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A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to turn your creativity and your command of the written word into great prizes. If you#39;d like to up your game and increase your odds of having your entry chosen as the dance winner, follow these ten steps for winning essay contests. The very first thing that you should do to help yourself win essay contests is to chennai read the rules thoroughly. Overlooking one small detail could be the difference between winning the contest and wasting a perfectly good essay. 1920's Dance! Pay special attention to the start and islam, closing dates, the entry frequency, and any essay requirements like word or character count, the contest#39;s theme, and any other details the sponsor requires. It might help you to dance print out the chennai sweepstakes rules and highlight the most important elements, or to 1920's write down notes and keep them close at hand.

If you summarize the why was important relevant rules in a checklist, you can easily check the requirements off when you have finished your essay to ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Continue to 2 of 10 below. Many people want to jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to brainstorm several different ideas. Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best. Consider different ways that you can make the contest theme personal, come at 1920's dance, it from a different angle, or stand out from all of the other contest entries. Write all of your ideas down, and don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Continue to 3 of why was 10 below. 1920's! Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over penalty debate all of your ideas to 1920's pick the one you want to develop for your essay contest entry. Islam Place Of Worship! When you#39;re deciding, think about dance what might appeal to the essay contest#39;s sponsor. Do you have a way of working the sponsor#39;s products into your essay?

Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image? An essay that might be perfect for a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the of worship sponsor. When it#39;s time to start writing your essay, remember that the first sentence is the most important of all. If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in their memory when it is 1920's dance, time to pick winners. One of my favorite examples of why was charlemagne how a good hook can influence judges is the story of how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for a Day.

Continue to 5 of 10 below. Sign up today and get the latest contests and sweepstakes delivered straight to your inbox, with opportunities to 1920's win cash, vacations, cars, and more! Now is the time to get all of your thoughts down on paper (or on your computer). Remember that this is intended to be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about saravanastores chennai perfect grammar or if you are running over your word count. Instead, focus on whether your essay is 1920's, hitting the right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and if you are communicating everything you intend to. Another way first drafts are important is that they help you get over your natural reluctance to write. You are not trying to be good yet, you are trying to simply tell your story. Polishing that story will come later. In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of Affirmative Action Should Not Be Continued Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to 1920's dance help her be more successful with contest entries. Saravanastores Chennai! #34;The purpose of the Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an entry stand out from the 1920's rest.

In a basket of mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and coined words were some of the red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to make her entries pop. Of Technology! While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and ad-type contests, the red mitten concept can be used to make any essay contest entry stand out. Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in the judges#39; minds. Dance! If your first draft is feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to spice up your story. Affirmative Action Should Essay! Continue to 7 of 10 below. Once you have written the first draft of your essay contest entry, look over it to ensure that it flows smoothly. Is your point well-made and clear? Do your thoughts flow smoothly from one point to another?

Do the transitions make sense? Does it sound good when you read it aloud? This is also the time when you should cut out extraneous words and make sure that you#39;ve come in 1920's, under the word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the author talks about a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft – 10%.#34; In other words, the chennai first draft can always use some trimming to make the best parts shine. If you#39;d like some tips on how to dance improve your first draft, check out these tips about how to self-edit.

Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of your essay contest entry, put it aside and don#39;t look at it for a little while. If you have time before the examples of technology contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for a little while. Many times, people think of just the thing to add to their essay to dance make it perfect, right after they have hit the submit button. Saravanastores Chennai! Letting your entry simmer in your mind for dance a while gives you the time to come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late. Continue to 9 of islam place of worship 10 below. Now is the time to put the dance final polish on your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to say?

Have you made your point? Does the essay still sound good when you read it out loud? Can you tighten up the prose by making any additional cuts in the word count? If possible, this is place of worship, a good time to enlist the help of 1920's friends or family members. Read your essay aloud to them and check their reactions. Did they smile at the right parts? Did it make sense to them? This is also a good time to ask a friend to of technology double-check your spelling and grammar.

Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to have another person read it through. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to dance double-check to examples make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Make a check list of all of the essay requirements and go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in 1920's dance, front of you to make sure you#39;ve hit them all. And now, you#39;re done! Submit the why was charlemagne essay to your contest, and 1920's dance, keep your fingers crossed for the results!

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1920's dance

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Shake Hands with the Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire. How does the film Shake Hands With The Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire relate to 1920's dance, the conflict in Rwanda in 1994, and how does it contribute to our understanding of the conflict? Shake Hands with the examples, Devil is a documentary film, released in 2004, based on Canadian Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire’s book about the 1920's, atrocities which occurred in Rwanda in 1994.[1] The Rwandan genocide began after President Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down in a plane on April 6 th , 1994.[2] Prior to this Hutu elite close to saravanastores chennai, the deceased president had planned a Tutsi slaughter.[3] Subsequently, around eight hundred thousand were killed with ruthless efficiency by Hutu extremists before the Rwandese Patriotic Front took control of the country, on July 19 th . [4] The film is centred on the beliefs and actions of Dallaire, the man chosen by the United Nations to oversee war torn Rwanda’s transition to peace. It focuses on 1920's, Dallaire as he returns to the country for the first time since the genocide.[5] The film explores Dallaire’s transition from a confident military General, to a hollow eyed, traumatised man with suicidal tendencies and alcohol problems.[6] The film investigates the responsibilities behind the saravanastores chennai, failure of Dallaire’s “easy peacekeeping mission”[7]. General Dallaire’s return to Rwanda, and by proxy this film, is his attempt to find a sense of justice amongst all the horror which occurred previously. During the film certain key points become clear. Firstly, Dallaire rationalises that humans are only able to commit such horrific acts due to the influence of 1920's dance supreme evil, the “Devil”.[8] Additionally, the lack of agency that Dallaire believes he had in Rwanda. This was due to the bureaucratic nature of the United Nations and the international system, and Should Essay a lack of 1920's commitment from key nations.[9] Furthermore, that Dallaire attempted to publicise his lack of agency by utilising the freedoms of the place of worship, western media to alert people of the severity of the horror occurring.[10] Also, the film suffers from the stereotyping of men as aggressors, and women and children as victims.[11] [12] , Finally, the 1920's dance, film demonstrates Dallaire trying to communicate what he believes occurred in Rwanda.

Dallaire was in Rwanda, in a position of high command, experiencing the physical and mental affects of the terror firsthand. As the Hard Times Position of Young England, film’s blurb states, “Dallaire’s story must be told and dance its lessons must be learned.”[13] The film increases our understanding of the genocide by showing the perspective of someone who experienced and Affirmative Action Should Continued understood the political intricacies behind it. The “Devil”, whom Dallaire describes himself as shaking hands with, is a reference to the Hutu hierarchy that organised the massacre. The Hutu paramilitary organisation, the Interahamwe, carried out the majority of the murders, along with the 1920's dance, Presidential Guard.[14] Dallaire describes them as being “cold as if another body” and that their “eyes were not human, reflecting the most evil that I could ever imagine.”[15] A devout Christian, Dallaire uses his religious beliefs to justify his actions, “as much as I was negotiating with the Devil, I felt a very positive entity come over me.”[16] This shows how, by depicting the perpetrators as inhuman and evil, Dallaire is able to why was important, explain why they acted as they did and in turn justify his own actions. The film contrasts footage of certain interahamwe’s ferocious facial expressions against Dallaire’s calm demeanour.[17] Dallaire is portrayed as having been righteous and composed, juxtaposed against a wicked force which inspired savagery in the murderers. This is used to show the 1920's, religious context behind Dallaire’s perception of the conflict, good fighting against examples bad. During the film, the UN Envoy for Africa, Stephen Lewis, disagrees with Dallaire’s belief that it was the 1920's dance, Devil who made certain Hutu carry out rapes, murders and mutilations. Lewis claims that “human behaviour is examples capable of the most ferocious and irrational activity.”[18] He believes the atrocities that occurred in 1920's Rwanda were due to the evil that “lies in human behaviour.”[19] Nonetheless, Dallaire’s religious stance explains his perseverance amidst chaos.

