ginsburg Shechtman, Blackmail: An Economic Analysis of the Law , 141 U. PA.

L. REV. On Vernacular! 1849 (1993); Goodhart, Blackmail and hitler's policies, Consideration in Essay on Vernacular, Contracts , 44 LEGAL Q. Versus Society Adventures Essay Examples! REV. 436 (1928), repr. in A.L. GOODHART, ESSAYS IN JURISPRUDENCE AND THE COMMON LAW 175 (1931); Gordon, Truth and Consequences : The Force of Blackmail's Central Case, 141 U. PA. Architecture! L. Of Mulitcultural On The Essay! REV. l74l (1993); Gory, Nozick’s Argument Against Blackmail , 58 PERSONALIST 187 (1977); Gorr, Liberalism and the Paradox of Essay Architecture, Blackmail , 21 PHIL. PUB. AFF. 43 (1992); Haksar, Coercive Proposals, 4 POL.

THEORY, 65 (1976); Hale, Bargaining, Duress, and Economic Liberty , 43 COLUM. L. Individual Versus Of Huckleberry Finn Essay! Rev. 603 (1943); Hale, Coercion and Distribution in a Supposedly Non-Coercive State , 38 POL. SCI. Q. 470 (1923); Hardin, Blackmailing for Mutual Good 141 U. Essay On Vernacular Architecture! PA.L.

Rev. 1787 (1993); M. HEPWORTH, BLACKMAIL: PUBLICITY AND SECRECY IN EVERYDAY LIFE 29-40 (1975); Isenbergh, Blackmail from of undertaking physiological, A to Essay on Vernacular, C , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1905 (l993); Jandoo Harland, Legally Aided Blackmail , 27 NEW L. J. Explain The Importance Of Undertaking Measurements! 402 (1984); Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , 141 U. PA. L REW.

1567 (1993); Katz Lindgren, Instead of a Preface , 141 U. PA. On Vernacular! L. REV. 1565 (1993); Landes Posner, The Private Enforcement of Law, 4 J. LEGAL. STUD. 1 (1975); Lindgren, Unraveling the Paradox of Blackmail , 84 COLUM. Explain The Importance Of Undertaking! L. Essay! REV. 670 (1984) Lindgren, More Blackmail Ink; a Critique of Blackmail Inc ., Epstein's Theory of not so movies, Blackmail 16 COLUM. L. REV. On Vernacular Architecture! 909 (1984) Lindgren, In Defense of Keeping Blackmail A Crimes: Responding to Block and Gordon, 20 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV.

35 (1986); Lindgren, Blackmail; On Waste, Morals and Ronald Coase 36 U.C.L.A. Versus Society Adventures Essay! L. REV. 597 (1989); Lindgren, Kept in the Dark; Owen's View of Essay Architecture, Blackmail, 21 CONN. L. REV. 749 (1989); Lindgren, Secret Rights: A Comment on Campbell's Theory of Blackmail , 21 CONN. L. REV. 407 (1989); Lindgren, Blackmail: An Afterword , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1975 (1993); Lindgren, The Theory, History and Practice of the Bribery-Extortion Distinction , 141, U. PA. L. REV. 1695 (1993); Lyons, Welcome Threats and Coercive Offers , 50 PHIL.

425 (l975); Murphy, Blackmail; A Preliminary Inquiry, 63 MONIST 156 (1980); R. NOZICK, ANACHY, STATE, AND UTOPIA (1974); Owens, Should Blackmail be Banned ?, 63 PHIL. 501 (l979); R.A. POSNER, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (4th ed. 1992); Posner, Blackmail, Privacy and Freedom of Contract, 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1817 (1993); Shavell, An Economic Analysis of Threats and Their Legality: Blackmail, Extortion and Robbery , 141 U. PA L. REV. 1877 (1993); Tooher, Developments in the Law of Blackmail in England and Australia , 27 INT.

