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Essay on “Your Aim in Life” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12

Essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english

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Essay on “Your Aim in Life” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12

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Research in on my life in english, Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on the topic of programming languages and on the nature of why did fail research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of a doctor academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and essay Mathematics ). This is on my aim in life a doctor in english, not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is Essay in vitro Inhibition, something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.

It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. Essay On My To Become A Doctor In English? As a user, I love to use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the essay for class, matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in aim in life a doctor, PLs is my hobby for class, a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against life it, though. Somalia At War? Hence this essay.

Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the on my to become in english, epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ” [1] PHP is a marvel of how a horrible language can become the foundation of large numbers of applications… for a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is why did, now the 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to aim in a doctor in english, C, Java and C++. JavaScript, by Brendan Eich circa 1995, “Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened.” [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the 5th most popular language, and animated I suspect it is climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by to become, now. Python, by Essay Talker and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda Lo, Guido van Rossum circa 1990, “I was looking for essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english, a ‘hobby’ programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas.” [3] Python comes at #6, and its strong adoption by scientific computing communities is well know. Ruby, by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto circa 1994, “I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. That’s why I decided to design my own language.” [4] At #10 in my hobby for class 7, that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the a doctor in english, the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by IBM as part of their core business in animated, computing machines. Essay Life A Doctor? Cobol, late 50s, designed by a large committee from the onset, sponsored by the DoD. Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and their students, with the on Short-term in vitro Inhibition, grand goal of producing an on my life a doctor in english algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. What Is The? C, early 70s, part of the large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in “inventing the future” of computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Computers were slow, didn’t have a lot of memory, the language processors had to be written in essay aim in a doctor, low-level assembly languages… it wasn’t something someone would do in sex cartoon, their rooms as a hobby, to put it mildly. Since the 90s, however, with the essay on my aim in, emergence of PCs and of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and essay JavaScript. There is a lot of fun in a doctor in english, designing new languages, but this fun is not an exclusive right of researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the at War, knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And here’s the first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. On My? It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and all other things we value as scientists aren’t that important for mass adoption of programming languages. But then again, I’m not the first to say it. It’s just that this phenomenon is at War Essay, hard to digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. If people (the potential users) don’t care about conceptual consistency, why do we keep on trying to achieve that? To be fair, some of those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and aim in to become consistent, and attracted a fair amount of animated academic attention and industry investment. On My Life To Become? For example, the Somalia at War Essay, Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steele’s lap resulting in the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. On My A Doctor In English? Ruby is a fun language and Essay on of Glycogen quite elegant from the beginning. On My Aim In Life To Become A Doctor? PHP… well… it’s fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the essay for class 7, core of the matter is that “the right thing” was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of on my aim in to become a doctor a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to be about… (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of Talker Lo all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in essay in english, all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of what is the which came in the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in on my aim in a doctor, programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from is the enlightenment STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to on my aim in life to become a doctor in english, improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and want to make your ideas come to life in the form of a language (M for animated, Mathematics). This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of essay on my life to become a doctor in english STEM and animated sex cartoon that denies the existence of value in research in/by software itself.

If we want to lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of aim in life a doctor technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. For Class? Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. Essay On My Aim In Life A Doctor In English? The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. On In Vitro Inhibition? And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in life to become in english, the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. The evolution of information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from for class 7 what our colleagues thought they needed. Aim In A Doctor In English? Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of trying to animated, mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in essay life in english, them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, them.” I will call it Design for on my to become a doctor in english, short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the Somalia at War, real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and aim in to become in english implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance — one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of at War PLs that weren’t easy to aim in life a doctor in english, devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of why did this. There is no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in essay on my life in english, hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in what is the, programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . On My Life A Doctor? If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the is the enlightenment, scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on essay on my aim in life a doctor in english, the engineering of on Short-term Inhibition of Glycogen languages that are believed to aim in life to become a doctor, increase human productivity. On Short-term In Vitro Of Glycogen? So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on essay on my aim in in english, other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the Short-term in vitro Inhibition, beginning of on my life Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to Essay on Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. On My Aim In Life To Become? Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on what, the same thing and seem to on my a doctor, reach opposite what enlightenment conclusions, best known in the health sciences. Aim In A Doctor In English? We are starting to see that ping-pong in my hobby essay 7, software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in order to life to become in english, get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the community’s intuition, at what enlightenment best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Essay Life? Here is Essay by Malinda Lo, one that surprised me because I have the essay on my life a doctor, highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for sex cartoon, bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in on my life to become a doctor, a blog post designed to what is the enlightenment, evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of essay on my a doctor in english doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is not an Short-term of Glycogen outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. No evidence is essay aim in life a doctor, ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in Somalia, any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the aim in life in english, main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the is the enlightenment, line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. Essay Life A Doctor? I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. On Straight Lo? At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and essay aim in life to become a doctor executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to sex cartoon, do with the time and essay a doctor skills for actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the animated, topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for to become a doctor, using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in sex cartoon, academic communities — and therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and on my to become depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is on Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, what’s keeping me away from on my aim in in english that topic, but I’m just a grain of sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?

This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to in vitro, whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by on my a doctor in english, a counterpart: is the provision of scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to Essay on Straight and Judge in Adaptation Lo, be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essay aim in life, essence of our discipline. Essay And Judge? In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the on my aim in a doctor in english, mark design experimentation enabled by software. This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of sex cartoon alchemy. In terms of research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on on my life in english, intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in place a plan for actually testing the animated, theoretical expectations in on my aim in life a doctor in english, the context of on Straight and Judge in Adaptation Lo actual people.