This was despite the refusal of the United Nations to permit him to take large scale, preventative action which would have saved lives.[20] Another principle focus of the film is Dallaire’s lack of agency. The Rwandan president and examples of technology former rebel leader, Paul Kagame, describes Dallaire’s role as having been that of a mere “pawn”.[21] Dallaire’s numerous requests for more resources and expanded operations, to limit human losses, were ignored by the United Nations.[22] Instead, under draft resolution 488, the United Nations withdrew the majority of the two thousand five hundred UN peacekeepers.[23] This left Dallaire with an ill equipped staff of “approximately 200”.[24] Under UN orders, the Rwandans suffered whilst the 1920's, peacekeepers were “sneaking away”.[25] The film shows the individuals, organisations and countries that Dallaire believes could have stopped the crisis and had the responsibility to do so.[26] They are principally, the penalty, Catholic Church in Rwanda, General Theoneste, the United Nations, and 1920's dance certain western states. There is one notable instance where it is implied that Dallaire had agency, a verbal attack made by examples, the Belgian senator, Alain Destexhe. 1920's Dance? He claims that the UN orders Dallaire obeyed were “criminal” and that it was his moral duty to disobey them.[27] Nevertheless, throughout the film Dallaire is described as “abandoned”, “helpless”, “chopped off at of worship the knees” and generally that he “couldn’t have done a damn thing”.[28] Thus, the film predominantly imposes agency, and consequently responsibility, not upon Dallaire, but others. In the film, the Canadian academic, Gerald Caplan states that the Catholic Church in Rwanda has “extraordinary influence” as it is “the largest Church in Rwanda”.[29] The implication is 1920's that the Church should have denounced anti-Tutsi behaviour as sinful. The refusal of the Church to discourage the genocide leads Caplan to examples, accuse them of “murder, literally”.[30] This blame is 1920's dance reiterated by footage of a Church filled with broken skulls. Also in the film, Dallaire claims that General Theoneste Bagasora, Head of the Ministry of Defence in Rwanda, “had the power, the authority, to saravanastores, stop the whole thing.”[31] Instead, Bagasora undermined the UN force in Rwanda by authorising the murder of Belgian troops, leading to the Belgian withdrawal.[32] However, Dallaire gives primary responsibility for the genocide to western nations, specifically the Belgians. He describes, upon their leaving, that the conflict was “essentially started by the same bastards who were taking off.”[33]

The film gives a historical background for the misconceived differences between Tutsi and Hutu. Footage is dance shown of Affirmative Action Not Be Continued Essay Hutu in European run schools,[34] during the time from 1919 when Rwanda was colonised by Belgium.[35] The Hutu are shown being measured and 1920's dance “learning that the Tutsi were different, probably alien.”[36] It describes how European anthropologists’ work resulted in administrators including ethnicity on identity cards. This caused the “elements of difference” between the Tutsi, Hutu and Twa within Rwanda.[37] The European notion that the Tutsi were “alien” meant that the Hutu elite in charge of Rwanda believed “the Hutu were not just a majority, they were the nation.”[38] The film describes how the colonial segregation of islam of worship Rwandans laid the foundations for 1920's dance the extremist Hutu government. Why Was? It allowed them to launch racist propaganda against the Tutsi, such as “they will take your baby away, whilst we, the Hutu, are innocent.”[39] Rather than discourage the radical Hutu government, certain European nations, notably the French, “worked with the Rwandan government that was planning the genocide” and thus “legitimised” their actions.[40] The blame which Dallaire and the film attribute to dance, European nations is made clear when it states that Dallaire was “abandoned by the western powers.”[41] The film describes how the French, Belgians and Italians sent planes into Rwanda to rescue expatriates, but left Tutsi behind to be murdered.[42] Final, damning criticism is Depiction of the Women England Society given to the United Nations and the international system. The United Nations’ “failure to protect Rwandan citizens”[43] is attributed to the general disorganisation and bureaucratic chaos of its composition. The UN is described as working “as if it were held together with a piece of string.”[44] The film shows how Dallaire used what little agency he had to suggest ways of destabilising the Interahamwe, such as raiding their arms caches.[45] However, the United Nations “forbid” such operations.[46] Rwandan President Paul Kagame claims that the United Nations was responsible for the genocide. “The blame is on the UN Security Council, the members’ wrong, irresponsible decisions.”[47] He states that Dallaire “did not have the 1920's, mandate” to carry out operations in place of worship order to protect more lives, he was, in effect, in “handcuffs”.[48] Dallaire’s supposed lack of support is backed by official documentation. The Rwandese Patriotic Front requested that the UN Security Council permit UN forces to “apprehend, put in custody, and if possible bring to justice” individuals participating in 1920's dance the violence in areas under UN control.[49] However, the UN denied such permission. The film shows who Dallaire believes had agency during the Rwandan crisis, and thus had responsibility to prevent it.

The film offers an explanation for how and why the genocide happened, whilst attributing blame to certain people and groups of people. However, the film content is subject to examples, the biases of its producers and Dallaire and 1920's dance is therefore limited in its conclusions. The film shows Dallaire’s use of the media during the Rwandan crisis. It describes how Dallaire spoke “candidly”, using the media to “send a message”.[50] Using the media’s agency to show what was happening in why was important Rwanda, Dallaire was attempting to compensate for 1920's dance his own lack of agency. The film demonstrates how he utilised the saravanastores, western media because it was less prone to the bureaucratic processes and inaction of 1920's dance states and the United Nations. Dallaire tried to why was, use the media to 1920's dance, portray to the western public the true horror of what was occurring, in the hope that it could lead to Affirmative Action Not Be Continued, some form of assistance. This film is an additional attempt to dance, inform people of Dallaire’s view of what happened in Rwanda. As a result of the genocide, Dallaire not only lost control of a country, he lost control of himself. Position Of Young Women? Dallaire discusses his “post traumatic stress syndrome”[51] and how he has, since leaving Rwanda, had issues with alcohol abuse and suicidal tendencies.[52] Dallaire claims that Rwanda was “where he significantly changed.”[53] He describes how he takes pills “just to stay reasonable.”[54] Dallaire’s continuing lack of agency within the international system is shown by 1920's, the confusion and delay which occurs, whilst filming, as he attempts to saravanastores chennai, enter the former UN Headquarters, in Kigali.[55] After a lengthy delay to entering the premises, an extremely apologetic woman emerges.

She explains that “you know UN”, [56] as if such an excuse is reasonable. 1920's Dance? Yet, as Dallaire bitterly declares, such disorganisation is “perfectly reflective of the organisation.”[57] Throughout the film Dallaire attempts to show who he believes to be responsible for what occurred in death penalty Rwanda. He describes how he wishes to show his children and grandchildren what he did, and more poignantly did not do, in Rwanda.[58] Dallaire uses his return to Rwanda to attempt to 1920's dance, come to terms with what occurred there previously. As Lewis states, “his return trip is a pretty crucial part of his therapy.”[59] The frequent footage of saravanastores chennai Dallaire’s narrow, haunted eyes and his tight grip upon his wife’s hand shows he is still suffering from his ordeal. Dallaire’s return to Rwanda, and by proxy this film, is his attempt to 1920's, use his agency, free from state and UN control, to cure his mental ailments and give his view of of worship what occurred, and why. Despite Dallaire’s attempt to use the film to portray what he believes happened in Rwanda, the film does have limitations. Whilst it is true that the majority of the perpetrators were male, and many victims were women and children, the depiction of male government troops juxtaposed against distressed women and children is not entirely objective.[60] The film attempts to demonstrate the horror of 1920's what Dallaire experienced by showing women and children subject to brutality. This exploits the Not Be Continued Essay, common perception that women and children are innocent in war, and men either protectors or aggressors.[61] However, many men were mutilated and killed and the video does not focus on 1920's, their stories. Furthermore, women and Hard Depiction of the Position children were not entirely blameless. An alternative account of the genocide describes how Gregoire, a survivor of the genocide, noted that “the men killed, the women protected the 1920's dance, killers, and the children went out Times Women England looting.”[62] The film’s stance against dance men is place of worship shown when Bonaventure Niyibizi states that he “cannot understand how you can kill a one month old baby” or a “pregnant woman”.[63] This implies that it is easier to comprehend, and perhaps condone, killing an innocent, defenceless man.

Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, Rwanda’s Minister of dance Women and Family Affairs in 1994, was prosecuted for genocide and crimes against humanity.[64] There is no mention of this, or anything similar in the film. The film attempts to employ the common perception of men being strong, and women and children being vulnerable, in order to provoke the viewer to experience Dallaire’s resentment of what happened. Thus, the film is saravanastores subject to editing designed to promote the 1920's dance, sympathy of the viewer. Furthermore, though the film is a credible portrayal of Dallaire’s opinions and experiences, it is necessarily limited and islam of worship subject to bias. Shake Hands with the Devil relates to the conflict in Rwanda as it portrays the unique viewpoint of Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire. Dance? Dallaire’s position caused him to experience the of the Position of Young England Society, genocide firsthand, with the comprehension and responsibility, but inadequate resources, to resolve the situation. Nonetheless, the film contributes to dance, our knowledge of the conflict as it shows how isolated Dallaire felt. Dallaire’s lack of Affirmative Action Should Continued Essay agency demonstrates the failings of the United Nations system. The film highlights those who had agency to affect the genocide, and thus had a subsequent duty to protect life. These range from 1920's dance, Hutu leaders, the examples of technology, Catholic Church and the United Nations itself. The key focuses of the film, Dallaire’s religious interpretation of 1920's dance events, his lack of agency, the examples, agency of 1920's dance other entities, and Action Essay Dallaire’s attempt to 1920's, utilise media, demonstrate Dallaire’s perspective of the genocide.

The film shows the magnitude of the catastrophe and who Dallaire feels was responsible. Thus, it contributes to death debate, our understanding of the genocide by showing the viewpoint of Dallaire, the dance, man tasked with bringing peace to Rwanda. Annan, Kofi. Outgoing Code Cable. Why Was? “Letter from the RPF” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012.—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH47de18c2c3bfd1a9299a8f.3. Barnett, Michael.

Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2002). Byrne, Bridget. Dance? “Gender, conflict and development”, Volume 1: Overview, Bridge Report 34 (Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 1996). Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. “Informal Consultation on the Non-Paper” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012.—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH016f4cabc058314e5d1db5de.2. Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. Of Technology? “Request For Protection of Informant” January 11 th 1994, accessed November 22 nd 2012.—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=CL1.6.1d=HASHac5d200ba6db810c1d0329.2. Keane, Fergal.

Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey (London: Penguin Books, 1996). Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay. The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda (New York: New York University Press, 1998). Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonisation, Nativism, and the Genocide in 1920's dance Rwanda (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001). Melvin, Linda. A People Betrayed: The Role of the Hard Depiction of the Position of Young in Victorian England Society, West in Rwanda’s Genocide (London, Zed Books, 2000).

Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. Rwanda’s Genocide: The Politics of Global Justice (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005). Pottier, Johan. Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). CBC news. 1920's Dance? “In Depth: Rwanda History,” Last modified August 22 nd 2003. Accessed 21 st November 2012, Security Council Meeting. “The situation concerning Rwanda Special report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (S/1994/470)” 21 st April 1994, accessed 21 st November 2012. Why Was Charlemagne Important? Shake Hands With The Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire , DVD, directed by dance, Peter Raymont (Toronto: Investigative Productions Inc, 2004).

United Human Rights Council. Affirmative Action Continued? “Genocide in Rwanda,” accessed 21 st November 2012, [1] Shake Hands With The Devil: The Journey of Romeo Dallaire , DVD, directed by Peter Raymont (Toronto: Investigative Productions Inc, 2004). [2]United Human Rights Council. “Genocide in Rwanda,” accessed 21 st November 2012, [3]Keane, Fergal. Season of 1920's dance Blood: A Rwandan Journey (London: Penguin Books, 1996), p. 8. [4]Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay. The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda (New York: New York University Press, 1998), p. 3. [5] Shake Hands With The Devil. [12] Byrne, Bridget. “Gender, conflict and development”, Volume 1: Overview, Bridge Report 34 (Brighton: Institute of islam of worship Development Studies, 1996), p. 2. [13] Shake Hands With The Devil. [14]Barnett, Michael. 1920's? Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2002), p. 97. [15] Shake Hands With The Devil.

[20]Dallaire’s request for permission to destroy Interahamwe weapons, which was subsequently denied: Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. Of Worship? “Request For Protection of Informant” January 11 th 1994, accessed November 22 nd 2012.—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=CL1.6.1d=HASHac5d200ba6db810c1d0329.2. [21] Shake Hands With The Devil. [22]Dallaire, Romeo. Outgoing Code Cable. “Informal Consultation on dance, the Non-Paper” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012. Death Debate?—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH016f4cabc058314e5d1db5de.2. [23] Shake Hands With The Devil. [24]Security Council Meeting. “The situation concerning Rwanda Special report of the dance, Secretary-General on charlemagne, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (S/1994/470)” 21 st April 1994, accessed 21 st November 2012. Dance? [25]Melvin, Linda. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide (London, Zed Books, 2000), p. 4. [26] Shake Hands With The Devil.

[35]CBC news. “In Depth: Rwanda History,” Last modified August 22 nd 2003. Accessed 21 st November 2012, [36] Shake Hands With The Devil. [38]Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonisation, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001), p. 190. [39] Shake Hands With The Devil. [43]Pottier, Johan. Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in islam place the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 39. [44] Shake Hands With The Devil. [49]Annan, Kofi.

Outgoing Code Cable. “Letter from the RPF” May 12 th 1994, accessed 22 nd November 2012.—off-0RW2–00-1–0-10-0—0—0prompt-10-RW–4——-0-1l–11-en-1000—50-about-dallaire–00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00a=dcl=searchd=HASH47de18c2c3bfd1a9299a8f.3. [50] Shake Hands With The Devil. [61]Byrne. “Gender, conflict and development”, p. 2. [62]Pottier. Re-imagining Rwanda, p. 206. [63] Shake Hands With The Devil. [64]Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. Rwanda’s Genocide: The Politics of Global Justice (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 83.

Written by: Joshua Fenlon. Written at: Kent University. Written for: Dr. Harmonie Toros. Date written: May 2012.

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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about Submitting and Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from traditional print resumes. Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the term “e-resume” is not used much anymore. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that “resume” is nearly synonymous with “electronic resume.” Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on Internet job boards, or publish them on dance their own Web page. To learn more about the many forms of resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the why was charlemagne meantime, stay right here to learn the 10 things you truly must know about submitting and posting your resume online. 1. Dance. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is optimized for Hard Depiction Society, online posting and 1920's submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the traditional formatted resume intended to be printed out as a visually pleasing marketing piece. The formatted “print” resume is still important, but it can no longer be the only resume tool in your kit.

More than 90 percent of examples of technology employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and an equal percentage of employers prefer to receive resumes by e-mail. More than 80 percent of dance Fortune 500 companies post jobs on their own Web sites — and expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Why Was. Formatting that needs to be removed before the resume can be placed in a database is an example of such an obstacle. Sending your resume in text-based format directly in the body of an dance, e-mail message removes all barriers to an employer’s placing your resume right into chennai, a searchable databases. Some employers still prefer the formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the option to print it out, for 1920's, example), while others won’t open attachments because of concerns about viruses and incompatibilities among word-processing programs.

The formatted “print” resume is Hard of the Position of Young Women in Victorian England still vital because the employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the 1920's dance text-based version. You’ll also want to have a print version of Times Women in Victorian England your resume on hand for networking, to take to interviews and career fairs and for the rare occasions when employers request resumes in old-school ways — by dance mail or fax. At the chennai bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume. To cover every contingency, you might also want to have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resume’s File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. 1920's. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of death job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of keywords.

Employers’ dependence on keywords to find the 1920's dance job candidates they want to interview has come about in recent years because of technology. Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on placing resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and charlemagne important using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is 1920's that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of luck. Read more about the importance of keywords in death penalty our article Tapping the 1920's dance Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and Hard Times Depiction Position of Young Women how you can identify the best keywords in 1920's dance Resources for Identifying Keywords and Researching Keywords in why was important Employment Ads. Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet.

3. Your resume must be accomplishments-driven. Accomplishments are the points that really help sell you to 1920's an employer — much more so than everyday job duties. Hard Of The Position Of Young England Society. In fact, there’s a direct relationship between keywords and accomplishments in that keywords can be tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to 1920's make the leap from keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point is to take each keyword you’ve identified as critical to the job and list an Affirmative Should Not Be, accomplishment that tells how you’ve used the skill represented by that keyword. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in dance an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and why was charlemagne important consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet. 4. Technically speaking, a resume for online posting and submission is not too difficult to dance create. It’s surprisingly easy to create an examples, e-resume once you get the hang of it. There’s more than one way to create a text-based e-resume, but the most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in it. One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from dance Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is not that hard to death debate craft. Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in 1920's Your Job Search. 5. Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the resume world, but you can dress them up a bit.

Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for years to develop ways to make resumes visually appealing and graphically interesting — through font choices, bold and italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and more — only to have all that formatting thrown out the window in the e-resume world. Text-based resumes are the antitheses of the gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to employers at Depiction of Young Women in Victorian interviews and career fairs. 1920's Dance. The fact is that most online resumes aren’t intended to be visually attractive because their main function is not to islam place of worship be seen but to be searched in keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point. Employers may see the resume you’ve posted on an online job board. Their primary interest is whether the content of your resume (indicated largely by 1920's dance keywords) shows you to Affirmative Action Should Not Be Continued be qualified for the opening you’ve applied for and/or for which the employer is searching the 1920's dance database. But once the match has been made, the employer may actually look at your resume. Penalty. So, even though — without formatting — you can’t make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines.

You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (—–), lower-case letter o’s (ooooo), and carats () to make bullets. 1920's. You can use UPPER CASE for emphasis in charlemagne important headings. See how some of dance these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is Essay meant to dance look good is the HTML or Web-based resume. Position Of Young England Society. This type of resume resides on a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing.

While it’s not too difficult to 1920's dance make an HTML resume look attractive, the more you know about saravanastores Web design, the better you can make the resume look. You can also transform your Web resume into a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. If you’re not confident of your skills, you might want to enlist a Web designer or resume writer in this process. 1920's Dance. A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on a service’s site. See examples of these in our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume? 6. Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in its entirety on many job boards.

Paste it piece-by-piece into chennai, the profile forms of job boards, such as, that have a rigid setup and don’t allow resumes to be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an 1920's, e-mail and send it to employers. Saravanastores Chennai. Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. You must tailor the use of your resume to each employer’s or job board’s instructions. As you might have guessed from what you’ve read so far in dance this article, there is Times Depiction of the Position of Young Women Society no universally accepted way to 1920's dance submit your e-resume to an employer. Some employers want your resume as an attachment, usually as a Word document.

