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kpmg submit resume KPMG LLP, of uk McLean, Virginia, protests the award of a contract to Deloitte Touche LLP, of Arlington, Virginia, by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) under request for proposals (RFP) No. Studer Pillars! 2012-11120600005 for accounting and financial services in support of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). KPMG argues that the CIA held misleading discussions, misevaluated the proposals, failed to conduct a proper cost realism analysis, and products uk made an unreasonable source selection decision. We sustain the and the Asian Elephants Essay protest. DOCUMENT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. The decision issued on the date below was subject to a GAO Protective Order. This redacted version has been approved for public release. Matter of: KPMG LLP. File: B-406409; B-406409.2; B-406409.3; B-406409.4. Date: May 21, 2012.
Michael A. Hordell, Esq., Michael R. Golden, Esq., Heather Kilgore Weiner, Esq., and Samuel Jack, Esq., Pepper Hamilton LLP, for the protester. David S. Cohen, Esq., John J. O#146;Brien, Esq., and Gabriel E. Kennon, Esq., Cohen Mohr LLP, for Deloitte Touche LLP, an uk intervenor. Christopher E. Gagne, Esq., and Arthur L. Passar, Esq., Central Intelligence Agency, for the agency. Paul N. Wengert, Esq., Glenn G. Wolcott, Esq., and Sharon L. Larkin, Esq., Office of the General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. 1. Agency conducted misleading discussions where it advised protester during discussions that it should provide resumes for all proposed personnel for the lifespan of the contract, but now asserts that the shall have RFP did not require such submission of resumes. 2. Agency failed to products, conduct an adequate cost realism analysis of proposals for cost-plus-fixed-fee level-of-effort contract where the record is devoid of any meaningful analysis by agency evaluators of their basis for accepting as realistic the movies awardee#146;s cost proposal, and record showed that, beginning a year into performance, the firm#146;s cost savings depended on replacement of staff whose resumes were relied upon for the awardee#146;s higher technical ratings. KPMG LLP, of McLean, Virginia, protests the award of a contract to Deloitte Touche LLP, of Arlington, Virginia, by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) under request for proposals (RFP) No. 2012-11120600005 for accounting and financial services in support of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI).
KPMG argues that the CIA held misleading discussions, misevaluated the proposals, failed to conduct a proper cost realism analysis, and made an unreasonable source selection decision. We sustain the protest. The CIA issued the RFP on December 12, 2011, seeking proposals to provide services to products uk, assist in the preparation of not so movies auditable financial statements for the ODNI. RFP at 1. The RFP anticipated the award of a cost-plus-fixed-fee level-of-effort contract  for a base year and four annual option periods  to the firm whose proposal offered the best value. Best Aldi! Agency Report (AR) at 2; RFP at 10, L-2. Shall!  The RFP described the objectives of the contract as producing auditable financial statements each year by best uk November 15, beginning with Fiscal Year 2014. After that, the contractor will support the agency#146;s efforts to resolve audit issues, so that the agency is able to obtain an unqualified opinion on great essay, the ODNI financial statements by Fiscal Year 2016.
Statement of Work (SOW) at best aldi 3-4. The contract tasks were grouped into of power example, nine areas: program management, financial analysis, internal controls and compliance, financial statements preparation support, process redesign and policies/procedures, training, documentation support, audit support, and preparation of aldi uk written products. SOW at 5-9. Since the studer pillars RFP stated that the CIA intended to award a cost-reimbursement level-of-effort contract, it provided that #147;the required level of effort for this requirement is fourteen (14) Full Time Equivalents [FTEs] for a period of one year (BASE) with options for an additional four years . . .#148; Id. at 4; RFP at 5. The SOW further allocated the 14 FTEs among three labor categories: program manager/senior technician (2 FTEs), financial support personnel (8 FTEs), and best products functional support specialist (4 FTEs). SOW at balance 10-11. The SOW established specific education and experience requirements for each labor category.
Id. The RFP directed offerors to submit proposals addressing, among other things, the firm#146;s technical approach, management approach, past performance, security, and cost/price. RFP at best products uk L-3. Studer Pillars! Under the technical volume, the RFP directed offerors to provide a narrative description of the offeror#146;s approach, and to include resumes for #147;the proposed Project Manager, full time staff, and any other specialized staff the offeror believes might be required for backup.#148; RFP at L-5. For the management volume, the aldi uk RFP directed each offeror to balance example, describe how its proposed team would be capable of performing the contract requirements, and also to describe the offeror#146;s ability to retain and recruit personnel consistent with the SOW. Best Aldi Products! Id. With respect to the security requirements, the RFP directed offerors to describe the firm#146;s general approach to complying with the contract#146;s security requirements and to supply specific information about #147;each individual proposed employee,#148; including the individual#146;s full name, date of birth, social security number, background investigation and security clearance, and great essay the date when the individual would begin work on the contract. RFP at L-8. In the cost volume, the RFP directed offerors to provide a complete explanation of the basis for their costs. The RFP provided that #147;ALL of the aldi products instructions for the Cost/Price Volume apply to all Offerors, whether Prime or subcontractor.#148; RFP at L-9.
The instructions further directed offerors to provide cost or pricing data #147;from the prime and subcontractors,#148; and The African and the Asian a basis of estimate for the offeror#146;s costs, including a breakdown of the underlying cost elements. RFP at L-9. Best Value Evaluation Scheme. The RFP provided that proposals would be evaluated under four factors: technical, management, past performance, and cost. RFP at M-2. The RFP explained that award would be made to the firm whose proposal provided the best value, with the technical factor more important than the aldi products uk management factor, which was, in turn, more important than the past performance factor. The cost factor was described as significantly less important than the other factors combined. RFP at M-2 to M-3. Under the technical factor, the death shall no dominion RFP listed two subfactors: personnel qualifications and skills, and technical capability and best aldi uk understanding of the requirements. Id. Under the management factor, the studer pillars RFP listed one subfactor: staffing and availability.
Id. Best Products! There were no subfactors under the other evaluation factors. The RFP also established a fifth factor, security, to be evaluated on a pass/fail basis. The RFP stated that firms receiving a rating of #147;fail#148;, or whose security deficiencies were not correctable, would be eliminated from the competition. Elephants Asian! RFP at M-3 to M-4. The security factor evaluation was to products uk, consider the #147;clearance status of the proposed personnel,#148; among other things, and the RFP advised offerors that contractor personnel were required to hold a #147;current ODNI ISSA/TS [Industrial Security Staff Approval/Top Secret] clearance, or be eligible for immediate crossover.#148; RFP at death have M-4. The CIA received timely proposals from KPMG and Deloitte.
Both firms#146; initial proposals offered diminishing resources over the life of the contract; that is, each firm proposed either fewer personnel or less qualified personnel after an initial contract performance period. For example, KPMG#146;s initial proposal offered to provide 14 FTEs during the first [ deleted ].  Thereafter, the proposal stated that the firm anticipated that the services would be less complex, and KPMG proposed to reduce staffing for the [ deleted ]. AR Binder 2, Tab 4, KPMG Initial Management Proposal, at 3. Similarly, Deloitte#146;s proposal indicated that after the base performance period, it would #147;transition#148; to less experienced personnel. Supplemental (Supp.) AR Binder 3, Tab 3, Deloitte Final Proposal Revision, at 1. The CIA evaluated both proposals under the evaluation criteria using adjectival ratings of excellent, very good, satisfactory, marginal, or unacceptable. The initial technical and management evaluation ratings were as follows: 1. Personnel Quals Skills. 2. Technical Capability. Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 8, Final Technical Management Evaluation Report, at 1. Following its evaluation of initial proposals, the CIA determined that both proposals had weaknesses that should be addressed prior to contract award. Accordingly, the source selection authority established a competitive range and authorized discussions.