COMP. L. Q., 337 (1978); Waldron, Blackmail as Complicity , unpublished MS (1992); Williams, Blackmail, supra n.1; Winder, The Development of Blackmail , 5 MODERN L. REV. Society In The! 21 (1941). 4. In contrast, here is the libertarian case for the repeal of laws prohibiting blackmail: Mack, In Defense of Blackmail, 41 PHIL. STUD. 273 (1982); M.N. R0THBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY (1998); M.N. ROTHBARD, MAN, ECONOMY AND STATE 443 n. Essay On Vernacular Architecture! 49 (1993); Block , The Blackmailer as Hero , THE LIBERTARIAN FORUM 1 (Dec. 1972); W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE 44-49 (1976; 1991); Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of The Effects Work, Free Speech Rights; A Reply to Professors Posner, Epstein, Nozick and Lindgren , 19 LOYALAS OF LOS ANGELES.

REV. 37(1985); Block, Trading Money for Silence, 8 U. HAWAII L. On Vernacular Architecture! REV. 57(1986); Block, The Case for De-Criminalizing Blackmail: A Reply to Lindgren and of Mulitcultural on the, Campbell , 24 WESTERN STATE U. L.REV. Essay Architecture! 225 (1997); Block, A Libertarian Theory of hitler's policies, Blackmail , 33 IRISH JURIST 280 (1998); Block McGee, Blackmail from A to Essay, Z , 50 MERCER L. Hitler's! REV. 569 (1999); Block, Towards a Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , J. On Vernacular Architecture! LIBERTARIAN STUD. (forthcoming); Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime , 31 BRACTON L. J. 24 (1999); Block, Kinsella, Hoppe, The Second Paradox of Blackmail , Q, J. About Sea! BUS. ETHICS, (forthcoming); Block, Let's Legalize Blackmail , SETON HALL L. Essay! Rev (forthcoming); Block, Blackmailing For Mutual Good VERMONT L. REV. (forthcoming); Block Anderson, Posner on Blackmail; A Critique (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail and Economic Analysis , THOMAS JEFFERSON. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Threats, Blackmail, Extortion, Robbery and continuity, Other Bad Things TULSA L. Essay On Vernacular! REV. (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail is Private Justice , U. BRIT. COLUM. Movies! L. REV. Essay On Vernacular! (forthcoming).

5. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , supra n. 3, at 1567-68. Sometimes the The Effects Management Essay, threat may take the form of an offer- though of a form that Hillel Steiner refers to as a throffer- in which failure to on Vernacular, take it up is Essay about Short Change, associated with threatened consequences. See Steiner, Individual Liberty , 75 ARISTOTELIAN SOC’Y PROC. 33, at 39 (1974-75). 6. Mack, In Defense of Blackmail , supra n. 4, at 277. To counter the response that these are cases in which the blackmailees are being blackmailed only into not doing something, Mack suggests that the factory owner might be blackmailed into donating money for Cambodian relief (278).

7. Essay On Vernacular! Fletcher, Blackmail; The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3. 8. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. Of Mulitcultural Management On The! 3, at 1744. 9. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Essay on Vernacular Architecture, Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1640. 10. Restaurants and supermarkets often donate day old food to the poor. 11. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. 3, at 1746. Mack's counter-examples (supra n. Not So Movies! 6) cast some doubt on the generality of this claim.

12. In actual fact, a blackmailer's motives might be much more complicated. Although taking monetary advantage of a situation may well be one consideration, moral umbrage might also figure, along with, say, a more remote desire to obtain money to pay for a sick child's operation. Gordon's characterization of the blackmailer's intent might- in on Vernacular Architecture, certain cases, at least-apply equally to many other currently legal commercial ventures, which people may undertake. 13. Not So Movies! Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Essay on Vernacular, Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1641. 14.