Others want your resume as text pasted into of worship, the body of an e-mail message. 1920's. Still others want you to paste your resume into an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employer’s preference, the following is a fairly safe bet: A formatted, “print” resume in document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to examples the employer. And here’s a bit of common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled “resume.doc”? Use your name as part of the file name for 1920's, your resume. Example: JaySmithResume.doc. A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached.

Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to open the attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of death penalty debate formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Pat Kendall and Susan Whitcomb note in 1920's dance a book about why was charlemagne important online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the options you’re providing: “I have attached an MS Word version of my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the plain-text version is sufficient for your database, it is not necessary to download the formatted attachment.)” The same lack of universality goes for job boards. 1920's Dance. Some enable you to paste your resume into a form in Hard Depiction of the Position of Young in Victorian Society any format, but the board automatically converts it to text. Others require that the resume be in text format to begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the importance of having a text-based e-resume. While researching this article, the Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites. We learned that a text-based e-resume is not only 1920's, vital for boards with a text-resume requirement — but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to text.

Just because a job board turns your resume into text doesn’t mean it will look decent; it’s better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the death penalty file that you can paste into any one field. 8. 1920's. Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and get the most out of debate posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the identity if your current employer (so your employer doesn’t know you’re looking), and 1920's easily edit and delete your resume or change it from active to inactive. These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of resume information. A good article to chennai help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for Online Job Seekers. Many boards also enable you to create multiple profiles for 1920's, yourself so you can look for various types of jobs. Hard Depiction Of The Position England. Some permit you to 1920's dance submit a list of your top skills. Resume submission forms generally have questions in Hard Times of the Position of Young addition to 1920's a place to Should Not Be submit the actual resume.

Some questions are mandatory; others are optional. When a question is optional, consider whether it is to your advantage to 1920's answer it. Answering questions about salary or location requirements, for example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resume’s effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the experts for getting more out of your e-resume: Use the “Properties” feature in MS Word to boost the Affirmative Should Essay keyword searchability of your attached Word resume. 1920's. This feature, found under Word’s File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. You can use the “Comments” field to enter geographic and relocation preferences.

A similar trick applies to using HTML commands called meta tags in examples of technology creating a Web-based resume. The “description” command, for example, gives you up to 150 characters to provide a description of your document. 1920's Dance. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and skills. The “keywords” command gives you limited spa e to Hard Times Depiction Position of Young Women in Victorian England enter critical eywords. Be sure to use keywords that you think employers and recruiters might use in searching for the position you are seeking — and make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in a “key accomplishments” section) in your resume. Read more about meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in 1920's dance search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to penalty Successful Search Engine Registration.

Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to send to employers as an attachment by 1920's dance sending it to the computers of a few friends to see if the formatting remains consistent from computer to debate computer. Try to 1920's dance find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. The subject line might include the reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and death writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the 1920's dance job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an charlemagne, educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in dance the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to death penalty debate a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). 1920's Dance. Visit her personal Website or reach her by of technology e-mail at

Check out 1920's Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to death penalty debate go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and 1920's dance Careerists. Interview Advice Job []

The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and Affirmative Continued employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the 1920's [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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14 Reasons this is a Perfect Recent College Grad Resume. 1920's! Share this article: If you’re unsure where to start or what to include in your entry-level college grad resume, we’re here to help! TopResume recently partnered with TheJobNetwork to produce a webinar all about resume writing for the recent college graduate. Click on the following link to Depiction of the Position of Young Women in Victorian England listen to 1920's dance a resume-writing webinar for the entry-level professional and check out a sample resume below to Depiction Position of Young Women in Victorian Society help craft the perfect resume for your job search. Below are 14 reasons why this is an excellent resume for a college graduate. 1. He used a professional-looking email address. The email address may have been funny when you were in college, but it’s not the 1920's dance best choice to represent your professional brand in the working world. Do yourself a favor and set up a professional-looking email address that’s reserved for your job-seeking activities. 2. It includes a customized link to of the Women in Victorian England his LinkedIn profile.

Not only is LinkedIn a great place to dance build your professional brand and make connections, but recruiters expect to find you on there. In fact, a survey found that more than 90 percent of employers use LinkedIn to search for and evaluate job candidates. Make it easy for them to find you by including the link to your profile at the top of your resume. Take it a step further and customize your LinkedIn profile URL so it matches your brand and fits nicely on chennai, your resume. 3. The professional summary isn’t full of dance fluff. It can be tempting to saravanastores throw a bunch of buzzwords such as “ambitious” and “self-starter” into the summary section of your college grad resume, but employers know these are pure fluff and dance won’t be impressed when they read them.

Don’t tell employers how you’re a great team player. Instead, explain how you served on a committee to place of worship raise money for your lacrosse team or received accolades for a group project during your internship. Click on dance, the following link for more tips to chennai craft your professional summary. 4. Nicolas optimized his resume with relevant keywords. Your job application needs to get past multiple gatekeepers before it makes it into the hands of dance a hiring manager. Charlemagne Important! Take a look at the job listings you’re interested in and identify the key terms and phrases that routinely pop up.

If you have those skills or were exposed to that industry or process, incorporate them into your resume. You can add them into dance a core competencies section, similar to Nicholas’ resume, or incorporate them throughout the death work experience section. 5. There aren’t any mentions of high school. Hiring managers are interested in what you’ve done lately, not what you accomplished four or more years before you went to college. Focus on 1920's, highlighting your activities, accomplishments, and the work experience that took place during your college career, calling special attention to anything that directly supports your job goals. Only list your GPA on of the in Victorian England Society, your entry-level resume if it’s a 3.0/4.0 or higher. Dance! If the GPA in your major is higher than your overall GPA, feel free to use that instead. However, keep in mind that employers will know why you didn’t include the GPA and may ask you about it during the Affirmative Action Not Be Essay interview process. 1920's! 7. Nicholas didn’t include his course work. If you’ve held at least one internship that’s relevant to death penalty debate your degree and career goals, there’s no reason to 1920's dance also include a list of the islam place of worship courses you took. Employers will value your internship experience over the stuff you learned in dance the classroom any day of the week.

However, if you did not intern, include a list of the 400-level courses you took that are most closely tied to your job goals to show hiring managers what subjects you’re familiar with. 8. It plays up Nicholas’ selling points. Place Of Worship! The format of your entry-level college grad resume will depend upon the information you have to work with. If you have a ton of 1920's dance great internship experience, highlight that just below your professional summary and education sections. If you didn’t hold any jobs that were related to your future career, play up other information instead, such as the high-level courses you took or major projects you participated in, academic or athletic honors you received, or extra-curricular activities that demonstrate your leadership skills. In Nicholas’ case, we divided his experience into two categories so his relevant internships took the spotlight. Saravanastores Chennai! 9. Each employer has a company description. Help employers get a better understanding of the industries and work environments you were exposed to by including a line that describes each company with which you held an internship. If you’re tight on space, feel free to eliminate this information for your summer jobs that aren’t related to your current career goals. 1920's Dance! You can also omit this information from your internships if they were all held at companies with big, well-known brand names. 10.

Nicholas bulleted the most important information. Use bullet points to draw attention to the information you believe recruiters will care most about. This may include an examples of technology accomplishment or other major contribution you helped your team achieve. 11. Action verbs are used to describe his work experience. Notice how the bullets under Nicholas’ roles begin with an action verb? This information focuses on 1920's, how Nicholas contributed to an end result.

When you’re new to the workforce, you may not have many major accomplishments and examples contributions to include in your resume; however, use action verbs (i.e. created, led, managed, improved, developed, built) to describe your activities. 12. His extracurricular activities and honors are provided. Your first resume out of 1920's college should play up your best selling points. This may include any projects or extracurricular activities you held while attending college, as well as any scholarships or other honors your receiving during that time. Click on the following link for of worship more tips on 1920's, how to build a resume using college involvement as experience. 13. Nicholas’ relevant skills are listed. Take a closer look at the job descriptions that interest you and note what technical skills they expect you to Hard Times of the Position Women possess.

This may include a particular software program or a language skill that’s considered valuable in your chosen field. If you have a working knowledge of these platforms, list them on 1920's, your resume. If you keep seeing a skill or tool mentioned that you don’t know much about, look for free or low-cost online courses on the topic to islam place bolster your skill set. Resources such as edX, SkillShare, and are a great place to start. As an entry-level professional, you only get one page of resume real estate don’t waste it by adding references or the dance phrase, “References available upon request.” Employers usually won’t ask for this information until you make it to a face-to-face interview, and they know you’ll provide it if they request it. Looking for more samples and advice? Click on the following links to check out charlemagne important a recording of our recent resume-writing webinar and 1920's take a look at another recent college graduate resume sample I wrote for why was important Business Insider. Click on 1920's, the following link for Continued Essay more resume advice. Need help with your entry-level resume? Take advantage of our free resume critique today!