AR Binder 1, Tab 11, Competitive Range Determination, at 1. The CIA provided each offeror a written discussion letter. For KPMG, the discussion letter advised the firm, among other issues, that its proposed staffing was unacceptable, stating: KPMG has failed to propose the required Fourteen (14) FTEs as mandated and has therefore failed to meet the requirements of the solicitation. As a result, the Government does not have a realistic cost estimate based on KPMG#146;s submission.
Resumes should be provided for all personnel proposed to perform over the lifespan of the contract. AR Binder 1, Tab 12, Discussions Letter from CIA to KPMG, at 1. In discussions with Deloitte, the agency raised a similar concern with Deloitte#146;s proposal to #147;transition#148; to best aldi products, less qualified personnel after the initial performance period, stating: Deloitte should either submit resumes for ralph emerson writings the less experienced personnel forecasted, or revise the cost proposal to reflect the labor categories for the resumes provided in the initial proposal in order for the Cost and Technical/Management Teams to make a fair cost determination. Supp.
AR Binder 3, Tab 6, Discussions Letter from best, CIA to Deloitte, Jan. 13, 2012, at 1. The CIA also posed a question to Deloitte regarding the absence of pricing information for Deloitte#146;s subcontractors, stating that the initial proposal was incomplete in movies that regard and requesting that Deloitte #147;submit all required information for subcontractors as specified in [RFP] Section L, [¶] 7.4.1.#148; Id. Submission of Final Proposal Revisions. In its final proposal revision (FPR), KPMG stated that it was eliminating the staff reductions initially proposed [ deleted ], and best products instead would be maintaining its staff at 14 FTEs for all years of contract performance. AR Binder 2, Tab 9, KPMG Final Management Proposal Revision, at 3; AR Binder 2, Tab 10, KPMG Final Cost Proposal Revision, at 9-11, 16. Additionally, KPMG provided resumes for all of its proposed personnel. Ralph Waldo Writings! AR Binder 2, Tab 9, KPMG Final Technical Approach Proposal Revision, at products uk 5-6 app.
A, at studer pillars A-1 to A-39; KPMG Final Management Proposal Revision, at products uk 4-5. In contrast, Deloitte responded in its FPR that #147;it is emerson writings, very difficult to provide resumes of specific individuals that we plan to transition into the contract.#148; Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Technical Proposal Revision Cover Letter, at 1. Instead, Deloitte stated that it was #147;provid[ing] a representative resume for best aldi products each labor category,#148; explaining that the resumes were submitted to reflect #147;the types of skills and example experience that we envision delivering in the out years.#148; Id. at 1-2. Deloitte#146;s final cost proposal revision included a complex explanation for best aldi uk its labor costs. Of Power Example! The proposal stated that the firm followed two practices for uk its proposed direct costs. First, for the [ deleted ] key personnel, Deloitte#146;s proposed costs were [ deleted ]. In contrast, for death have the non-key personnel, Deloitte used #147;blended#148; rates, which were calculated as [ deleted ]. Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Cost Proposal Revision, at best VII-66 to VII-70. Deloitte explained that its blended rates were determined by dividing the range of direct labor rates for not so movies each labor category into best aldi uk, [ deleted ] (consistent with the writings forward pricing rate recommendation  applicable to aldi products uk, the company), and then selecting a [ deleted ]. Id. at VII-70. Deloitte also stated that due to writings, the RFP#146;s security clearance requirement, #147;the salaries necessary to attract such personnel are on products, the higher side of the salary ranges in the survey.#148; However, contrary to that assertion, for [ deleted ] of the and the Asian [ deleted ] blended rates, Deloitte used only rates in products the [ deleted ].  Id.
These blended rates were then used by Deloitte to calculate its proposed costs for each year of Elephants and the Asian Elephants Essay contract performance. Uk! Supp. Death Have No Dominion! AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Cost Proposal Revision, at VII-8 through VII-43. Deloitte also provided cost information for its subcontractors, consisting of hourly labor rates. Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Technical Proposal Revision Cover Letter, at 1; Supp.
AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Cost Proposal, at VII-176 to best aldi products, VII-187k. Evaluation of Final Proposal Revisions. The CIA evaluated the great win without fighting essay FPRs and concluded that both of the final proposals eliminated the weaknesses the agency identified during discussions. While the evaluators made no changes to KPMG#146;s ratings, they ultimately identified several strengths in aldi uk the proposal. Specifically, the evaluators assigned two minor strengths to KPMG#146;s final proposal revision under the movies personnel qualifications subfactor: (1) that personnel proposed for the financial support personnel and the functional support specialist positions exceeded the minimum qualifications in all areas, and best uk (2) that the program manager exceeded all minimum requirements.
The evaluators also identified a minor strength for KPMG under the technical capability subfactor for proposing a useful plan for a [ deleted ]. Under the The African and the Asian Elephants management factor, the best aldi uk evaluators identified as a significant strength KPMG#146;s comprehensive plan [ deleted ], and as a minor strength, KPMG#146;s plan for [ deleted ]. Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 8, Final Technical Management Evaluation Report, at 6-7. The evaluators also identified several strengths in waldo emerson Deloitte#146;s final proposal revision. Under the personnel qualifications subfactor, the evaluators assessed two major strengths for Deloitte: (1) for the qualifications of the proposed program manager and uk senior technician, because the great nations fighting essay strength of their resumes gave the evaluators confidence in the offeror#146;s ability to best, successfully achieve [ deleted ]; and (2) that all of the great nations win without fighting essay personnel proposed for the financial support personnel and functional support specialist positions exceeded the minimum experience requirements, including [ deleted ]. Aldi Products! Id. at 4. The evaluators identified no strengths for Deloitte under the technical approach subfactor, while under the management factor, the evaluators identified one major strength and one minor strength. The major strength was assessed because Deloitte#146;s management approach had been used to obtain [ deleted ], and studer pillars the firm had [ deleted ]. The minor strength was that the firm had a solid approach to [ deleted ]. Aldi Uk! Id. at 5. A cost evaluation team (CET) was assigned to assess the realism of the offerors#146; proposed costs.
The cost evaluators concluded that a most probable cost could not be determined for either firm, stating as follows: A most probable cost estimate was not done for ralph waldo writings either company. Best Aldi Products Uk! KPMG, LLP proposed . . The African Elephants Asian Essay! . all fourteen personnel throughout the life of the aldi products contract making their proposal evaluation fairly straightforward. Deloitte#146;s pricing decreases in the option years due to death no dominion, their strategy of providing higher priced, higher qualified personnel in the early years of the effort . . Best Uk! . and then replacing them with less expensive, but still qualified personnel in the later years. Deloitte does not provide an exact date when this will occur, but states that it will take place when #147;experience and innovation#148; allow them to transition personnel.
When the technical evaluation team . Great Fighting! . . Best Aldi Products! reviewed the representative resumes for proposed personnel who may be used in and the Elephants the out years, it gave them a high degree of uk confidence that their qualifications still exceeded the minimum asked for in the SOW. Upon further review, this posed no issue when evaluating their proposal. AR Tab 16, CET Final Report, at 4. The CET report then made identical brief statements that each offeror#146;s proposed costs were realistic because they were consistent with the firm#146;s technical proposal, and were #147;consistent with the Government Cost Estimate.#148;  Id. at 5 (KPMG) 7 (Deloitte). An auditor#146;s notes, which were attached to the cost evaluation report, contained specific concerns regarding Deloitte#146;s final cost proposal revision. Shall Have! Among these was the concern that Deloitte failed to provide cost or pricing data for the firm#146;s subcontractors, as required by both RFP ¶ L.7.3 and the agency#146;s discussion questions. Id. at 10. Uk!  The auditor#146;s notes also observed that, although Deloitte#146;s pricing decreased in the option years by transitioning personnel to lower-cost replacement staff, Deloitte does not provide an example exact date when this will occur, but states that it will take place when #145;experience and innovation#146; allow them to transition personnel. As such the decrease in pricing is not assured as it is best aldi uk, based on an intangible occurrence. The auditor concluded that there was #147;[n]o reasoning to shall have, compute a [most probable cost]#148; and therefore the uk most probable cost was each offeror#146;s #147;actual costs.#148; Id.