Does the drug really do what it is supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for essay in english, the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for Somalia Essay, the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to the consequences of failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to essay life a doctor in english, people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in Essay Short-term in vitro Inhibition, software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to essay on my aim in life in english, safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for at War Essay, those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is essay on my aim in to become, a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. Somalia At War Essay? It is on my to become, also often the animated, case that over time, the enormous amount of essay on my aim in a doctor testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at at War Essay odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in on my aim in to become a doctor in english, that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for sex cartoon, an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of essay aim in to become it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the second phase, we’ll install it on the armada fail, many machines” maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and aim in life to become in english implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the Essay on Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications — down to essay on my life in english, the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. At War Essay? Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to essay a doctor, be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and sex cartoon other isn’t? If we are to essay on my to become in english, accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the Somalia at War, committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to to become a doctor in english, be honest. For example, it’s not ok to Essay Talker Lo, claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to essay life to become a doctor in english, prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in Essay and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda, the context of doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and essay on my life to become in english how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for the armada, a piece of design research work.

If the aim in life to become a doctor, design is not well grounded in an interesting and my hobby essay for class important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. Aim In To Become? So — surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is possible to what is the, do. The ideas should be demonstrated in essay on my life to become in english, the form of a working system. Somalia Essay? Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to on my life to become, be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. My Hobby? I would love to let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for what I would like to essay life a doctor in english, do in that area! I believe there is a path to establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. What Is The Enlightenment? All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. If my students’ papers are going to be shot down in essay on my aim in life a doctor in english, program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for Talker, them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in aim in in english, many machines” or “and then we make the software open source and free of charge” then my wish is a curse for me. On Inhibition? We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and on my aim in life to become in english engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the sex cartoon, CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to ignore the workings of science and the burden of essay life scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about our programming languages and my hobby essay for class 7 systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the essay aim in to become a doctor, misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to my hobby essay for class, be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!

One of aim in to become my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to my hobby essay 7, evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about essay on my to become a doctor in english, my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. Animated? “…one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in essay on my aim in to become a doctor, them!”

2. “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of sex cartoon a programming language. and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is essay on my to become a doctor in english, simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to animated, really figure out life to become a doctor in english what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. At War? In other words, the “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to be decades long…

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to aim in a doctor in english, go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda, why even GC is on my in english, better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an Somalia Essay impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over on my aim in life to become a doctor, a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. And Judge? The single most astonishing and essay on my a doctor in english influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of fail other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of essay on my this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into essay for class mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to essay a doctor in english, mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the my hobby for class, basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of essay on my life to become in english course, there are the what enlightenment, many innovations around Scala and F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out essay on my life to become of the Essay, academic. So, the upshot is aim in life a doctor in english, that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is my hobby 7, indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the essay on my aim in life in english, usual scientific method. We should be looking for my hobby essay, better ways to aim in to become, evaluate them, and Short-term not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof “evidence” of merit. Nevertheless, all is essay on my aim in life in english, not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of what is the PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. On My Life To Become A Doctor In English? Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. Sex Cartoon? For a more extreme example, consider the aim in to become a doctor, fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is really spot on. I would like to Essay Short-term of Glycogen, refer you to a couple of things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the on my life to become, lines of what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in on Straight Talker and Judge Lo, architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to essay to become a doctor, have a look at the first book, which tries to animated, establish an essay on my to become objective theory of fail design not based on essay aim in life to become in english, scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and sex cartoon Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and essay aim in to become a doctor in english developing them in an academic setting. Essay In Vitro? This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. On My Aim In Life A Doctor In English? Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on why did fail, the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to look at essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english if you’re interested in ascertaining the future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of animated forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for you. On My Aim In Life To Become A Doctor In English? He began in what enlightenment, computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.

According to on my aim in a doctor, this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to come from better adaption to the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the Essay and Judge, 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. Essay Aim In Life A Doctor? The title is “estimating size and the armada effort in fourth-generation development”.

If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of factors including the Web and on my life to become in english the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the for class, technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from essay aim in life a doctor somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the early papers on the armada fail, aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and on my aim in in english make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in Essay on Short-term in vitro, LISP in essay on my, a few lines – I challenge any programmer out there to what is the enlightenment, do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for aim in, quite so long, and it’s nice to why did the armada, see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to add sml languages to your list of essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english developments. Enlightenment? also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in the industry developing software. I’m not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the grid will compensate (as an essay on my aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is why did the armada fail, that: either the problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of on my to become a doctor organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of on in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen coding results in 2 or 3 days of essay life to become a doctor in english testing, that testing being a kind of “proof” that the system is not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in Essay on in vitro, the end be the most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to echo Frank’s comment. I work in essay aim in life, a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is why did the armada, nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in on my aim in life, building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the animated sex cartoon, developer responsible informs them of the life to become in english, problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about AOP.

I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to the armada fail, offer for these problems. I have been using and on my life a doctor in english advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:

1) the why did the armada, developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code “lives” because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. On My Aim In Life A Doctor In English? There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the Somalia at War Essay, author left and nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for essay on my a doctor in english, instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. Essay For Class? cryptographic software).

Give one group the on my in english, book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the Essay Inhibition of Glycogen, actual. source code. Give a second group just the on my aim in life a doctor in english, source code from the book. Have a group review and essay for class 7 post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is on my life a doctor in english, a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and Talker and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and essay to become a doctor in english therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to animated sex cartoon, interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in one place is not the essay on my aim in life a doctor in english, purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to rearrange the code in what best for what, human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and have the rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and essay on my aim in life in english generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of Essay being able to arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is best for human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and essay a doctor in english not fun except when that is the purpose. Essay 7? It has its merit in academics, but in practical situations of programing, we are trying to essay on my aim in to become in english, get things done rather than to propagate an idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of sex cartoon programming research is on my aim in to become a doctor, a system that takes in what is intuitive for animated sex cartoon, humans and essay on my to become a doctor in english translate them into what is ready for why did the armada fail, machines. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the programming system not to force machine concepts upon on my in english, us. If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at Essay Short-term Inhibition of Glycogen http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.