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dna destiny essays International Socialist Review Issue 38, November#150;December 2004. Genes, Evolution, and dance Human Nature. THE IDEA that human society and behavior are to some significant degree determined by our biological inheritance is both widely believed and enormously influential. One version of this argument bases itself on evolutionary theory, claiming that human evolution has made such characteristics as social hierarchy, gender inequality, competition, and saravanastores violence inevitable features of every social system. Claims of this kind are closely linked to arguments that claim that significant aspects of dance, human behavior#151;from alcoholism to criminality#151;are genetically determined.

1. Newspaper reports and saravanastores TV programs, for example, inform us almost daily that scientists have uncovered evidence for the genetic basis of 1920's dance, one human characteristic or another. Why Was. Sometimes the characteristic in question is a disease, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington#146;s disease. But just as often the reports are about psychological characteristics and 1920's patterns of Depiction England, behavior, such as violence and criminality, or sexual orientation. A Time magazine cover story asked Why Are Men and Women Different? It Isn#146;t Just Upbringing. New Studies Show They Are Born That Way. The picture showed a little girl in a dress watching a little boy make a muscle.

2 The following month, a Newsweek cover story was headlined Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins of 1920's, Homosexuality. 3 Another Time cover pictured a cracked wedding ring and proclaimed Infidelity: It May be in Our Genes. Examples Of Technology. 4 And U.S. News and World Report ran an article titled Sex: It#146;s All in Your Brain, claiming that men and women think differently and that Every social explanation has been exhausted. It is innate.

5. Leading U.S. scientists have made similar claims. James Watson (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA and former head of the Human Genome Project) says, We used to think that our fate was in our stars. Now we know, in large part, that our fate is in 1920's, our genes. 6 Daniel Koshland, former editor of chennai, Science , the most prestigious scientific journal in the country, has claimed that genetic research can help to eliminate key social problems.

According to Koshland, the homeless are impaired#133;. Indeed, no group will benefit more from the application of human genetics. 7. There is no question that there have been important advances in genetic research in recent years. But the claim that these advances contain the solution to pressing social problems is not only false, but dangerous. Such claims are deeply ideological.

They are, in effect, an attempt to use the prestige of science to defend the status quo, which is why they are given prominent coverage in dance, the media. The attempt to explain important features of society in why was important, evolutionary or genetic terms#151;biological determinism#151;has two goals. First, it tries to convince us that the social order is a consequence of dance, unchanging human biology, so that inequality and injustice cannot be eliminated. Charlemagne. Second, in the case of problems that are impossible to ignore, it tells us to look for dance the solution at the level of the individual and not at the level of social institutions. The problems lie not in the structure of society, but in Affirmative, some of the individuals who make up society. The solution is dance thus to change#151;or even eliminate#151;the individuals, not to challenge existing social structures. From eugenics to examples of technology genocide. The claim that biology holds the key to solving social problems and the related claim that biology demonstrates the limits of dance, social reform and the impossibility of radical change, both have a long history, going back even before the of technology, birth of modern genetics. Dance. In 1865, Charles Darwin#146;s cousin Francis Galton published an article called Hereditary Talent and Character 8 in which he claimed that talent is biologically determined and proposed improving society through better breeding. A few years later he introduced the Not Be Continued, term eugenics#151;meaning good birth#151;to describe his proposal.

9. In his most famous book, Hereditary Genius, 10 Galton attempted to demonstrate that intelligence is inherited by tracing the genealogies of well-known English families and showing that, generation after generation, the members of such families tended to acquire prestigious social positions. 1920's. The alternative explanation, that what is inherited is not intelligence but access to Hard Times Depiction Position Women in Victorian England Society social power and 1920's dance influence, seems not to have occurred to him. Since biological theories of this kind assume that existing inequalities reflect fundamental facts about human nature, it is not surprising that Galton reached racist conclusions. He claimed that [T]he average intellectual standard of the Women in Victorian, negro race is some two grades below our own, 11 and that the Jews are specialized for a parasitical existence upon other nations. 12. Despite the fact that there was no evidence whatsoever for the underlying assumptions of eugenics, organizations promoting better breeding gained numerous supporters by the early part of the twentieth century.

Eugenics was adopted most enthusiastically in dance, the U.S., where it was used by saravanastores chennai the nativist movement as part of its attack on immigration. One of the principle advocates was the biologist Charles Davenport, who was the founder of the Cold Spring Harbor Lab and the Eugenics Record Office. The latter#151;which was financed by the widow of the railroad magnate E.H. Dance. Harriman#151;gathered information on thousands of American families for genetic research. Davenport was a serious scientist. He demonstrated the heritability of eye, skin, and hair color. But he also held that characteristics such as pauperism, criminality, and feeble-mindedness were biologically inherited. Davenport even claimed that the capacity to be a naval officer is an islam of worship, inherited trait, composed of two subtraits: thalassophilia (love of the sea) and hyperkineticism (or wanderlust). Because there were no women in the navy, Davenport concluded that the 1920's, trait is unique to males. 13.

Davenport#146;s tendency to postulate a genetic basis for nearly everything would be amusing if the consequences had not been so tragic. Against evidence that pellagra, an often deadly disease that was at epidemic proportions in the South, was caused by dietary deficiencies, Davenport (who was also head of the U.S. Pellagra Commission) argued that there was a genetic susceptibility to the disease. Successive administrations used Davenport#146;s false claims to avoid spending money on nutritional programs. As a result, hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, died unnecessarily between the time of the First World War and the New Deal, when the policy was finally changed. Eugenicists such as Davenport encouraged nearly thirty states to enact laws permitting the why was charlemagne, forced sterilization of 1920's, thousands of people in Affirmative Should Continued Essay, prisons and mental hospitals who were judged to be feeble-minded or defective in 1920's, some other way.

The first sterilization law was passed in of technology, Indiana in 1907. A quarter of a century later, the German Nazis used laws such as these as a model for their own racist legislation. Eugenicists in the U.S. also urged the federal government to restrict the immigration of undesirable races and played an important role in helping to pass the viciously racist federal immigration laws of 1921 and 1924. Dance. Their arguments dovetailed with those of psychologists like H.H. Goddard and Lewis M. Terman, who developed the first standardized intelligence tests, which unsurprisingly reflected the racist and Hard of the Position of Young Women in Victorian England Society cultural biases of their designers. Even when testing led to 1920's dance the conclusion that half the U.S. Why Was. population#151;including most Blacks and immigrants from Southern and 1920's Eastern Europe#151;were of substandard intelligence, the Depiction of the Position of Young, results were taken seriously.

Terman advocated vocational training and placement for such unfortunates, warning that they could drift easily into the ranks of the anti-social or join the army of Bolshevik discontents. Carl Brigham of Princeton University (who later developed the 1920's, Scholastic Aptitude Test, SAT) warned that [t]he average intelligence of succeeding waves of immigration has become progressively lower and that the Affirmative Action Not Be, situation was made worse owing to the presence here of the negro. Brigham advocated not only severely limiting immigration but also prevention of the continued propagation of the defective strains in the present population. 14. The passage of immigration restrictions also didn#146;t satisfy Davenport, who complained in 1925 that. our ancestors drove Baptists from 1920's dance, Massachusetts Bay in to Rhode Island but we have no place to drive the Jews to. Place Of Worship. Also, they burned the witches but it seems to be against the mores to 1920's dance burn any considerable part of our population. 15. This was not mere hyperbole. Earlier he had written that. though capital punishment is a crude method of grappling with the difficulty [of those with inferior genes] it is infinitely superior to that of training the feeble-minded and criminalistic and then letting them loose upon death society and permitting them to perpetuate in their offspring these animal traits.

16. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that a few years later, leading U.S. eugenicists were praising Nazi race laws in Germany. The Eugenical News called the Nazi sterilization law of 1933 clean-cut, direct and #145;model.#146; In 1935 the American Eugenics Society argued that crime and 1920's dance dependency keep on increasing because new defectives are born, just as new cancer cells remorselessly penetrate into sound tissue, and it reminded its members that we treat cancer by means of the surgeon#146;s knife. Frederick Osborn, secretary of the American Eugenics Society, wrote in examples, 1937: The German sterilization program is apparently an excellent one. 1920's Dance. Taken altogether, recent developments in place of worship, Germany constitute perhaps the most important social experiment which has ever been tried. And Charles R. Stockard, president of the board of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, warned that the human race faced ultimate extermination unless low grade and defective stocks could be absolutely prevented from reproducing. Dance. Eugenicists in why was charlemagne important, the U.S. 1920's. continued to advocate the sterilization of millions of why was charlemagne important, Americans right up until 1940.

17. Thus the idea that society#146;s problems are due to defective individuals played an dance, important role in paving the way for the Nazi Holocaust. But largely because the Nazis took these ideas to their logical extreme, by the end of the Second World War, biological determinism in general and the eugenics movement in particular became completely discredited in the eyes of most mainstream scientists. Yet this period in which biologists rejected racist pseudo-science was remarkably short-lived. The return of biological determinism. Biological determinism first began to make a comeback in the late 1960s as part of the ruling-class response to the movements for social change in the U.S. and elsewhere. In 1969 Arthur Jensen, a professor at Stanford, published a paper arguing that Blacks are innately less intelligent than whites, based on the fact that the average African American IQ score is consistently lower than the average score for islam place whites and the claim that IQ has a high degree of heritability.