The auditor further observed that a comparison of the offerors#146; labor rates to publicly available data was #147;problematic#148; because available data was dated, and scary was not based on a survey of rates for best aldi products personnel with security clearances. Finally, the Elephants auditor suggested that a comparison of rates between the two offerors would be more relevant, but observed that there were significant rate differences between the aldi two proposals which were #147;attributable largely to balance of power example, Deloitte#146;s proposal strategy.#148; In conclusion, the auditor simply noted that the total proposed costs for both firms were lower than the government estimate.  Id. at 10. The source selection decision listed the best uk final evaluation results as follows: 1. Personnel Quals./Skills. 2. Technical Capability. AR Binder 1, Tab 18, Source Selection Decision, at 2-3.
Source Selection Decision. In reviewing the evaluation results, the win without essay source selection authority noted the excellence of KPMG#146;s staffing at the program manager position, and the capabilities of Deloitte#146;s senior technician and aldi products the staff proposed for its financial support personnel positions. Id. at have 3. The selection authority then repeated the CET evaluation of best uk Deloitte#146;s costs, noting that the firm had proposed to replace the original staff with less experienced, less expensive personnel, and that Deloitte had described this transition as dependent on the firm#146;s #147;experience and innovation.#148; Despite this observation, the selection authority reiterated the CET#146;s view that this presented #147;no issue#148; for evaluation. Id. at studer pillars 4. The selection decision then addressed which firm#146;s proposal offered the best value. The selection authority observed that Deloitte had received slightly higher evaluation ratings than KPMG; he also stated that while KPMG had #147;several strengths [for particular labor categories] and a slightly better Technical Approach,#148; Deloitte#146;s proposal had more important strengths, #147;particularly . . . in best aldi uk the most heavily-weighted Personnel Qualifications and Skills [sub]factor,#148; that would be #147;more beneficial to the program.#148; Id. While noting that the not so scary movies cost factor was less important, the selection authority concluded that Deloitte#146;s proposal offered a significant cost savings compared to KPMG#146;s proposal. Id. at 5. Aldi Products Uk! Based on those conclusions, the selection authority chose Deloitte for award. Not So Movies! Id. This protest followed. While KPMG raises various allegations, our decision focuses on two, which we conclude have merit and aldi uk were prejudicial to KPMG.
First, the CIA misled KPMG during discussions by informing it that the ralph emerson writings firm should provide resumes for all personnel for the lifespan of the best aldi products uk contract, yet subsequently declined to hold Deloitte to the same standard. As discussed below, this difference in approach required KPMG to base its costs on specific highly-trained personnel who had obtained security clearances, while Deloitte was permitted to estimate lower costs after the base period for personnel not yet identified--but presumed to be less costly than the personnel Deloitte would use for the base period. Second, the CIA conducted a cursory and inadequate cost realism analysis, failed to assess whether either offeror#146;s cost approach corresponded to its technical approach, and failed to reasonably assess a most probable cost for either offeror. Ralph Emerson!  KPMG first notes that, consistent with the RFP requirement that offerors #147;must include a professional resume#148; for all proposed personnel, RFP at best products uk L-5, the CIA instructed KPMG during discussions that it must propose 14 FTEs in each contract year, and that #147;[r]esumes should be provided for all personnel proposed to perform over the lifespan of the contract.#148; AR Binder 1, Tab 12, Discussions Letter from CIA to KPMG, at 1. As quoted above, KPMG notes that the balance CIA#146;s discussions with Deloitte provided essentially the same instruction (#147;Deloitte should either submit resumes for the less experienced personnel forecasted, or revise the cost proposal to reflect the labor categories for best the resumes provided . . .#148;). Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 6, Discussions Letter from waldo writings, CIA to Deloitte, Jan. 13, 2012, at 1. Best! Yet, the agency thereafter found Deloitte#146;s submission of a single #147;representative resume#148; for each of the three labor categories to great nations win without fighting, be acceptable. Best Aldi! On this record, KPMG argues that it was misled by the agency during discussions and/or subsequently treated unequally, because although KPMG complied with the agency#146;s direction, Deloitte did not--and, indeed, Deloitte#146;s noncompliance formed the basis for effectively lowering its evaluated costs. The CIA responds that the RFP did not require resumes for death employees that were proposed to perform beyond the initial performance period, that the agency#146;s discussions question to KPMG did not reflect a mandatory requirement, and products that KPMG bears the responsibility for its voluntary decision to studer pillars, submit resumes of existing employees for the full term of the contract.
CIA Response to Third Supplemental Protest, at 4-6. The CIA further asserts that, even if the best products uk RFP, or the agency#146;s discussions, required KPMG#146;s submission of additional resumes, the agency could waive the requirement, and if it has done so here, the agency#146;s actions did not prejudice KPMG. We disagree. In negotiated procurements, whenever discussions are conducted by an agency, they are required to be meaningful, equitable, and not misleading. Metro Mach. Nations! Corp. , B-295744, B-295744.2, Apr. 21, 2005, 2005 CPD ¶ 112 at 19.
In conducting discussions with offerors, agency personnel also may not engage in conduct that favors one offeror over another. FAR § 15.306(e)(1). Thus, agencies may not engage in what amounts to aldi products uk, disparate treatment of the competing offerors. The African Asian! Front Line Apparel Group , B-295989, June 1, 2005, 2005 CPD ¶ 116 at 3-4. Where the manner in which an agency communicates with an offeror during discussions misleads an offeror into responding in a way that does not address the agency#146;s concerns, the discussions are inadequate. Metro Mach. Corp. Best Aldi Uk! , B-281872 et al. , Apr. 22, 1999, 99-1 CPD ¶ 101 at 6-7. Thus, for example, where an agency advises an offeror in waldo discussions to revise its proposal in a way that does not reflect the agency#146;s evaluation, the best products uk discussions are misleading. SeKON Enter., Inc.; Signature Consulting Group , B-405921, B-405921.2, Jan.
17, 2012, 2012 CPD ¶ 26 at of power 7 (protest sustained where agency discussions advising protester to aldi uk, increase staffing level were not based on initial evaluation, and agency gave no consideration to win without fighting, increased staffing level in best aldi products evaluation of revised proposal). Here, as discussed above, the agency clearly advised KPMG that it #147;should#148; provide personnel resumes #147;for all personnel proposed to perform over the lifespan of the contract.#148; In the context of the CIA#146;s current position that the RFP did not require submission of resumes for personnel that were proposed to perform beyond the initial performance period, the agency#146;s discussions with KPMG were clearly misleading.  Further, in cases such as this, we need not establish with certainty what the of power example protester#146;s approach would have been if the discussions had been meaningful; rather, a protester#146;s reasonable assertion of best products uk a claim that it could have improved its competitive position is sufficient to ralph waldo writings, demonstrate prejudice. Hughes STX Corp. Uk! , B-278466, Feb. 2, 1998, 98-1 CPD ¶ 52 at 11. In this regard, KPMG has reasonably maintained that the Elephants Essay agency#146;s misleading discussions precluded the firm from proposing its own cost-saving approach. See Second Supp. Protest (Mar. 26, 2012) at 20-22; Third Supp.
Protest (Apr. 16, 2012) at best aldi 24, 31. We find this sufficient to establish prejudice. Accordingly, we sustain the protest on this basis. Inadequate Cost Realism Analysis. KPMG also argues that the CIA failed to studer pillars, conduct a reasonable cost realism analysis as required by the RFP and, instead, accepted the offerors#146; proposed costs without any meaningful analysis. Protest at 38; First Supplemental (Supp.) Protest at best aldi 5-8.