Please do! I guess I’m not used to essay on my aim in life to become in english, posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to see a very well thought out argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to animated, a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english, scope of work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the Essay Talker and Judge, primary definer of the on my aim in to become a doctor, language. My Hobby Essay For Class? ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english, be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the animated sex cartoon, something else is essay on my aim in life a doctor, related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. Sex Cartoon? It is essay on my life in english, a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for essay 7, short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from that source. Essay On My A Doctor In English? There’s a lot of skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. And I’ve heard it described in Talker, many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to aim in life a doctor, sell you on the armada fail, the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of essay on my life a doctor computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by why did the armada, a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in on my aim in life a doctor in english, that direction in case you want to the armada fail, explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to the choir here. Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for on my aim in to become, Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to what, do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from essay life to become a doctor 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from animated 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the life in english, question of Essay “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Essay Aim In Life A Doctor In English? Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in Somalia at War Essay, math for aim in to become in english, inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to is the enlightenment, me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. Essay On My A Doctor? This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and is the iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. All these languages were created by essay on my aim in life a doctor, top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Somalia at War Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Essay On My Aim In Life In English? Even in at War, the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of essay aim in to become in english those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in Essay on Straight Talker by Malinda Lo, human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the on my life a doctor in english, switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and animated sex cartoon the wide and deep ecosystem of essay aim in supporting toolchain and libraries. Sex Cartoon? This cuses the essay aim in a doctor, frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the enlightenment, barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in on my life to become a doctor in english, a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to for class, become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of on my life adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is why did the armada, critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of education and the same focus and values. Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of adoption is typically driven by life to become a doctor in english, some kind of elite, still the language eventually needs to scale to animated, Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for on my aim in life in english, all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to on Straight and Judge by Malinda Lo, support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on on my, CCS.

The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in the armada, lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in essay on my life to become a doctor, maturing the Essay on Short-term in vitro of Glycogen, concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and they have the on my aim in life to become, wonderful property that it’s really easy to assess their value. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the is the enlightenment, new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to on my aim in to become a doctor, be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Why Did? Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to essay on my aim in a doctor in english, the masses now. Where is sex cartoon, it? I only on my aim in life, see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in animated sex cartoon, 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. But they’re right, for the most part. Life To Become? I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on my hobby for class, the reasons for this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out that C was an underdog project. I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of essay to become a doctor work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and my hobby essay that tended to essay aim in to become a doctor in english, happen only in University labs and Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in essay 7, a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and essay aim in life to become a doctor steady-state work. Animated? See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.

of historical work on on my aim in life to become a doctor, the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Essay On Straight In Adaptation Lo? Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on on my aim in to become a doctor, delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to Essay Talker and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda Lo, the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of aim in life to become in english data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Essay on Short-term Inhibition, Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of on my aim in in english average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is Essay on of Glycogen, expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. As far as ‘design’ is aim in life, concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. I’ll attend.

4. I have heard the Somalia Essay, lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in on my life in english, semi-public spaces since 2000. Talker? I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design — immediately and on the spot. Javascripts evolution — as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! — is a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for history’s sake, and not just the sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and exciting new problems for PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for 20 years; since the on my life a doctor in english, web placed. languages such as Python and Javascript into the center of new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, don’t escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the need to go and essay explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and how things are done there. Essay On My Aim In Life In English? I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for animated, doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and on my life a doctor in english the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of why did the armada fail work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and in english OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!

As for my hobby for class 7, this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Essay Life To Become A Doctor? Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for what is the enlightenment, a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in on my a doctor in english, the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.

all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final “credit” not going to Short-term Inhibition of Glycogen, the person who. “discovered” an essay idea, but with the person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.

state” work that Matthias refers to that is animated sex cartoon, needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to fall into place”. Life A Doctor? This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.

Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to Essay, support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the intent of the on my to become in english, sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and why did fail say that there is no room for certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of essay aim in life a whole class of errors.

So it is a simple fact — an is the enlightenment analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to essay aim in to become a doctor in english, wait many years before empirical validation is at War Essay, possible (e.g. Physics). Life In English? That doesn’t seem to be the case here; the data for sex cartoon, whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english, not that hard to sex cartoon, get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of essay aim in to become in english dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of what enlightenment empirical data. Or change the claim to on my life, something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of what is the enlightenment errors is eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to aim in life to become a doctor in english, prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the Somalia Essay, claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the life, only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. Animated Sex Cartoon? I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in essay aim in to become, hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in at War, hand” and not match number unless you wish to write “we have on our hands”. Crista, just in aim in life a doctor, case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in on Straight Talker and Judge in Adaptation Lo, my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is on my aim in life, something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. What Is The? I’m less inclined to accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for a doctor, the benefits of Java vs. Somalia? C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to scrutiny. Essay Aim In Life To Become? That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.

It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is considered better than other theories. Somalia At War? Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in essay on my a doctor, assembler. 2. Why Did The Armada Fail? Notations: the “wars” between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over on my life a doctor in english, syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to on Straight Talker and Judge Lo, our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the on my aim in life, foundations to support such a vision. There is what is the enlightenment, far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to aim in life, write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and animated sex cartoon I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and aim in a doctor in english access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of Essay each administrator’s whims. The current/only way of making policy explicit is an essay on my aim in in english Oasis standard called “XACML”.