18 Soon afterwards, the Harvard psychologist Richard Herrnstein defended the dance, view that socioeconomic status is a direct function of inherited intelligence. In future generations, said Herrnstein, the tendency to be unemployed would run in families just like the tendency to have bad teeth. Death Penalty Debate. 19. But these claims that social inequalities have a biological basis were no better supported than the dance, earlier claims of the eugenics movement. Should Not Be Essay. Jensen claimed that IQ is 80 percent heritable, citing as evidence research done on identical twins by the British psychologist Sir Cyril Burt. 1920's. According to chennai Burt, the IQs of identical twins who were separated and 1920's dance raised in distinct environments are much more closely correlated than the IQs of other individuals from the two environments. But Burt#146;s data seemed suspicious to of technology the Marxist psychologist Leon Kamin, and a careful examination of 1920's dance, Burt#146;s research revealed that it really was too good to be true. For example, Kamin discovered that even though Burt#146;s sample sizes got bigger, some of the correlation coefficients he claimed to have calculated stayed identical to three decimal places. 20 It soon emerged that Burt#146;s work had been perhaps the biggest scientific fraud of the twentieth century. His supposed coauthors and research assistants did not exist, the twins he claimed to have studied were fictitious, and his data had been completely fabricated.

21. Not only is the claim that IQ is penalty debate highly heritable unsupported, it is also irrelevant to Jensen#146;s main conclusion, which was that compensatory education programs are doomed to fail. Even if IQ was highly heritable, it would not follow that differences between groups could not be overcome by improved educational opportunities. Heritability is a measure of the variation in 1920's, a trait due to genetic differences within a group, and is irrelevant to the issue of whether a characteristic can be altered by death penalty changing the environment. The same genotype (or collection of genes) may be expressed differently in 1920's, different environments, so heritability estimates apply only to a specific population in a specific range of environments. Hereditarians such as Jensen simply assume that we have already done all we can to alter the penalty, environment#151;a laughable assumption when it comes to education.

More generally, the idea that IQ tests measure an individual#146;s innate and fixed degree of intelligence, or that intelligence can be measured on a single scale, are equally dubious. 1920's. 22. Who knows what IQ measures? asked the biologist Stephen Jay Gould. It is a good predictor of #145;success#146; in school, but is such success a result of intelligence, apple polishing, or the assimilation of values that the leaders of why was charlemagne important, society prefer? 23 Historically, IQ tests have been used to justify existing social hierarchies.

The tests are calibrated to ensure that those who occupy more privileged positions in the hierarchies receive higher scores. The scores are then used to claim that social inequalities reflect natural differences. The philosopher of science Hilary Putnam has argued that the notion of IQ is built on the assumption that there are a few #145;superior#146; people who have this one mysterious factor#151;#145;intelligence#146;#151;and who are good at everything, and a lot of slobs who are not much good at anything. If this assumption seems plausible to some people, it is only because we live in a society that is highly stratified. Dance. In fact, ordinary people can do anything that it is in their interest and do it well when (1) they are highly motivated and (2) they work collectively. As Putnam points out: That motivation plays a decisive role in acquiring almost any skill is a matter of everyone#146;s experience. The importance of working collectively is also evidenced in many ways. The Black and Latin prisoners in Attica Prison are presumably part of [what Herrnstein calls] the low IQ residue. Action Not Be Continued Essay. But they organized brilliantly. Dance. Every popular revolution in history makes the same point#151;that ordinary people in a revolution can perform incredible feats of organization, planning, strategy, etc.

But collective intelligence is not restricted to the context of revolution. Why Was Important. Since the dance, 1950s a series of studies have shown that even in chennai, the context of modern capitalist production, workers perform better, and find their jobs less dissatisfying, when the dance, managerial hierarchy is islam place reduced. 24. The claims of Jensen, Herrnstein, and 1920's dance other biological determinists, were simply an attempt to rationalize race and class inequalities as more or less inevitable. As genuine science, they lacked all merit. Why Was Important. 25. From sociobiology to evolutionary psychology. From the mid-1970s, new attempts were made to use biology to explain social phenomena.

In his widely read book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 26 the Harvard entomologist E.O. Wilson attempted to extend evolutionary explanations of 1920's dance, social behavior in non-human animals to saravanastores chennai explain human behavior as well. Wilson argued that certain forms of human behavior are universal, and that the best explanation for this is that they are the result of natural selection and hence are coded for in our genes. Like the 1920's dance, eugenicists of the early twentieth century, Wilson postulated genes for a wide variety of saravanastores, traits, including entrepreneurship, creativity, spite, conformity (human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate#151;they seek it), xenophobia, and homosexuality. Dance. 27 Again, like the earlier eugenicists, Wilson claimed that these supposed biological facts made certain aspects of saravanastores chennai, society, such as male domination of public life, all but inevitable. My own guess is the genetic bias is intense enough to dance cause a substantial division of examples of technology, labor even in the most free and egalitarian of future societies, he wrote shortly after Sociobiology was published. Thus, even with identical education and equal access to all professions, men are likely to play a disproportionate role in political life, business, and science.

If we attempt to 1920's create a more egalitarian society, Wilson continued, we will place some personal freedoms in Depiction England, jeopardy. 28 Concerning Marxism in particular, Wilson reportedly joked later, Wonderful theory. Wrong species. 29. Sociobiological claims about 1920's dance human society received massive attention in the media. A Time magazine cover story was headlined Why You Do What You Do. According to the accompanying article, the theory can explain loyalty to church, corporation and nation.

30 BusinessWeek soon claimed that sociobiology provided A Genetic Defense of the Free Market. Sociobiology means that individuals cannot be molded to fit into socialist societies without a tremendous loss of efficiency. Hard Depiction Of The Women England Society. Bioeconomists say that government programs that force individuals to be less competitive and selfish than they are genetically programmed to 1920's be are preordained to fail. 31. Even Playboy got into the act: Do Men Need to saravanastores chennai Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes. Inside, the magazine#146;s readers were told that. Males are#133;driven by dance their genes to reproduce.

They tend to be more promiscuous because in time past that was their best way to of technology reproduce the most offspring. If you get caught fooling around, don#146;t say the dance, devil made you do it. It#146;s the devil in your DNA. 32. Like their eugenic predecessors, these sociobiological speculations lacked any serious evidence in their support. 33 Consider for instance the claim that supposed human universals have a genetic basis. The mere fact of universality (if it is a fact) does not show this, since there might easily be a non-genetic explanation. German speaking is nearly universal in examples of technology, Germany, but the explanation is not that inhabitants of the country are genetically predisposed to speak a particular language. Often sociobiologists claimed that non-human animals share the characteristic in question#151;aggression, for instance#151;and that this shows that it probably has a genetic basis.

But this kind of 1920's dance, reasoning is quite unpersuasive, as Wilson#146;s Harvard colleague Richard Lewontin has pointed out: How do we decide that slavery in Affirmative Action Should Essay, ants and 1920's dance ant queens are like human slavery and saravanastores like human royal families? How do we decide that the 1920's, coyness we see in people is the same as the behavior in animals called coyness? What happens is that human categories are laid on animals by analogy, partly as a matter of islam place, convenience of language, and then these traits are discovered in animals and laid back on humans as if they had a common origin. There is in fact not a shred of evidence that the anatomical, physiological, and 1920's dance genetic basis of what is called aggression in rats has anything in common with the German invasion of Poland in chennai, 1939. 34. Similarly, there is no convincing evidence for the claim that various behaviors have been selected for in humans because they increase our biological fitness. Sociobiologists were initially interested in the question of why some animals are apparently willing to reduce (or even give up) their own chances of reproducing in order to benefit others. Dance. An extreme example is the existence of sterile members of insect colonies. How could such traits have evolved? One possible explanation is that an individual might give up its own prospects of reproducing in order to increase the chances of its relatives reproducing, thus passing on of worship, some of its genes to the next generation indirectly.

These are known as cases of kin selection, in 1920's dance, contrast to cases of individual selection, in which the organism attempts to pass on its genes directly by having offspring. Another possible explanation in cases in which the sacrifice is temporary is that the individual that benefits is examples of technology likely to reciprocate in the future. This is known as reciprocal altruism. Kin selection and reciprocal altruism are important ideas in evolutionary biology, but whether or not they are the correct explanation for any particular trait has to be demonstrated. But sociobiological explanations of human behavior simply assume what they need to dance prove. When we combine individual selective advantage with the possibility of Affirmative Not Be Essay, kin selection and reciprocal altruism, it is hard to imagine any human trait for 1920's dance which a plausible scenario for its selective advantage could not be invented. The real problem is to find out whether any of islam place, these stories is true .#133; At the very minimum, we might ask whether there is any evidence that such selective processes are going on at the present, but in fact no one has ever measured in any human population the 1920's, actual reproductive advantage or disadvantage of any human behavior. All of the sociobiological explanations of the evolution of penalty, human behavior are like Rudyard Kipling#146;s Just So stories of how the camel got his hump and how the elephant got his trunk. They are just stories.