Upon reviewing Deloitte#146;s proposal under the terms of our Office#146;s protective order, KPMG argued that the evaluators apparently failed to recognize several anomalies in Deloitte#146;s cost proposal. For example, KPMG contends that Deloitte#146;s cost proposal was based on less-well-qualified replacement personnel beginning at the first option year, in February 2013; that Deloitte#146;s cost proposal used labor costs for nations fighting essay a subcontractor that were not based on the rate in the subcontractor#146;s accompanying cost proposal; and that Deloitte#146;s own labor costs were not based on specific personnel, but instead reflected [ deleted ] rates for personnel--apparently without security clearances. Second Supp. Protest at 16, 38-51; Third Supp. Uk! Protest at 23-26 46-53; Protester#146;s Final Comments, at 5-15. KPMG further notes that, to the extent the CIA evaluators performed any cost realism analysis on Deloitte#146;s proposal, they expressed the not so movies view that Deloitte#146;s cost savings were #147;not assured#148; and #147;intangible.#148; Under these circumstances, KPMG argues that Deloitte#146;s proposed cost could not provide a reasonable basis for the source selection decision here. Second Supp. Protest at 38-42. We agree.
When an agency evaluates proposals for the award of a cost-reimbursement contract, an offeror#146;s proposed costs are not controlling since such costs may not accurately reflect the actual costs the government will incur. FAR § 15.404-1(d). While, in conducting an adequate cost analysis, an aldi uk agency is not required to verify each and every variable, it must reasonably consider the extent to which the costs reflected in the offeror#146;s technical approach reflect what the contract should cost, assuming reasonable economy and efficiency. ATLIS Fed. Servs., Inc. , B-275065.2, B-275065.3, Feb.
12, 1997, 97-1 CPD ¶ 84 at 8, 10. In this regard, we will review an agency#146;s judgment to see that the agency#146;s cost realism evaluation was reasonable, not arbitrary, and adequately documented. Honeywell Tech. Solutions, Inc. , B-400771, B-400771.2, Jan. 27, 2009, 2009 CPD ¶ 49 at 17; Jacobs COGEMA, LLC , B-290125.2, B-290125.3, Dec. 18, 2002, 2003 CPD ¶ 16 at 26.
Thus, we will sustain a protest where the cost realism analysis was not adequately documented. E.g. , National City Bank , B-287608.3, Aug. 7, 2002, 2002 CPD ¶ 190 at 12-13 (record lacked documentation that technical evaluation board had considered whether awardee#146;s proposed staffing reductions realistically conformed to its technical approach). Here, the CIA asserts that it only needed to consider the realism of the offerors#146; rates, and that it did so. The CIA further maintains that the studer pillars evaluators#146; statement that Deloitte#146;s lower costs were #147;not assured#148; and #147;intangible#148; did not mean that they were unrealistic.
Supp. AR (Apr. 5, 2012) at 12-15. The CIA also argues that Deloitte#146;s proposed blended direct labor cost rates were permitted by the RFP and aldi products were, therefore, realistic. The African And The Elephants! Second Supp. AR (Apr. 24, 2012) at 17-20. Finally, in response to best products uk, KPMG#146;s challenge that the cost evaluation failed to detect that Deloitte had used lower rates for a subcontractor than the shall subcontractor itself proposed, the CIA argues that the error is insignificant. Id. at 20-21. In our view, the record here reflects no meaningful agency consideration of when--or if--Deloitte#146;s proposal to best aldi products uk, #147;transition#148; to less experienced personnel, and the cost reductions associated with that approach, would actually occur.
To the Elephants contrary, the agency expressly acknowledged that this critical event is #147;not assured#148; and #147;intangible#148; and, because of best aldi products that, #147;a most probable cost estimate was not done.#148; AR, Tab 16, CET Final Report, at of power example 4. Aldi Products! Not only did the agency bypass this issue, but the record indicates that the technical evaluators merely concluded that Deloitte#146;s staffing approach #147;posed no issue,#148; and that the balance of power example cost evaluators #147;took no exception#148; to either offeror#146;s direct, indirect, overhead, and general and administrative costs. AR Binder 1, Tab 17, Source Selection Evaluation Board Report, at 3; AR Binder 1, Tab 18, Source Selection Decision, at 4. In short, the agency failed to provide any reasonable basis for estimating the probable costs it will incur under the contract it awarded--a prerequisite to best aldi uk, the award of ralph emerson writings every cost-reimbursement contract by products uk the federal government. See Advanced Research Projects Agency--Recon. , B-259479.3, July 18, 1995, 95-2 CPD ¶ 26 at 4; see also FAR § 15.404-1(d)(2). In light of the clear impact on projected costs of Deloitte#146;s approach to performing this contract, as well as the agency#146;s misleading discussions with KPMG regarding its staffing approach, we find the agency#146;s documentation purporting to studer pillars, support its cost evaluation to be inadequate. Accordingly, we sustain the protest on this basis.
We recommend that the CIA reopen the record; perform a reasonable cost realism analysis regarding the existing proposals; and hold meaningful discussions with both offerors. During discussions, the agency should identify any concerns about the realism of the proposed costs, and clarify whether resumes are required for all personnel over the life of the contract. Products Uk! (We think that clarifying the agency#146;s position on resumes is particularly important since the agency indicated to KPMG during discussions that resumes were required, waived the requirement for Deloitte, and argued here that resumes were not required.) Following the conclusion of discussions, the CIA should request a new round of final proposals, evaluate them (including assessing cost realism), and make a new source selection decision. If KPMG is of power example, selected for best aldi uk award, we recommend that the contract awarded to Deloitte be terminated. Finally, we recommend that the CIA reimburse KPMG#146;s costs of filing and pursuing its protest. Death! 4 C.F.R. Aldi Products Uk! § 21.8(d)(1). KPMG#146;s certified claim for costs, detailing the ralph writings time expended and costs incurred, must be submitted to the CIA within 60 days after this decision. 4 C.F.R. § 21.8(f)(1).
The protest is sustained.  See generally Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) §§ 16.306(d)(2), (4).  The base contract period was to best products uk, run from great fighting, February 1, 2012, to January 31, 2013, and similarly for each of the four option years. RFP at 9.  Both sections L and aldi M of the RFP were page numbered separately. To avoid ambiguity, our citations to pages in those sections will be #147;L-[page number]#148; (as above) or #147;M-[page number],#148; respectively.  Specifically, KPMG#146;s proposal provided resumes for [ deleted ], whose efforts provided a total of studer pillars 14 FTEs during [ deleted ]. Best Aldi! See Agency Report (AR) Binder 2, Tab 3, KPMG Initial Technical Proposal, appx. A, at A-1 to Elephants, A-33.  A forward pricing rate recommendation is best products uk, defined as #147;a rate set unilaterally by the administrative contracting officer for use by the Government in ralph waldo emerson negotiations or other contract actions when forward pricing rate agreement negotiations have not been completed or when the aldi uk contractor will not agree to a forward pricing rate agreement.#148; FAR § 2.101.  Specifically, [ deleted ] was factored into only one labor category, while the studer pillars [ deleted ] was not used in any of the best aldi labor categories. The African Elephants Asian Elephants Essay! Id.
 The government estimate comparison in the record compares each offeror#146;s total annual proposed cost to a single total annual government estimate for each year. Aldi Uk! Id. at 9. The record contains no more detailed government estimate.  Since the studer pillars attached auditor#146;s notes are not numbered, we have continued the aldi numbering from the cost evaluation report, in order to not so scary movies, cite to aldi products uk, the notes.  As noted above the government estimate in the record consists of annual amounts. It appears this statement refers to the total 5-year cost estimate.  We do not address several of KPMG#146;s arguments because correcting the errors identified above will require the balance of power CIA to conduct meaningful discussions, obtain revised proposals, evaluate the revised proposals, and uk perform an appropriate cost realism analysis. During the course of studer pillars this protest, the CIA and Deloitte sought dismissal of aldi certain issues. After considering the parties#146; arguments, we informed the emerson writings parties that two of KPMG#146;s assertions would be dismissed as follows: (1) the assertion that the best products agency improperly required KPMG to propose 14 FTEs during each year of waldo contract performance is best aldi uk, dismissed as an untimely challenge to the terms of the RFP; and, (2) KPMG#146;s challenges to the agency#146;s ratings assigned to Deloitte#146;s proposal under the two technical subfactors (which KPMG argued were inherently inconsistent) are dismissed as speculative and lacking a sufficient factual basis. 4 C.F.R. §§ 21.2(a)(1), (f) (2012).  The CIA#146;s assertion, that its use of the word #147;should#148; did not convey a mandatory requirement, is Elephants and the Elephants Essay, wholly unpersuasive. In the aldi context of the discussions at issue, a reasonable offeror would understand that the agency#146;s discussions established a duty; that is, if KPMG wished to be considered compliant with the RFP, it was required to submit resumes for all proposed personnel for all 5 years of contract performance.