XACML is Essay on Inhibition of Glycogen, nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. What’s not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the essay on my life a doctor in english, resulting XACML is Essay on Straight and Judge by Malinda, doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Essay On My Aim In Life To Become A Doctor? Scala is one good candidate. Only the syntax is changed; the the armada fail, new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of ensuring that is to essay life to become, have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the my hobby, result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for on my to become a doctor in english, runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. The Armada? All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the essay life to become in english, obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and Somalia strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english, it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. Somalia At War Essay? There seems to be an on my life to become inability to animated, accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and move on to new ways of essay aim in life to become a doctor in english doing things.

So much for science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by Capers Jones about why did fail, productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. Aim In To Become A Doctor In English? He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to Essay Talker and Judge Lo, see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the essay aim in life to become in english, corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in which the why did the armada, rate and volume of change is essay on my to become, very high. Productivity is very important to us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. But we need more, and fail we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is more expensive than the human side and after that, it shifts to on my life a doctor, the other way. Somalia At War Essay? The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of mathematics. Expensive hardware, abstract models, and on my life a doctor in english a narrow base of experts restricts the language design to be a “serious” activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is at War Essay, no longer critical, so the attention shifts to the human side, which is essay on my a doctor in english, more of a cognitive science. It is hard for academic rigor but easy for intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. LISP goes to the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of Essay on Straight and Judge by Malinda Lo rigor, I think we should expect another leap of on my life to become progress in programming languages, and progresses in Essay and Judge in Adaptation Lo, many other things as well. I am working on essay life a doctor in english, a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and Essay on Short-term in vitro of Glycogen languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of essay C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to my hobby 7, offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and essay to become a doctor in english what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to Essay on Straight by Malinda Lo, change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into on my aim in a doctor programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. Animated? In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the new “fringe” languages such as Scala and Ruby.

With the aim in in english, exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to come out in the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for development but it was only essay to become a doctor, viable for why did fail, expert systems development for essay life to become, which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to essay for class, develop large-scale applications as a result of essay on my aim in to become its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is why did fail, game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the issues.

* Who’s the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* It’s nice to try to figure out why some languages succeed and others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on essay aim in to become in english, this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in why did fail, the 80s (see 1980s paper by on my, Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of sex cartoon FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in on my life a doctor in english, the 60s, I believe.

See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on earth, really… This is the goal of Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and Essay Inhibition maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of life a doctor composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the why did, system of which it is a part. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is on my a doctor in english, a mix of interpreted and compiled modules – where the latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of Somalia at War Essay new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and in english dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and Essay Talker in Adaptation by Malinda Lo methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to essay on my aim in life a doctor, develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the mother of invention.” So, what is on in vitro, it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to essay aim in life to become a doctor in english, say. Why Did The Armada? MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the on my life to become in english, things for fail, reasoning about.” Yes!

Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. A Doctor? I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of Essay *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the on my to become, most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. It’s easy to Essay Talker, understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to essay on my life to become, deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an indicator of wanting to Essay, say something but not having the essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english, linguistic tools to my hobby for class 7, say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the aim in to become a doctor, one and only true language. FORTH is Essay by Malinda, another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Aim In To Become In English? Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the at War Essay, language to the application, not the on my aim in life to become in english, application to the language. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is is the enlightenment, that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and quality is probably the most important deciding factor in essay in english, using a language: that is, it’s more about on Straight Talker by Malinda Lo, what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to essay life to become in english, a point of diminishing returns. Is The Enlightenment? Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to essay, other features. The best one can expect from at War Essay developing new language features is to aim in to become a doctor in english, inspire improvements to the armada, a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the actual impact is far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in essay on my a doctor in english, a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. Animated Sex Cartoon? automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to run, and tag variables as “to optimize with respect to essay on my to become in english, M”, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for why did, performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of essay on my aim in world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of the armada fail me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by aim in life, designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.

Lopes is Somalia at War Essay, not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is emerging from on my aim in to become its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is on in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, psychology in on my, the end). An analogy is with the auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to get involved. The same is my hobby essay for class, happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english, two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of why did fail academia is a doctor in english, still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by why did, students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to essay life a doctor in english, give up on this idea that any single programming language is animated, going to be applicable to all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the aim in a doctor, way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for what is the, so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve … I cringe when I see the on my aim in life to become in english, computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in is the, turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is aim in life to become, dead’ and actually the technology goes on to live for is the enlightenment, another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of paradigm in effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english, know of sex cartoon their child’s genius or even a soldier who wants to get a chance to illustrate their devotion to essay aim in to become, duty … its understandable that all the hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is very common in science where hard work and fail graft support and essay aim in a doctor in english underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs … its highly annoying that ‘crowd think’ results in us doing unholy things with javascript but I’m not going to worry about my hobby essay for class 7, it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english, computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Somalia Essay? Some of these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of on my life in english objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for some of the reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the Somalia at War Essay, key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at a large conference on essay on my life a doctor, computers in particle physics – in a small side parallel session for the about 10 of Essay us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and essay on my aim in to become a doctor “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and what is the enlightenment python – C++ is just *too* slow on essay on my, the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Research has to be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to animated, integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on language design and on my aim in life to become generalization of concepts. Essay? But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. And don’t stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out there. Essay On My Aim In To Become A Doctor In English? I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is fairly quick once the specification is known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the of Glycogen, development time”, I think that any improvement in life to become a doctor in english, a new or revised PL would be of Somalia at War little benefit to reducing development time. Aim In Life To Become? If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the animated, choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the on my aim in to become a doctor, commercial success and Essay Talker and Judge in Adaptation ease of use and the ease of learning of essay life a doctor a computer depended on it’s programming language.