Science has been turned into a game. 35. But perhaps the most basic point is that the behaviors that sociobiologists claimed are coded into our genes, are not universals at all. Not every human society has exhibited the 1920's dance, same sexual division of labor as our own. And not every human society has been capitalist or even competitive. For example, the anthropologist Peggy Sanday conducted a survey of about 150 different societies going back as far as the saravanastores chennai, sixth century BC to see whether they were male-dominated, female-dominated, or based on collective decision-making. She found a huge diversity of sex roles in dance, these societies, showing that such roles derive not from human nature, but from specific historical and political circumstances.36 More generally, there has been tremendous cultural evolution in the past few thousand years that cannot be explained in biological terms because there simply hasn#146;t been enough time for natural selection to chennai operate. 37.

Sociobiology reinvents itself. Sociobiology, however, has proven too ideologically useful to die, and it has reemerged over 1920's dance the past decade renamed as evolutionary psychology. Books by New Republic editor Robert Wright, 38 science writer Matt Ridley 39 and Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker 40 have popularized the ideas of evolutionary psychology for a general audience. Pinker is particularly pugnacious. He claims that inequality and conflict are inevitable features of human society. He attacks Marxists, academic feminists and cafe intellectuals and says The standard Marxist theory of human nature has probably been refuted by many sources of saravanastores chennai, evidence, including the dance, anthropological record and saravanastores chennai Darwinian theory. 41. Evolutionary psychology claims to be an dance, advance of old-style sociobiology in at least two respects. First, it proposes that it is not specific behaviors but underlying psychological mechanisms that are shaped by natural selection.

This leads evolutionary psychologists to adopt a modular theory of the islam of worship, human mind, which sees it as consisting of a large number of distinct informational processing devices (or modules), each with a specialized task#151;in other words a Swiss army knife model of the mind. There is considerable evidence that at least some aspects of the mind#151;such as language abilities and the visual system#151;are independently functioning modules, but evolutionary psychologists take this idea to absurd extremes, proposing such modules as a cheater detector (able to tell you when someone is deceiving you) and a sexual attraction module (which supposedly leads human males to 1920's be attracted to young females, and females to be attracted to high-status males). Even more modest versions of the Affirmative Action Not Be, modularity thesis leave us with a picture of the mind that is atomized and relatively inflexible. 42. Second, the 1920's dance, more technical work in evolutionary psychology makes use of sophisticated mathematical models in Affirmative Not Be, order to 1920's determine what kinds of psychological mechanisms would have been optimal for islam of worship our ancient ancestors to evolve in 1920's, the supposed environment of evolutionary adaptation that they had to face. The underlying assumption is that the human mind evolved to Affirmative Action Should Essay solve the problems faced by hunter-gatherers hundreds of thousands of years ago in the Pleistocene era and that its basic psychology has remained unchanged ever since. Contemporary social problems are thus rooted in the fact that we find ourselves with a Stone Age mind in an increasingly complex modern world.

43. But this whole approach is highly problematic. First, we have very little detailed knowledge of the environment of evolutionary adaptation faced by dance our early ancestors, so anything we say about this is examples highly speculative. Second, just like sociobiologists before them, evolutionary psychologists often ignore alternative explanations of human behavior, as well as evidence that the 1920's, psychological characteristics that they claim were built into Affirmative Action Not Be Continued the human mind hundreds of thousands of years ago are not universal after all. I#146;ll consider just one example#151;violence. It is certainly true that human history is characterized by high levels of dance, violence#151;including war, blood feuds, and murder#151;much of which seem on the face of it highly irrational.

So why have generations of human beings killed each other rather than cooperating in ways that might have been mutually beneficial? Here is one possible explanation. Our distant ancestors, hundreds of thousands of years ago, found themselves in debate, an environment in which violence was necessary to survive. Those individuals who developed a psychology that distinguished between members of their own group and strangers, and who were psychologically prepared to use deadly violence against the latter, were better adapted to this environment than those less inclined to use violence, and so these psychological characteristics were selected for in early humans. This tendency to violence continues to exist in modern humans even when it is no longer beneficial and the only way to keep it under control is to set up a strong central state that can, at 1920's, least to some extent, hold these tendencies in check. That, in a nutshell, is the story that Steven Pinker tells about violence in his most recent book The Blank Slate , where he argues that human beings have a bloody prehistory stretching back hundreds of saravanastores chennai, thousands of 1920's, years and that violence in humans is#133;part of our design. 44. Unfortunately for Pinker, and fortunately for Hard Times Depiction of the Position the rest of us, this view of human prehistory is dance quite simply a myth.

In support of the claim that long before history began murderous strife was universal and unending, 45 Pinker cites the work of the University of Illinois archaeologist Lawrence Keeley, who claims that humans have always made war. 46 In fact, Keeley demonstrates nothing of the kind. His evidence consists of islam place of worship, a compilation of various instances from the archaeological record in which humans died violent deaths at dance, the hands of chennai, others. But what Keeley fails to show is dance that these cases were typical or common, rather than relatively isolated aberrations. According to chennai the Rutgers anthropologist R. 1920's. Brian Ferguson, probably the leading expert on the early history of war, the global archaeological record contradicts the idea that war was always a feature of human existence; instead, the record shows that warfare is of technology largely a development of the dance, past 10,000 years. 47 In a continuing global survey of all the available archaeological evidence, Ferguson has so far discovered no evidence of systematic violence in pre-historic human societies in Europe, Africa, the of the Position of Young Women in Victorian, Middle East, Asia, Australia, or North America. Ferguson argues that warfare became a feature of 1920's dance, human society only as a consequence of specific historical developments, including the establishment of permanent settlements with accumulated wealth and the emergence of islam, social hierarchy, an elite, perhaps with its own interests and dance rivalries. The fact that for most of human existence there is no evidence of systematic large-scale violence, totally undercuts Pinker#146;s theory, which is really just a restatement of Affirmative Action, one of the oldest elements of 1920's dance, ruling-class ideology#151;that states exist to protect us from ourselves, not to protect the interests of the elite and to keep the mass of the population in its place. But the problem is not just what Pinker says about why was charlemagne violence. The whole idea that human psychology is dance relatively rigid and unchanging#151;one of the Hard Times Depiction of the Women, central claims of evolutionary psychology#151;is incompatible with what we actually do know about human evolution. The first modern humans are believed to have evolved in dance, southern Africa about 120,000 years ago.

According to Marta Lahr, Professor of Affirmative Should Essay, Evolutionary Studies at Cambridge University, these creatures had the potential of dance, invention that we have. And I think that#146;s actually what makes them modern#151;they [could] invent solutions to new problems. 48. Around 50,000 years ago groups of death penalty, modern humans began to migrate from 1920's, Africa and disperse around the world, coming into contact with other hominid species that had left Africa about a million and a half years earlier. Modern humans arrived in Europe around 35,000 years ago, where they lived side by side with Neanderthals, a closely related but distinct human species. Neanderthals, unlike modern humans, were physiologically well adapted to the cold European climate, but they were intellectually inferior to our ancestors. According to the archaeologist Paul Mellars, the most remarkable thing about Neanderthal technology is the way it hardly changes significantly over about a quarter of a million years. You get essentially the same shapes of tools made by the same techniques over islam of worship this whole period. 1920's Dance. Now as soon as you get modern humans on the scene you get a whole range of Hard of Young in Victorian England Society, dramatic changes. Dance. They suddenly start producing new shapes of stone tools obviously designed for different functions, and they start producing tools from bones, antler and islam place ivory, which had never been used before. 49.

It was this creativity and ingenuity of our ancestors#151;also exhibited in their elaborate ornaments, art, and dance burial rituals, and the complex networks of trade and exchange they established#151;that explains why they survived and the Neanderthals did not. When temperatures in Europe began to plummet with the onset of a new ice age, Neanderthals were unable to adjust to Hard Depiction of Young England the new conditions. But modern humans continued to dance thrive, even in mountainous areas. By 28,000 years ago the last remaining Neanderthals had disappeared. Similar developments took place around the world, where modern humans replaced other hominid species. Thus the key to our ancestors#146; success was their enormous flexibility and ability to saravanastores chennai learn, not patterns of behavior hardwired into their brains. 50. Sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists distort Darwin by 1920's adopting an ultra-adaptationist view that tries to explain every significant aspect of human behavior or psychology as a biological adaptation, shaped by Action Should Not Be Continued Essay natural selection. But while human intelligence was surely the subject of natural selection, it is highly implausible to dance think that specific behaviors or psychological characteristics are hardwired into our brains. As Stephen Jay Gould once put it: The central feature of our biological uniqueness also provides the saravanastores chennai, major reason for doubting that our behaviors are directly coded by specific genes.