As we have noted previously, terms like #147;may#148; and #147;should#148; are capable of expressing a mandate. USIA Underwater Equip. Sales Corp. Not So Movies! , B-292827.2, Jan. 30, 2004, 2004 CPD ¶ 32 at best aldi products uk 4 (solicitation statement that offered item #147;should#148; meet particular standards was a statement of nations win without essay a mandatory term, thus protester#146;s proposal was properly rejected as unacceptable). We deny the protest. We grant the request. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protests as untimely.
We deny the request for reconsideration. We sustain the best products protest in part and deny the protest in part. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protest. We dismiss the protests. Looking for more? Browse all our products here.
GAO's Office of General Counsel issues legal decisions, opinions, and reports on bid protests, appropriations law, and other issues of federal law.
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Aboriginal Art Culture: an American eye. Philp Gudthaykudthay, Miny#8217;tji, c. 1993. Several weeks ago I wrote about a panel discussion at the Toledo Museum of Art in which the topic of restricted knowledge in Aboriginal paintingwhat Stephen Gilchrist referred to as #8220;registers of knowledge#8221;created a degree of consternation among some members of the audience. A couple of people were irritated or offended at the notion that there were levels of meaning in Aboriginal art that were inaccessible to #8220;outsiders.#8221; The discussion has been pricking at me ever since. In part this is uk because the intent of the panel and of the exhibition was to Asian Elephants Essay, increase the appreciation of Aboriginal art and culture for the members of the audience, to convey the sense of its value , and to impart an understanding of its values . It may be too strong a statement to say that the exchanges around this topic of restricted knowledge had the opposite effect of creating hostility to those values, but nonetheless I felt that we on the panel had somehow failed our mission. And so I#8217;ve been wondering how I might have handled the exchange differently, and what I might do to correct the misapprehensions. My assertion that I, too, had once set myself the goal of penetrating that secrecy through study and sympathy seemed to miss the mark, as did my statement that coming to terms with the value system that restricted knowledge was in itself part of the process of coming to best aldi products, appreciate the art.
I have made my peace with being given only public, or outside, knowledge. But I understood that for others, that peace might seem like a failure in scary, itself. I also mentioned in another recent post that I#8217;ve been dipping into Ian McLean#8217;s How Aborigines Invented the Idea of Contemporary Art: writings on Aboriginal contemporary art (Institute of Modern Art/Power Publications, 2011). Products Uk? This is balance example a book that had been sitting on the shelf for a long time; I put off starting it after a quick browse revealed that it consists mostly of short excerpts from writings about aldi products uk Aboriginal art from many different publications over a span of decades. I am not by The African and the Elephants nature a lover of anthologies, and so I decided that this particular volume wasn#8217;t high on aldi products uk, my reading list. But recently I#8217;ve been taking advantage of the odd moment here and there when I don#8217;t have the studer pillars, time to sit down to sustained reading to absorb the best aldi products, snippets McLean has gathered together, and I#8217;m finding it a most rewarding experience, both for not so, pointing me to articles and books I hadn#8217;t encountered before and for reminding me of what I#8217;ve learned from those that I have already read. Last week, in one of best, those brief encounters, I came upon win without, a selection from Howard Morphy#8217;s Ancestral Connections: art and an Aboriginal system of best products, knowledge (University of Chicago Press, 1991) that McLean had headlined #8220;The mask of secrecy: inside and outside, knowledge and power.#8221; It was doubly apposite in that it bore directly on the topic that has been biting at my conscience and because all three of us on the panel had so often referred to Morphy#8217;s work in our remarks that it became a source of not so movies, amusement to us. It seemed that no matter what point we were trying to make, a quotation from Morphy helped us make it better. The two and a half pages of Morphy#8217;s text McLean chose to include in his anthology bear directly on the problem of aldi products uk, revealing #8220;inside#8221; or restricted knowledge, both in Yolngu and balanda (outsider) contexts. I hope that a brief discussion of some of studer pillars, those points will help to add some nuance to the discussion of aldi uk, what is too often tossed off as the #8220;secret/sacred#8221; nature of death shall no dominion, Indigenous knowledge. Let me begin by quoting from Morphy, who notes that there are #8220;reasons why too much stress should not be placed on the significance of secrecy to the system as a whole.#8221; Yolngu knowledge is cumulative, and in many respects the layering of knowledge can be thought of as a pedagogical technique, though it is aldi products one that emphasizes the writings, variability in best aldi uk, understanding that exists at a given moment among different members of the society.
The layering is as important as the secrecy, and secret and balance of power nonsecret knowledge are organized in an analogous way so that all members of society have the possibility to products, progressively acquire knowledge and understanding. #8230; #8216;Inside#8217; ( djinawa ) and emerson #8216;outside#8217; ( warrangul ) can be used to refer to a continuum of more restricted to best aldi products, less restricted knowledge#8230;. (Morphy, pp. 77-78) Thinking about the problem in terms of this continuum, or of Morphy#8217;s concept of #8220;layering,#8221; more accurately describes the phenomenon that the death shall have, dichotomous #8220;secret/sacred#8221; formulation, which implies that the aldi products uk, sacred and scary movies profane are mutually exclusive arenas whose firm boundary is never penetrated. The progressive acquisition of knowledge ought not to aldi products uk, be unfamiliar to those of us in Western societies, nor should the death shall no dominion, idea that such progressive learning be subject to controls. This is what we generally call education, and that we implicitly recognize as a layered process when we speak of #8220;higher education.#8221; In another sense, we are also familiar with the products uk, concept of certification, one which requires rigorous training and the passing of qualifying examinations in order to achieve a certain prestige, or the license to engage in certain activities. I can build a shed in my back yard without too much external oversight, but I may be required to obtain a building permit if the project is above a certain size. I would most likely not be allowed to design and balance construct a house, and certainly not a skyscraper, without being subjected to a prolonged period of initiation and testing. That is surely analogous to the acquisition of knowledge among Yolngu. Products? And if Yolngu require such rigorous education in order to paint, where we require it to become an The African Elephants Asian architect, that says more about the relative values we place on those endeavors than about the aldi uk, systems which insure that appropriate knowledge is acquired and respected. I should note that my analogy is imperfect. I may be building a shed, and Frank Gehry a museum, and those are quite different activities. For Yolngu, knowledge is acquired and enacted in the context of ceremony, which I would broadly define to include painting.
Morphy points out that among Yolngu, #8220;the same overall ceremony includes within its structure more or less restricted contexts which people can be denied entry to or admitted to, Individuals, as they go through the ralph writings, ceremony again and again, are gradually admitted to more aspects of it, until finally (for men) the barriers are removed and the gain freedom of movement#8221; (p. 94). But what of the commonly held belief that there is some point beyond which no balanda can progress? This is, after all, at the heart of the disgruntlement I heard voiced in Toledo. If I want to best products uk, become an architect and not so scary build skyscrapers, there is nothing (theoretically) to stop me. Aldi Uk? Here again Morphy offers the critical insight. The delicate and complex relationship between inside and outside provides the win without, context for understanding the release of knowledge to Balanda. The release of knowledge to them involves their incorporation within the best aldi products, Yolngu system of knowledge #8230; In order that Balanda should value the inside, they too have to experience it through its release, and their inclusion.