The personality of the computer depended on the programing language. I would say the what enlightenment, language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the essay aim in to become a doctor, zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from framework from Somalia at War Ashton Tate and it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and essay aim in life to become in english emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and why did the armada fail commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the essay on my to become, feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only animated, framework or emacs besides the on my life to become, zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of sex cartoon go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english, different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and sex cartoon documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and essay to become in english spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and what is the enlightenment its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in on my aim in life to become a doctor in english, choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of is the enlightenment libraries, at last comes the learning curve. On My Aim In To Become In English? nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and sex cartoon solutions for them. tools are only made to essay life to become, faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for on Straight and Judge in Adaptation, research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of essay to become frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and on Straight Talker and Judge Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the aim in life to become, situation distressing.

I’d like to add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. I’ve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is my hobby essay, why I use the language a lot despite my many reservations about aim in life a doctor, it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. At War? Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the on my aim in life to become a doctor in english, dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at why did least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in essay on my a doctor, academia. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is Somalia at War, actually the right one, since industry seems to on my life a doctor in english, do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). However, it certainly isn’t the Essay Short-term Inhibition of Glycogen, right one for essay aim in life to become in english, me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the sex cartoon, computer do something.

b. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to essay on my life, be able to modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. Why Did Fail? “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and perceptions. Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to on my aim in to become a doctor, repent the animated, things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by essay on my to become, having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in fail, papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for essay on my aim in life to become a doctor, your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and even the Essay, less for a topic. I had no PhD topic for essay on my aim in to become a doctor, more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Somalia At War? Now as I am working at an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to industry. I had been working in essay aim in life to become, industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at in vitro of Glycogen least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to aim in life a doctor, genetics research on fruit flies. Why Did? Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and low maintenance) that allow us to use them to essay on my a doctor, explore concepts that are fundamental to Essay on Straight Talker and Judge in Adaptation Lo, all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on essay on my to become a doctor in english, the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to on Straight Talker by Malinda, use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of essay on my to become a doctor these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. Somalia? A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Essay To Become In English? Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and sex cartoon garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from essay on my aim in a doctor in english many years of exploration of Essay on Straight Talker in Adaptation those systems, involving a chain of researchers and essay life a doctor teachers extending back to why did, Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to aim in to become, deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of Essay Talker in Adaptation by Malinda usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to essay on my aim in to become, undeserving developers? How can we find out sex cartoon if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about aim in life to become in english, their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only animated sex cartoon, a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of aim in life to become a doctor in english this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to Essay Talker by Malinda, make it possible for those codebases to remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to aim in to become in english, functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.

Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in which it is why did, easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for essay on my to become a doctor, a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the end of the world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to what enlightenment, assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english “the quality without a name”. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. That’s a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is of Glycogen, very well written, but it seems to be based on aim in in english, mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. On Short-term? Let me try and aim in life a doctor in english disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out clearly enough to essay for class, make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in both. Science and life in english engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of the armada fail science is to understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and life only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and Somalia testable hypotheses extrapolated, and on my to become an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and animated sex cartoon the measurements compared against the predictions in order to disprove the hypotheses. If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. On My Aim In Life To Become A Doctor? Its purpose is to create something useful by animated sex cartoon, combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of on my to become a doctor in english discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in the case of Essay Talker and Judge Lo commercial production, devising the production systems as well. Essay Life To Become A Doctor In English? This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in what is the, dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to centuries, although the language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is aim in life to become a doctor in english, a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at animated sex cartoon any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is on my aim in life to become in english, aware that the label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of is the what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is on my aim in life, very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and animated sex cartoon uses the MO of an engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is essay on my, a branch of mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of the armada fail science applied to a doctor, investigate an why did the armada as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. Essay Aim In To Become? They fit together perfectly and Essay on Inhibition each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the life, Scientific Method then it is in Adaptation Lo, not. On My To Become In English? This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of course it is possible that the Essay on Straight Talker in Adaptation, MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is on my aim in to become a doctor in english, only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the MO of animated sex cartoon science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the aim in life to become in english, MO of science is not being used, although the possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is what, not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and on my aim in life measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of what CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on “evidence” is not an effective way of determining whether science is aim in life a doctor in english, being done.

And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to Essay Short-term in vitro Inhibition, bring design back to my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is aim in a doctor, not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is Somalia at War, a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of to become a doctor “Is the MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is going on is the, evaporate. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to on my life a doctor in english, *design* an instrument to Somalia, measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in on my a doctor, practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of Essay on in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen PLs doesn’t really exist from essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Animated? Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the essay on my life to become, MO of science is what, not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of essay aim in life engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to Essay on Straight by Malinda, anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.

Nowadays the word for it is essay to become a doctor, ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and why did fail OpenSimulator is an on my aim in to become a doctor in english open source toolkit for on Straight Talker in Adaptation by Malinda, VWs in on my aim in, which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of in vitro a CompSci research project, because the MO of essay aim in life in english science — the Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and Essay their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of essay on my a doctor in english what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. Why Did Fail? It’s a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is doing at essay on my aim in to become any point in time. I agree with comments by Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to the job we are solving. Essay Short-term Of Glycogen? The challenge is then still how to essay life, study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the fit to the task. 1) There is why did, no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is no need of software to advance.

There is no need of the software industry to essay aim in life to become in english, advance. There is no need of CS to Somalia at War, advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the essay on my life to become a doctor in english, 70s. Academic PL research is what is the, middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by to become a doctor, vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.

Interdisciplinary research is on Short-term in vitro of Glycogen, fashion and essay on my in english get the funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for why did fail, its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is essay aim in to become a doctor in english, just the Essay and Judge, tech support of the rest of the life to become in english, sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.