The simple fact of a threat is not sufficient to make the act coercive (and hence illegitimate). If I threaten to sue you for the damage you have caused to explain the importance physiological, my car, unless you pay for its repair, my threat constitutes no illegitimate coercion. Should it be argued that some threats one has a right to make (as in the latter case) whereas others one has no right to make (as in blackmail), the on Vernacular, libertarian will reply that this begs the question: Why should Alfred not threaten to reveal Bill's extra-marital affairs unless some payment is made? 15. Should it be objected that the destruction of reputation by Individual Finn means of disclosure of information about one does constitute a violation of rights (as is sometimes allowed by Essay on Vernacular Architecture laws against versus Society in The Adventures of Huckleberry, libel and defamation), the libertarian will respond that the Essay on Vernacular, question is begged. Short Sea Change! A libertarian would not agree to Essay Architecture, the enforceable securing of of Mulitcultural on the Work Essay, reputation against damaging information. On this see W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, Supra n.4, at 59-62; M. Essay! ROTHBARD, ETHICS OF LIBERTY, supra n. Individual In The Essay Examples! 4, at Essay, 121-22. 16. For this argument, see Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1642, fn. 11.

For a rejoinder, see Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime supra n. 4, text at note 23. 17. Continuity Of Parks! That may be too strong: perhaps there is on Vernacular, a moral or religious obligation not to gossip about others. And perhaps what is private does not change its status as a result of Individual versus Society in The Adventures examples, becoming known to another. But there is no enforceable legal obligation not to pass on the information that has come into on Vernacular Architecture, one’s possession. 18. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm-Twisting , supra n. 3, at Individual versus of Huckleberry Finn Essay, 1599. 19. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra p. 3, at 1643. 20. I am, of course, assuming that there is no Good Samaritan law requiring that assistance be given.

Were there such a law, a libertarian would of course oppose it. 21. That surely goes for investigative reporters, newshounds, and gossip columnists as well. They also profit from information that others would prefer to keep secret. 22. Libertarians reject privacy rights that are not reducible to property rights- rights not to have one's property bugged or phone tapped.

See M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY, Supra 4, at Essay Architecture, 121-22. 23. Although some jurisdictions do recognize torts for violation of privacy, libertarians are opposed to continuity, such constraints, because such torts must allow -what I challenge- that people can have property rights in their reputation. 24. See e.g., Fletcher, Blackmail: The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. On Vernacular Architecture! 3, at 1623, 1627. See also Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1648. Fletcher sees the possibility of the blackmailer's coming back for of Mulitcultural Management on the Work Environment Essay, more as constituting a permanent domination of the blackmailer over the blackmailee. But that is only if no contract is Essay Architecture, made between the blackmailer and Society in The Adventures Essay examples, blackmailee forbidding any further claims. 25.

Richard Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., supra n. 3. 26. Essay On Vernacular Architecture! For an extended discussion, see Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights , supra n. 4. 27. Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , supra n. 3. 28. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Individual Society Adventures Finn examples, Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1649. 29. Indeed, one might be inclined to on Vernacular Architecture, argue that the blackmailer displays a kind of decency toward the blackmailee by offering him a way out of his predicament (the blackmailer's opportunity to damage the potential blackmailee by in The Finn examples disclosing- as he has a right to on Vernacular, do- the information he has on him).

The gossip provides no such injury-averting option. See Block Gordon, Blackmail, Extortion and Free Speech , supra n. Policies! 4, at 39: In contrast to Essay on Vernacular, the gossip, who tells the secret without even affording the victim the opportunity of purchasing silence, the blackmailer can be seen as a benefactor. 30. See W. The Effects Of Mulitcultural Management Work Environment! BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, supra p. 4, at Architecture, 59-62; also, M. Policies! ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY supra n. Essay On Vernacular! 4, at about Short Sea Change, l26-27. 31. Architecture! On this see M. ROTHBARD, FOR A NEW LIBERTY (1973)

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