That feature is, of course, our large brain. [M]arkedly increased brain size in human evolution. added enough neural connections to 1920's convert an inflexible and rather rigidly programmed device into a labile organ, endowed with sufficient logic and memory to substitute non-programmed learning for direct specification as the saravanastores chennai, ground of social behavior. 1920's Dance. Flexibility may well be the most important determinant of human consciousness; the direct programming of behavior has probably become inadaptive. 51. The evidence for sociobiology and evolutionary psychology is just as weak as for earlier versions of biological determinism. Next issue: The New Eugenics. Phil Gasper is a member of the important, ISR editorial board. He teaches philosophy of dance, science at Notre Dame de Namur University and saravanastores is an associate editor of the online journal Human Nature Review ( 1#9;The arguments are linked because natural selection can only operate on dance, characteristics that have a genetic basis. 2#9; Time , January 20, 1992.

3#9; Newsweek , February 24, 1992. 5#9; U.S. News and charlemagne World Report , February 27, 1995. 7#9;Quoted in Evelyn Fox Keller, Nature, Nurture, and the Human Genome Project, in 1920's dance, Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood (eds.), The Code of Codes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 282. 8#9;Originally published in Macmillan#146;s Magazine , 12, 157#151;66, 318#151;27, available online at 9#9;Francis Galton, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (London and New York: Macmillan, 1883; second edition, Dent and Dutton, 1907), 17. 10#9;Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius (London and New York: Macmillan, 1869; second edition 1895). 11#9;Ibid., second edition, 338.

12	Correspondence With Alphonse de Candolle, from the Web site Life of Francis Galton by Karl Pearson, Vol. 2, 1884, available online at 13#9;On Davenport and the history of the eugenics movement see Allan Chase, The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the death, New Scientific Racism (New York: Alfred A. 1920's Dance. Knopf, 1975), Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), and Times of the Position of Young Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America#146;s Campaign to 1920's Create a Master Race (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003). 14#9;Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1981), 182, 227, and 230. 15#9;Letter to Madison Grant, April 7, 1925, quoted in C. E. Charlemagne Important. Rosenberg, No Other Gods: On Science and American Social Thought (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 95#151;96. 16#9;Quoted in Chase, The Legacy of Malthus , 159#151;60. 17#9;All quotations from this paragraph are from Barry Mehler, Eliminating the Inferior: American and 1920's Nazi Sterilization Programs, Science for the People (Nov#151;Dec 1987), available online at Of Worship. Osborn, incidentally, was also one of the founders of The Pioneer Fund, which still promotes theories of black inferiority and is a major financial supporter of the ultra-right Federation for American Immigration Reform. 18#9;Arthur Jensen, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39: 1#151;123. 19#9;Richard Herrnstein, IQ, Atlantic Monthly , September 1971, 43#151;64.

20#9;Leon J. 1920's Dance. Kamin, The Science and Politics of IQ (Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974). 21#9;Gould, The Mismeasure of Man , Ch. 6. R.C. Of Worship. Lewontin, Steven Rose, and Leon J. Kamin, Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 101#151;06. Dance. Other genuine studies of identical twins are problematic on other grounds. Of Worship. See for dance example Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, 106#151;16 and Jay Joseph, Twin Studies in Psychiatry and Psychology: Science or Pseudoscience? Psychiatric Quarterly , 73:1, Spring 2002, 71#151;82. 22#9;The originator of IQ tests, the French psychologist Alfred Binet, viewed them as simply a diagnostic tool to determine which school children needed additional assistance, not as a measure of fixed intellectual capacity.

It was only when the tests were adopted in the U.S. in Depiction of the of Young England, the early twentieth century that American hereditarians began interpreting the results in this latter way. See Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, 146#151;58. For the most influential critique of the 1920's, idea that intelligence is a single entity or capacity, see Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983; second edition, 1993). 23#9;Steven Jay Gould, Racist Arguments and IQ, in islam place, Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History (New York: Norton, 1977), 245. 24#9;Hilary Putnam, Reductionism and the Nature of Psychology, Cognition 2:1, 1973, 141#151;43. 25#9;This, of course, did not stop either Jensen or Herrnstein from continuing to get a respectful hearing for their pseudo-scientific views. Jensen elaborated his views at length in Bias in Mental Testing (New York: Free Press, 1979). Herrnstein later collaborated with the right-wing pundit Charles Murray to write the racist tract The Bell Curve: The Reshaping of American Life by 1920's dance Difference in Intelligence (New York: Free Press, 1994). Jensen#146;s views are demolished by Stephen Jay Gould in Jensen#146;s Last Stand, in An Urchin in the Storm: Essays about Books and examples Ideas (New York: Norton, 1988).

For an 1920's, equally devastating demolition of The Bell Curve , see Ned Block, Race, Genes, and examples IQ, Boston Review , December 1995/January 1996, available online at 26#9;E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975). 27#9; Sociobiology , chap. 27. 28#9;Quoted in dance, Human Decency is Animal, New York Times Magazine , October 12, 1975. 29#9;Quoted in J. Getlin, Natural Wonder: At Heart, Edward Wilson#146;s an Ant Man, Los Angeles Times , October 21, 1994. 30#9;Time, August 1, 1977.

The article also reported a claim by the sociobiologist Robert Trivers that feminism was going to decline because feminists were not having children and, therefore, would not pass on their feminist genes! 31	A Genetic Defense of the Free Market, BusinessWeek , April 10, 1978. 32#9;Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes, Playboy , August 1978. Death Debate. In a 1981 issue, Playboy went further, claiming that rape is very likely genetically based. a strategy genetically available to low-dominance males that increases their chances of reproducing by making more females available to them than they would otherwise acquire.

Claims of this kind remain a staple of sociobiology and its more recent descendant evolutionary psychology, most notoriously in Randy Thornhill and 1920's Craig Palmer, A Natural History of Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). Of The Position Of Young. For a thorough critique of Thornhill and Palmer see Cheryl Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and 1920's dance Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003). 33#9;The most comprehensive critique of sociobiology is Philip Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and Affirmative Action Not Be the Quest for Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985). 1920's. Kitcher, who is perhaps the most respected contemporary philosopher of science, concludes that most human sociobiology is based on unrigorous analyses, problematic concepts, dubious connections, and spurious arguments. Affirmative Should. Also see Marshall Sahlins, The Use and 1920's dance Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976), and Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, Not in Our Genes, Chap. Debate. 9. 34#9;Richard C. Lewontin, Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA (New York: HarperPerennial, 1993), 95#151;96. 35#9;Lewontin, Biology as Ideology , 100. 36#9;Peggy Reeves Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (New York: Cambridge University Press, l981). 37#9;Attempts by sociobiologists to deal with cultural evolution have not been successful. See Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition , Chap.

10 and Gould, Genes on the Brain, in An Urchin in the Storm . 38#9;Robert Wright, The Moral Animal: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Pantheon, 1994). 39#9;Matt Ridley, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Simon and 1920's Schuster, 1994). 40#9;Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997) and The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (New York: Viking, 2002). 41#9;Quoted in John Horgan, Darwin on islam of worship, His Mind, Lingua Franca , November 1997. 42#9;For critiques of evolutionary psychology see Hilary Rose and Steven Rose (eds.), Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments Against Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Harmony Books, 2000); David Buller, Evolutionary Psychology, in Marco Nani and 1920's dance Massimo Marraffa (eds.), A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind (An official electronic publication of the Not Be, Department of Philosophy of University of 1920's dance, Rome 3, 2000), available online at; John Dupré, Human Nature and the Limits of Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001); and Continued Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and Rape . Buller#146;s forthcoming book, Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), due out in 1920's dance, 2005, promises to be the chennai, most comprehensive critique to date. 43#9;Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer, available online at

Buller calls this the Flintstone theory _of human nature. 44#9;Pinker, The Blank Slate , 306 and 314. 45#9;This is 1920's dance a quotation from Winston Churchill with which Pinker begins his chapter on death, violence. The quotation, together with the 1920's dance, fact that most of the chapter borrows heavily from the pessimistic seventeenth century philosopher Thomas Hobbes, suggests that Pinker#146;s views reflect old prejudices rather than a careful assessment of the available scientific evidence. 46#9;Lawrence Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 47#9;R. Charlemagne. Brian Ferguson, The Birth of 1920's, War, Natural History , July/August 2003, available online at 48#9;Quoted in Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution , a BBC/The Learning Channel documentary, originally broadcast on Hard Depiction of the Position Women in Victorian, TLC in dance, August 2000.

Also see Robin McKie, Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution (New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2000). 49#9;Quoted in Dawn of Man . 50#9;For more on the Neanderthals see Paul Jordan, Neanderthal: Neanderthal Man and the Story of Human Origins (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1999). For an up to date guide to what is currently known about human evolution see Roger Lewin et. al., Principles of Human Evolution, second edition (New York: Blackwell, 2004). 51	Potentiality vs. Determinism, in Ever Since Darwin , 257.