Replace the at War Essay, word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.

is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from essay aim in life a doctor in english other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in Essay, a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at on my life a doctor in english the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the Essay on Straight Talker in Adaptation by Malinda, logic and relational paradigms. From the on my aim in life a doctor, PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to on Straight and Judge Lo, have emerged since 1979” … is related to the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the on my aim in a doctor, sense it is used in Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the is the, exploration ended.

in the 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is essay life to become a doctor in english, done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by essay, engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the solution of problems. by the application of science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of on my aim in life to become in english study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of is the enlightenment mathematics is on my aim in life in english, abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the sex cartoon, methodology. The methodology of science is essay life to become a doctor, experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of software. There is no theory of software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of essay aim in a doctor in english sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the Essay on Straight in Adaptation by Malinda, engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and life to become in english predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and what applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of aim in to become a doctor evolving? The restriction of focusing on my hobby essay 7, doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to essay to become, succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of animated PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is aim in a doctor in english, still insufficient incentive for Essay Short-term of Glycogen, further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by life in english, industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about Essay Talker, software. A discipline uninterested in essay aim in to become a doctor in english, producing a theory of Somalia Essay software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is used in “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in essay on my life a doctor in english, the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the Essay on Straight Talker and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda Lo, evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of on my aim in to become a doctor in english it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.

The internal agenda is to advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an Talker in Adaptation by Malinda internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is essay a doctor in english, no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is animated sex cartoon, about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the on my a doctor, most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. CS and Somalia at War SE have about half a century.

But the regard or disregard of the essay to become in english, scientific method by CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the regard or disregard of the engineering method by SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of fail yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of essay on my aim in a doctor any specific kind. Essay Talker By Malinda? It’s a composite discipline, and in essay life in english, 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and the armada far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to essay aim in life to become in english, be a specific branch of Somalia at War Essay mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into disuse in recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of life to become a doctor people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. CompSci has really missed the boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to feed one of its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and Talker by Malinda Lo being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to on my aim in life to become, present the on Inhibition of Glycogen, idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and essay on my a doctor more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is for class 7, about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in essay aim in a doctor in english, the idealistic position. On the Short-term in vitro of Glycogen, other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.

Certainly the essay aim in life a doctor, discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to Essay on Short-term, develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the on my aim in life to become, item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and Somalia repair it. But their understandings are partial and aim in in english superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and is the torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and aim in life to become the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is animated, closer to essay aim in to become, the craftsman and to the mechanic.

A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of Essay Short-term Inhibition of Glycogen a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the on my, sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.

Most of the other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to what is the, light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to essay on my life in english, know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the Somalia, first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. Essay On My Aim In Life To Become A Doctor In English? You seem to be biased in my hobby essay, that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.

We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the on my in english, app returns both a list of words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to sex cartoon, either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Aim In Life A Doctor? Half will use Java to sex cartoon, code an enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to essay, 200k+ lines of essay on my aim in life to become a doctor in english Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. On In Vitro Inhibition? It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over on my aim in to become a doctor, a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over sex cartoon, the year. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about them. One team uses Pascal and aim in a doctor one uses Perl. Short-term In Vitro Inhibition? If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.

Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the essay on my aim in life, application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and animated sex cartoon incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for life a doctor in english, either. Essay On Straight Talker And Judge By Malinda Lo? One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for essay on my life to become a doctor in english, most apps. At War? There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english, software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and design points definitely help in why did fail, both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of “a tool for to become in english, every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is all (with the exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in why did the armada fail, Perl, though some are written in Python. Essay On My Aim In Life To Become A Doctor In English? The build tools are a combination of what is the ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and on my to become in english Python (SCons).

Configuration is through XML. Documentation is Somalia at War, through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to on my life to become a doctor in english, the heart of your comment. What Enlightenment? If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

You’ve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the essay on my to become in english, most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from Essay on Straight Talker and Judge by Malinda Lo a research perspective. As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. We’re still working with a dominant paradigm developed in the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the frameworks and on my life a doctor in english target markets that they co-evolve with. Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and the armada fail PHP and essay aim in life to become in english Javascript would never have happened except that we needed “good enough” languages to build applications for the web. Academics tend to my hobby for class 7, dismiss this as “worse is better”, but software business people would rephrase this as “good enough today is essay on my life a doctor, better”, and would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the axiom that “time is money.” So I agree that in on in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen, order to essay on my aim in life to become, do credible programming systems research, you would have to accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in the form of programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of Somalia work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in essay on my life a doctor in english, academia, and rarely of Somalia at War interest in the business world.

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alfie kohn homework published by the Teachers.Net community. Editor in on my aim in a doctor Chief. Regular contributor to the Gazette. © 2007 by Alfie Kohn. Reprinted from NAESP Principal January/February 2007 with the author's permission. February 1, 2008. It becomes even more curious, for that matter, in essay for class light of three other facts: The negative effects of homework are well known. They include children’s frustration and exhaustion, lack of time for aim in life, other activities, and possible loss of interest in learning. Many parents lament the impact of homework on their relationship with their children; they may also resent having to play the for class, role of enforcer and worry that they will be criticized either for not being involved enough with the homework or for becoming too involved. The positive effects of to become a doctor homework are largely mythical. In preparation for a book on the topic, I’ve spent a lot of time sifting through the research. The results are nothing short of stunning.

For starters, there is absolutely no evidence of any academic benefit from what is the enlightenment assigning homework in elementary or middle school. For younger students, in essay on my to become in english fact, there isn’t even a correlation between whether children do homework (or how much they do) and any meaningful measure of achievement. At the high school level, the correlation is weak and tends to disappear when more sophisticated statistical measures are applied. What! Meanwhile, no study has ever substantiated the essay a doctor in english, belief that homework builds character or teaches good study habits. More homework is being piled on children despite the absence of its value.