I have shown elsewhere that an explicit reason for releasing knowledge to Balanda has been to get them to acknowledge the value of Yolngu culture, to make them understand and consequently to recognize Yolngu rights. In such a case, Balanda first have to be persuaded that the knowledge is of value . This process of getting Balanda to accept the value of Yolngu knowledge has involved both the studer pillars, release of knowledge on a broad basis to best aldi products uk, Balanda through the sale of paintings in the crafts store and the opening out of nations, ceremonies to a wider public, and the selective release of inside knowledge to people such as missionaries, teachers, anthropologists, lawyers, and politicians. Aldi Products? Such releases of knowledge can be easily understood as an extension of Indigenous practice in a new context (Morphy, p.98, my emphasis). I am tempted to ralph waldo, say that knowing that there are restricted, potentially unknowable levels of meaning in an Aboriginal artwork should not be viewed as an invitation to prise open the aldi products, lid on this box of secrets; but rather it offers a moment to stand back and ponder why such knowledge exists and is deemed worthy of control. In discussing the domain of #8220;inside#8221; knowledge (which can necessarily only exist if there is outside knowledge, since the shall no dominion, terms are defined relative to one another), it is important to admit of the possibility, given appropriate understanding of the system as a whole, that one may be admitted where previously a seal of exclusion was in place.
Morphy was writing nearly twenty-five years ago, as his reference to the sale of bark paintings in the #8220;craft store#8221; hints. Much has changed since then, including an uk enormous growth in the visibility of Aboriginal art worldwide, and the appetite for it. Bark painting for balanda in 1991 was still primarily focused on death shall, very public presentations of stories and concepts, and that is no longer the case. Indeed, some of the paintings included in the Crossing Cultures exhibition were created in the effort by Yolngu artists to best products, negotiate and redefine the waldo, boundaries between what was traditionally considered inside knowledge and what might now, as the possibility of more fully appreciating the value of Yolngu knowledge is realized, be considered outside knowledge. What once were secrets may no longer be so. However, the inclusion of best aldi uk, Balanda has not left the systems unaffected: both quantitative and qualitative changes have occurred. #8230; The overall body of public knowledge is increasing. More significantly, however, the relations within which secrecy were embedded are changing: the nations win without fighting essay, inclusion of Balanda in the Yolngu world has changed, or is in best aldi uk, the process of changing many of the internal relations within Yolngu society, and the system of knowledge is beginning to win without fighting essay, articulate with those new structures of relations. Increasingly there has been a substantive opening out as women in particular gain access to certain contexts from which they were previously excluded. Although change appears to leave the inside : outside continuum intact, the point where exclusion enters into the system and the value of exclusion do, however, change (Morphy, p. 99). There is best aldi products uk a clear message here: Yolngu society (and by extension Aboriginal culture more broadly) is and always has been dynamic, adapting itself to its environments, physical and cultural.
Yolngu negotiate many things with balanda and want balanda to be similarly open to negotiation and studer pillars exchange. What they insist upon, and which has not changed, is the recognition that their culture has value to offer others, just as they have been quick to absorb what they perceive as advantageous from outsiders, be they seventeenth-century Macassans or twenty-first century balanda. Best Aldi Products Uk? In short, knowledge must be respected before it can be attained. That#8217;s not such an alien concept after all. Great post, Will! Your reflection on Morphy, and his notion of a knowledge/value equation reminds me of Foucault#8217;s knowledge/power formulation. In a (balanda) culture in which knowledge is a form of power, perhaps the response of being irritated by the fact that one can never gain access to and thus #8216;mastery#8217; of Yolngu knowledge is gut reaction to death have no dominion, being confronted with the (externally imposed) limitations of a modern Western worldview that purports neither limits nor externalities.
Put differently, the testy audience response wasn#8217;t due to best products uk, any failure on ralph waldo emerson writings, the part of the panelists. In fact, it might be an indicator of the panel#8217;s success in best, conveying an uncomfortable truth!
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cause of ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Best Aldi Uk! Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. Death Shall Have! And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and uk Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of nations win without fighting America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in best products, the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on The African Elephants Asian Elephants Essay, Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on aldi, 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of of power example France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on aldi products, Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to ralph waldo writings allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in best aldi uk, the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the scary movies, governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of aldi products uk imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of shall have war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.
The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Aldi! The states who embarked on death shall, the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Aldi Products Uk! This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for great nations win without the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the best products, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.
This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of movies their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Best Products! Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914.
Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and studer pillars Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in best aldi, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about studer pillars which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.
Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Best Aldi Uk! Britain was the balance example, world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Best Products Uk! Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the studer pillars, British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on uk, 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and and the Asian Elephants Essay the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.
Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of aldi products quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to balance of power defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. Best Aldi! The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.
The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. Not So Scary Movies! France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and aldi order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Balance! By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. Aldi Products! The German army held the strategic initiative.
It was free to retreat to Essay positions of tactical advantage and to aldi reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Not So Scary Movies! Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the aldi, second phase of the war in the west.
This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and studer pillars their British allies to products uk evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to death no dominion disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of best aldi products 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of shall have 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Aldi! These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. Win Without Fighting Essay! No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.
The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the best, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on Elephants Asian, the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in best uk, sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the movies, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the aldi, Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Essay, Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.
The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and aldi General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of nations win without essay Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and best products the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to studer pillars Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Aldi Uk! Austria had a disastrous war.
Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. Great Nations Win Without Fighting Essay! The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the aldi products uk, Russian war effort have been overshadowed by great essay the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Aldi! This has obscured the of power, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the best uk, Franco-British alliance.
Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from death shall no dominion certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in aldi, the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at studer pillars a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the best aldi uk, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at example Caporetto. Best Products! The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of shall servicemen killed of any belligerent power. Best Products Uk! In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into shall, the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the best aldi products uk, war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to ralph emerson writings knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the best aldi products, appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to example tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in best products, West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over balance of power example, 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and best under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy.
Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the not so scary movies, south Atlantic, and best uk the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the nations win without fighting essay, Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of best aldi uk American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. Balance Example! War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of best aldi uk small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and shall have promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to best products uk be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and studer pillars costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for aldi very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the win without, American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.
Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Best Aldi! These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to studer pillars defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from products uk September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in movies, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. Best Aldi Uk! His bloody attempt to not so scary movies win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to products recommend the strategy to not so scary movies his fellow countrymen.
The preference for knock-out blows remained. Best Products! It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by great nations win without fighting essay the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by best aldi knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the essay, field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and best products defeat Russia.
The Schlieffen Plan rested on studer pillars, two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and best aldi products uk that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Great Nations Win Without Fighting! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. Best Uk! The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in studer pillars, John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Best Aldi Products Uk! It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and not so scary dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.
Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from aldi products uk front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over not so scary, the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Best Aldi Products Uk! 'We cannot hope to studer pillars win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the best aldi products uk, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties.
The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Death Shall! The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Best Products Uk! The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to balance develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the best uk, Germans found it difficult to great nations win without essay turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.
By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by best aldi the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in studer pillars, the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the best aldi products, economic balance in favour of the Allies.
Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per not so movies cent of the uk, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the emerson writings, world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to best products world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to ralph waldo emerson be fully mobilized. Best! Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of ralph waldo writings material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.
French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and best aldi psychologically impossible, at death no dominion least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in aldi products, the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to no dominion 'bleed France white'.
French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and products uk one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Great Nations Win Without Essay! If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.
British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Best Aldi! Neutral opinion would be cowed. Balance Example! Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Aldi! The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Studer Pillars! Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the best products uk, Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the shall no dominion, war would be long and require the complete mobilization of best products national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the death shall have, British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.
This security was threatened as much by products Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the studer pillars, Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.
If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the best aldi products uk, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by great fighting the need to best aldi uk keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on studer pillars, Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in best, December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The African Elephants Asian Essay! The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of products planning or of co-ordination but of shall have no dominion performance.
Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the best uk, war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in balance of power example, fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. Aldi! This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in not so movies, agriculture reduced the best aldi products, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.
They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and not so kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the best aldi uk, telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.
But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Writings! The consequences of best aldi products it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by waldo emerson generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in best aldi products, the face of huge losses. As a result the not so scary movies, opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to best aldi say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Death Shall No Dominion! The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.
The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of products uk instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out The African and the Essay, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Best Aldi Uk! They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to great nations fighting hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to best aldi products uk provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and The African Essay difficult to best uk protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of balance of power example guns on aldi products, enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Balance Example! Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Best! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and of power humidity. All types and uk calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in balance example, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the aldi products, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by shall have aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to aldi products uk kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.
These were often enough, as during the first day of the great fighting essay, Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to aldi products uk inflict disastrous casualties on have no dominion, attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of aldi uk 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. The African Elephants Essay! Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.
In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only best aldi, with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in Elephants and the Elephants Essay, a steel helmet, protected by uk a respirator against death no dominion poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and best aldi uk ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the great nations win without fighting, western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. Best Aldi Products Uk! The solution was to deepen the movies, trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to aldi products uk their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Shall No Dominion! Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the best, Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on ralph waldo emerson, their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to aldi uk make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of shall no dominion resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and best aldi products uk British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by studer pillars the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.
The material solution to the problems of the uk, First World War battlefield, favoured by Elephants and the Asian Elephants Essay the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. Products Uk! This, in balance of power, turn, depended on products, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at emerson which the liberal democracies of France and best aldi products uk Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the studer pillars, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and aldi more men for the factories. Balancing the death have no dominion, competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of best products all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.
630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Studer Pillars! And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and best products uk French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories.
Research and development were given a proper place in great win without, industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only aldi products uk, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause.
Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. Balance Example! In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the best products uk, war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for nations win without the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in best uk, Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at balance of power example home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the uk, map of Europe and the Middle East.
Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the balance, Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and products uk collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of nations fighting a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at best aldi products uk its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Nations Win Without Fighting Essay! France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and best aldi uk loathing of Germany.
Italy was disappointed by studer pillars the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for best products uk Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the The African Elephants and the Essay, integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Products Uk! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Elephants And The Asian Elephants! The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the uk, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in of power, protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to products uk accept naval parity with the waldo, Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Aldi! The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.
Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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Great leaders are born and not made Essay Sample. A leader is defined as a person with the ability to influence and best, guide a group of people to accomplish a common goal. In simple words, a leader is someone who is followed by not so scary the people. There are different types of best, leaders and various leadership theories which may help to understand the The African and the Asian, characteristics of a leader and also the leadership process. Aldi Products Uk. Thus, the most basic and commonly asked question that arises is- Are leaders born or made? According to trait theories, effective leaders share a number of common characteristics or traits. Early trait theories follow a Darwinian approach and suggest that leadership and these traits are innate and instinctive that you either have or dont have. Research has now proven that certain traits can be developed within ones self.
Trait theories help us to identify the traits and qualities required to be a good leader, such as integrity, honesty, and many more. Not So Scary. However, possession of these traits or a combination of them does not always guarantee success. Behaviour theories are established on the behaviour of effective leaders in the work place. It is based on how the leaders decide what is important and not important for their team and also, on best aldi uk, how the ralph writings, leaders treat the members of their team. In the 1930s, Kurt Lewin developed a framework on the basis of behaviour theories and categorized leaders into 3 broad leadership types: 1. Best Products Uk. Autocratic leaders An autocratic leader is a leader with complete power and self-assurance to arrive at conclusions. They influence others and impose their will and no one challenges them.
This type of balance of power example, leadership acts as a hindrance for creative people, as they are unable to contribute towards the process of decision-making and thus, are unable to attain job satisfaction. 2. Democratic leaders- This leader follows a democratic form of leadership where the leader listens to and studies the teams ideas, but. holds the responsibility to take the best products, final decision. Team players can give to the final decision. Studer Pillars. This increases the people satisfaction and ownership, as the team members feel that their ideas are considered before taking the final decision.
This type of leadership also fosters the best aldi products uk, decision-making process as the leader is able to gather information from more sources. A major disadvantage of democratic leadership is that it leads to slow decision-making and hence, cannot be used when the decision is required in a short period. 3. Laissez-faire leaders The laissez-faire style of leadership is a nonauthoritarian style of great nations fighting essay, leadership. The leader does not give continuous guidelines or supervision to the team members, as it is best aldi products, believed that the writings, employees are highly qualified and aldi uk, experienced and do not need much supervision to meet the required goals. The leader tries to influence the team through less obvious means. This style of leadership is for death shall no dominion the leaders who do not believe in getting involved in the working of the team.
Thus, this leads to none or very little control over the team, which ultimately results in high costs, goals being rarely achieved and the team failing to meet the deadlines. The behaviour of the leader affects how the team performs. Researchers have proven that different leadership types are proper at different situations. Aldi. The best leaders analyze the situation and use the right leadership behaviour for the situation. Since no type of leader was deemed correct, new theories started taking shape. These theories emphasized that the best leadership style depends on the situations. Thus, the analysis of the great fighting, circumstances became essential to predict the best style of leadership. The contingency theories address the problems of choosing the right style of aldi, leadership for different situations such as, which style is required to make quick decisions, or which leadership style leads to full support of the team to achieve goals effectively, or whether the leader should lay emphasis on the people or the task. Popular contingency-based theories of leadership include The HerseyBlanchard Situational Leadership Theory, Houses Path-Goal Theory and Fiedlers Contingency Model, which link leadership style with the maturity of each members of the leaders team. Power and Influence Theories. Power and influence theories of leadership discuss the ways by which leaders get things answered, i.e., by death shall have no dominion applying power and influence and then, they look at the resulting leadership styles.
The most popular of these theories is French and Ravens Five Forms of products, Power. This model categorizes positional power into three types legitimate, reward, and coercive, and discusses two major sources of personal power expert and referent (personal appeal and studer pillars, charm). The model suggests that using personal power is the more honest alternative, and best aldi, that one should turn on building expert power (the power that comes with being an expert in the job) because it is the The African Elephants and the Asian, most logical source of best aldi, personal ability. Another leadership style that uses power and influence is transactional leadership. This approach suggests that all jobs are done for rewards and for no other reason. Thus, it emphasizes on the design of the task and death no dominion, the reward structures. Best Products Uk. However, it may not be considered as an appropriate leadership strategy to establish relationships and create a motivating work environment. But, it often works and is therefore used by leaders on a daily basis to get things done. Similarly, leading by example is also considered as an example of great fighting, power and influence theories. Leaders are Born.
When we discuss the Trait theory of leadership, we identify certain traits or characteristics required to best aldi uk be an efficient leader. These traits or characteristics may be innate and by not so birth. It may be hard for best aldi products uk organizations to studer pillars find the right people with the best aldi, right characteristics to lead. This idea is based on the Darwinian approach, which suggests that some personnel have instinctive qualities, which help them to survive and assume roles as leaders. This approach rules out the ideology that people can be developed to great fighting be effective leaders. If we consider the behaviour of best uk, a leader, it is composed of a combination of different traits. The African Elephants. Since the traits of a leader may be innate, thus, the resultant behavior may form the leadership style followed by the leader.
Recently, a genotype called rs4950 was discovered by the team of aldi products uk, University College London which proved that leadership could be an inherited trait. We have identified a genotype, called rs4950, which appears to waldo emerson writings be associated with the passing of leadership ability down through generations, said lead author Dr. Jan-Emmanuel De Neve (UCL School of uk, Public Policy). The conventional wisdom that leadership is a skill remains largely true, but we show it is no dominion, also, in best aldi, part, a genetic trait. Over the years, great man theories have defined that the mental ability for leadership is inherent, that great leaders are born, not made. Emerson. These theories have portrayed leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when required. The belief was that the great leaders will rise when confronted with the appropriate situation. The term great man was used in earlier times as leadership was thought of as a manly tone, particularly in terms of military leaders. In earlier times, leadership was on the basis of hierarchy. Kings would pass on their rule to their heirs and hence, the aldi products, heir of the king would become a leader by birth.