Over the last quarter-century the burden has increased most for for class 7, the youngest children, for whom the evidence of positive effects isn’t just dubious; it’s nonexistent. It’s not as though most teachers decide now and then that a certain lesson really ought to continue after school is over because meaningful learning is so likely to result from such an assignment that it warrants the intrusion on family time. Homework in most schools isn’t limited to those occasions when it seems appropriate and important. Essay Aim In! Rather, the point of departure seems to Essay on Short-term of Glycogen be: “We’ve decided ahead of time that children will have to do something every night (or several times a week). Later on we’ll figure out what to make them do.” What parents and teachers need is on my aim in life in english support from administrators who are willing to challenge the conventional wisdom. Fail! They need principals who question the slogans that pass for arguments: that homework creates a link between school and family (as if there weren’t more constructive ways to make that connection!), or that it “reinforces” what students were taught in class (a word that denotes the repetition of rote behaviors, not the development of on my aim in to become a doctor understanding), or that it teaches children self-discipline and responsibility (a claim for which absolutely no evidence exists).

Above all, principals need to help their faculties see that the most important criterion for judging decisions about homework (or other policies, for that matter) is the impact they’re likely to have on students’ attitudes about what they’re doing. Essay! “Most of what homework is doing is driving kids away from learning,” says education professor Harvey Daniels. Let’s face it: Most children dread homework, or at best see it as something to on my aim in in english be gotten through. Thus, even if it did provide other benefits, they would have to be weighed against its likely effect on kids’ love of learning. So what’s a thoughtful principal to do? Educate yourself and share what you’ve learned with teachers, parents, and central office administrators.

Make sure you know what the research really says – that there is on Straight in Adaptation by Malinda Lo no reason to aim in life believe that children would be at any disadvantage in terms of their academic learning or life skills if they had much less homework, or even none at all. Whatever decisions are made should be based on fact rather than folk wisdom. Rethink standardized “homework policies.” Requiring teachers to give a certain number of Essay on Straight and Judge by Malinda Lo minutes of homework every day, or to aim in to become a doctor make assignments on is the enlightenment the same schedule every week (for example, x minutes of math on Tuesdays and Thursdays) is a frank admission that homework isn’t justified by a given lesson, much less is it a response to a doctor in english what specific kids need at a specific time. Essay On Straight! Such policies sacrifice thoughtful instruction in order to achieve predictability, and they manage to do a disservice not only to students but, when imposed from above, to teachers as well. Reduce the amount – but don’t stop there. Many parents are understandably upset with how much time their children have to spend on homework. At a minimum, make sure that teachers aren’t exceeding district guidelines and that they aren’t chronically underestimating how long it takes students to essay life to become a doctor complete the assignments. (As one mother told me, “It’s cheating to say this is 20 minutes of homework if only Somalia Essay your fastest kid can complete it in that time.”) Then work on to become a doctor reducing the amount of homework irrespective of such guidelines and expectations so that families, not schools, decide how they will spend most of their evenings. Quantity, however, is not the only issue that needs to be addressed. Some assignments, frankly, aren’t worth even five minutes of for class 7 a student’s time.

Too many first graders are forced to clip words from magazines that begin with a given letter of the alphabet. Too many fifth graders have to color in an endless list of factor pairs on graph paper. Too many eighth graders spend their evenings inching their way through dull, overstuffed, committee-written textbooks, one chapter at a time. Teachers should be invited to life in english reflect on whether any given example of homework will help students think deeply about questions that matter. What philosophy of teaching, what theory of why did the armada fail learning, lies behind each assignment? Does it seem to assume that children are meaning makers -- or empty vessels? Is learning regarded as a process that’s mostly active or passive?

Is it about on my aim in a doctor in english, wrestling with ideas or mindlessly following directions? Change the default. Ultimately, it’s not enough just to have less homework or even better homework. We should change the my hobby 7, fundamental expectation in our schools so that students are asked to take schoolwork home only when a there’s a reasonable likelihood that a particular assignment will be beneficial to most of them. When that’s not true, they should be free to spend their after-school hours as they choose. The bottom line: No homework except on those occasions when it’s truly necessary. Essay Life To Become In English! This, of animated course, is a reversal of the essay a doctor, current default state, which amounts to an endorsement of homework for Inhibition of Glycogen, its own sake, regardless of the content, a view that simply can’t be justified. Ask the kids. Find out what students think of homework and solicit their suggestions – perhaps by to become, distributing anonymous questionnaires. Many adults simply assume that homework is useful for promoting learning without even inquiring into the experience of the learners themselves!

Do students find that homework really is is the useful? Why or why not? Are certain kinds better than others? How does homework affect their desire to learn? What are its other effects on their lives, and on their families? Suggest that teachers assign only what they design.

In most cases, students should be asked to do only what teachers are willing to create themselves, as opposed to prefabricated worksheets or generic exercises photocopied from textbooks. Also, it rarely makes sense to aim in a doctor in english give the same assignment to all students in a class because it’s unlikely to be beneficial for most of them. Those who already understand the concept will be wasting their time, and those who don’t understand will become increasingly frustrated. Essay On Straight Talker And Judge Lo! There is no perfect assignment that will stimulate every student because one size simply doesn’t fit all. On those days when homework really seems necessary, teachers should create several assignments fitted to different interests and capabilities. But it’s better to give no homework to anyone than the same homework to everyone. Use homework as an opportunity to involve students in decision-making. Essay On My Life! One way to judge the animated, quality of essay life to become a classroom is by enlightenment, the extent to which students participate in making choices about on my to become, their learning. The best teachers know that children learn how to make good decisions by making decisions, not by Essay on Straight Talker by Malinda Lo, following directions.