An example of a leader who inherited leadership would be Genghis Khan. Balance. He became an emperor by inheriting his fathers throne and led his country. Thus, leadership as a trait can be passed through generations, but it may be a matter of chance to best aldi products uk inherit leadership and also an environment that structures a leader. Therefore, everyone acquires certain leadership qualities by scary movies birth. Those qualities may not be prominent in a majority of the uk, people, but all human beings do possess leadership qualities by birth.
Leaders are made. Even if the traits are innate, their development depends on the surroundings, the balance, environment and the leadership opportunities. The researches responsible for the discovery of rs4950 genotype state that the presence of the genotype does not always guarantee that the person will be a good leader. Products. It is thus possible that leadership qualities may develop in a person. Contingency theories have proven that the best leadership style depends on the situation. The ability to choose the right leadership style comes from experience, and that experience comes from maturity and knowledge. Similarly, if we study power and influence theories, one comes to know that it takes time and effort to establish a certain amount of power and. influence over someone else. The very existence of Business Schools is proof that leadership does not come by birth, but is a skill that is death shall have, nurtured in students, by teaching them about the various management and leadership concepts. There are many examples of people who became leaders when they had to address a certain situation. Common examples being Napoleon Bonaparte, Barack Obama, and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
There are also many researchers working on this topic. According to them, leadership qualities and development of these qualities essentially comes from the environment and the situations in which the person grows and best aldi products uk, learns. We have discussed that all people possess some leadership characteristics by birth, but it is our interaction with the environment that determines whether the person will be a leader or not. We are in scary, perpetual interaction with others, we may attach real and sustained admiration to some and others where admiration is punctual. From these interactions we may restructure our values and behaviour positively, leading to an increase in the frequency of the products uk, behaviour or negatively, which will result in shall, a decrease in the frequency of the behavior. We meet different people with different values, thought process, personalities, opinions, beliefs, goals, cultural backgrounds, ambitions, work habits and products, dreams and as we interact with others we adopt and not so scary movies, share different behaviour traits from them. We discuss in the trait theory that a person may or may not possess leadership skills from birth but, merely the possession of leadership traits is not enough. For example, if in a family business, the member possesses leadership skills but is not willing to lead employee or to develop his/her skills, then the leadership traits prove to be of no use. Thus, possession of leadership traits becomes useless if one does not have the will or courage to develop and apply these skills in products uk, the given environment. Similarly, there may be cases where a person from a non-leadership trait family may become a leader by developing the writings, required leadership skills. Therefore, will power of best aldi products, a person may develop leadership skills.
Conclusion. Understanding the nature of leadership and and the Elephants Essay, developing strong leadership skills is the important thing. Traits or characteristics of leadership are inherited in nature, which are already mapped in the gene. However, the environment, such as feedback and social interaction, play an important role in the development of a leadership skill, which can have a huge impact. A person who is a good leader possesses the right combination of traits, which have been developed through time, and applies them with an appropriate style of best uk, leadership in every different situation. It is very difficult to emerson decide if a leader is born or made as both of the best, statements can be proved right. The discovery of the leadership genotype does prove that leaders are born but, it is also true that leadership skills can be developed in a person. If we analyze the The African and the Asian Elephants Essay, leadership theories, it is not clear if a leader is best products uk, born or made because, the first two theories i.e., the trait theory and the behavior theory suggest that leaders are born whereas the second and of power, the third theories i.e., the contingency and the power and influence theory suggest that leadership qualities depend on the environment. Since the environment is dynamic, leadership also has to be dynamic. Thus, possession of leadership qualities does not always guarantee success, success depends on how the qualities are developed and put to aldi products uk use.
Therefore, it would be wrong to say that leaders are born and not made. Andersen, E. Ralph Writings. (2012). Uk. Are Leaders Born Or Made? [online] Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaandersen/2012/11/21/are-leadersborn-or-made/ [Accessed 1 Aug. 2014].
Gsb.stanford.edu, (2014). Good Leaders Are Made, Not Born, Says Colin Powell | Stanford Graduate School of ralph waldo writings, Business. [online] Available at: http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/headlines/vftt_powell.shtml [Accessed 1 Aug. 2014]. Linkedin.com, (2014). Best Products. TRUE LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE. Ralph Emerson Writings. [online] Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/2014031706232681068665-true-leaders-are-born-not-made [Accessed 1 Aug. 2014]. Loiseau, J. (2014). Best Aldi Uk. Types of Leadership styles. [online] Academia.edu. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/474807/Types_of_Leadership_styles [Accessed 31 Jul. 2014].
Mindtools.com, (2014). Core Leadership Theories: Learning the Foundations of Leadership. [online] Available at: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/leadership-theories.htm [Accessed 31 Jul. 2014]. Workshopexercises.com, (2014). Leadership Styles. Nations Fighting. [online] Available at: http://www.workshopexercises.com/leadership_styles.htm [Accessed 1 Aug. Products Uk. 2014]. Arvey, R. D., Zhang, Z., Avolio, B. J., Kreuger, R.F. (2007). Developmental and genetic determinants of leadership role occupancy among women. Journal.
of Applied Psychology, 92, 693-706. Arvey, R. D., Rotundo, M., Johnson, W., Zhang, Z., McGue, M. (2006). The determinants of leadership role occupancy: Genetic and personality factors. Leadership Quarterly, 17, pp.1-20. Graf, J. (2004). Leaders are born, not made and other popular myths. Journal of petroleum technology, 56(4), pp.2829.
Leadership-Central.com, (2014). Are Leaders Born or Made. [online] Available at: http://www.leadership-central.com/are-leaders-born-ormade.html#axzz39ggiRr7Y [Accessed 9 Aug. 2014]. Mail Online, (2013). Great leaders are born, not made: Their brains are just wired differently, scientists say. [online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2307900/Natural-leaders-Studyclaims-proof-commanding-figures-Churchill-born-great.html [Accessed 9 Aug. 2014]. Psychologytoday.com, (2014).
Leaders: Born or Made?. Have No Dominion. [online] Available at: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/cutting-edgeleadership/200903/leaders-born-or-made [Accessed 9 Aug. 2014]. StudyMode, (2014). Leadership by Jacksmith900. [online] Available at: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Leadership-47220096.html [Accessed 9 Aug. 2014]. Uniassignment.com, (2014). Critically examine this statement focusing on the role of leadership theory to aldi products uk develop leaders within organisations | Uni. Assignment Centre. [online] Available at: http://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/marketing/role-ofleadership-theory.php [Accessed 18 Aug. 2014]. Is this the great nations win without, perfect essay for you?
Save time and best products uk, order Great leaders are born and not made. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for movies Great leaders are born and not made. Leadership is the ability to make use of influence over other people. A leader is a person who rules, guides or inspires others. There is a clear distinction between someone
Leaders are born, not made: Looking into Leadership Theories. There has been constant debate on weather leaders are born or are they made. There are leadership theories to support this statement or to aldi disprove this statement. This idea is Great leaders: styles, activities, and skills. The leadership styles of charismatic are envisioning, energizing, and great nations win without, enabling. The envisioning is creating a picture of the future, desired future state which people can identify that they can generate
6 Leadership traits that differentiate leaders from uk non leaders. Drive: Leaders have a high effort level, they are relatively determined towards achieving an objective. They are motivated, full of energy and ambitious which is converted into movies working tirelessly in Leadership and good leadership qualties. The meaning of leadership varies amongst people.
Leadership can be defined by many different but similar meanings. Aldi Products. Based on reading Chapter One of Leadership in Leisure Services: Making a Difference Development of Leadership Theory Until approximately 1930, there was not much academic interest in the area of leadership Fredrick Taylor Scientific Management (time/motion studies of productivity) (late 1800s)