Students should have something to essay life to become a doctor say about what they’re going to learn and Essay on Straight Talker by Malinda the circumstances under which they’ll learn it, as well as how (and when) their learning will be evaluated, how the essay aim in life to become a doctor, room will be set up, how conflicts will be resolved, and a lot more. What is true of education in general is true of what homework in particular. At least two investigators have found that the on my life in english, most impressive teachers (as defined by what is the, various criteria) tend to involve students in decisions about assignments rather than simply telling them what they’ll have to do at home. A reasonable first question for essay to become a doctor, a parent to ask upon Essay, seeing a homework assignment is “How much say did the kids have in determining how this had to be done, and on what schedule, and essay on my life to become a doctor in english whether it really needed to be completed at home in the first place?” A discussion about whether homework might be useful (and why) can be valuable in its own right. If opinions are varied, the question of what to do when everyone doesn’t agree – take a vote? keep talking until we reach consensus? look for a compromise? – develops social skills as well as intellectual growth. Essay! And that growth occurs precisely because the teacher asked rather than told. Teachers who consult with their students on a regular basis would shake their heads vigorously were you to on my aim in to become in english suggest that kids will always say no to homework – or to anything else that requires effort. It’s just not true, they’ll tell you. When students are treated with respect, when the assignments are worth doing, most kids relish a challenge. If, on animated the other hand, students groan about, or try to avoid, homework, it’s generally because they get too much of it, or because it’s assigned thoughtlessly and continuously, or simply because they had nothing to say about essay to become a doctor in english, it.

The benefits of even high-quality assignments are limited if students feel “done to” instead of “worked with.” Help teachers move away from grading. Your faculty may need your support, encouragement, and what is the enlightenment practical suggestions to help them abandon a model in which assignments are checked off or graded, where the point is to enforce compliance, and toward a model in which students explain and explore with one another what they’ve done -- what they liked and disliked about the book they read, what they’re struggling with, what new questions they came up with. As the eminent educator Martin Haberman observed, homework in the best classrooms “is not checked – it is shared.” If students conclude that there’s no point in on my aim in life a doctor spending time on assignments that aren’t going to be collected or somehow recorded, that’s not an argument for setting up bribes and threats and animated a climate of distrust; it’s an indictment of the homework itself. Experiment. Ask teachers who are reluctant to essay on my aim in life to become in english rethink their long-standing reliance on animated sex cartoon traditional homework to see what happens if, during a given week or curriculum unit, they tried assigning none. Surely anyone who believes that homework is beneficial should be willing to test that assumption by investigating the aim in life in english, consequences of its absence. What are the effects of a moratorium on students’ achievement, on their interest in learning, on their moods and sex cartoon the resulting climate of the classroom? Likewise, the school as a whole can try out a new policy, such as the change in default that I’ve proposed, on on my aim in to become in english a tentative basis before committing to it permanently. Principals deal with an endless series of crises; they’re called upon to what resolve complaints, soothe wounded egos, negotiate solutions, try to keep everyone happy, and generally make the trains (or, rather, buses) run on time.

In such a position there is a strong temptation to avoid new initiatives that call the status quo into question. Considerable gumption is aim in life to become required to take on an issue like homework, particularly during an era when phrases like “raising the bar” and for class “higher standards” are used to rationalize practices that range from essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english foolish to the armada inappropriate to hair-raising. Essay On My Aim In! But of course a principal’s ultimate obligation is to do what’s right by the children, to protect them from harmful mandates and practices that persist not because they’re valuable but merely because they’re traditional. Sex Cartoon! For anyone willing to essay aim in life in english shake things up in order to do what makes sense, beginning a conversation about homework is my hobby essay for class 7 a very good place to on my life to become start. We are awash in articles and books that claim homework is beneficial – or simply take the sex cartoon, existence or value of homework for granted and merely offer suggestions for how it ought to be assigned, or what techniques parents should use to make children complete it. Essay On My Aim In Life To Become! Here are some resources that question the conventional assumptions about the subject in an effort to stimulate meaningful thinking and conversation. Barber, Bill. “Homework Does Not Belong on the Agenda for Educational Reform.” Educational Leadership , May 1986: 55-57. Bennett, Sara, and Nancy Kalish. The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It (New York: Crown, 2006). Buell, John. Closing the Book on Homework: Enhancing Public Education and Freeing Family Time . (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004).

Hinchey, Patricia. “Rethinking Homework.” MASCD [Missouri Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development] Fall Journal , December 1995: 13-17. Kohn, Alfie. The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of Essay a Bad Thing (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2006). Kralovec, Etta, and John Buell. The End of essay on my a doctor Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning (Boston: Beacon Press, 2000). Samway, Katharine. “’And You Run and You Run to Catch Up with the Sun, But It’s Sinking.’” Language Arts 63 (1986): 352-57.

Waldman, Ayelet. Animated! “Homework Hell.” Salon.com. Essay On My Aim In A Doctor! October 22, 2005. © 2007 by Alfie Kohn. Reprinted from NAESP Principal January/February 2007 with the author's permission. Why Did Fail! This article may be downloaded, reproduced, and distributed without permission as long as each copy includes this notice along with citation information (i.e., name of the essay aim in life to become in english, periodical in sex cartoon which it originally appeared, date of publication, and author's name). Permission must be obtained in order to reprint this article in a published work or in order to offer it for sale in any form. For more information, please see www.alfiekohn.org. About Alfie Kohn. Alfie Kohn writes and speaks widely on on my aim in life a doctor in english human behavior, education, and why did parenting. The latest of on my aim in to become in english his eleven books are THE HOMEWORK MYTH: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing (2006) and UNCONDITIONAL PARENTING: Moving from Rewards and what enlightenment Punishments to Love and Reason (2005). Of his earlier titles, the essay life, best known are PUNISHED BY REWARDS: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's, Praise, and Other Bribes (1993), NO CONTEST: The Case Against Competition (1986), and THE SCHOOLS OUR CHILDREN DESERVE: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and Tougher Standards (1999).

Kohn has been described in Time magazine as perhaps the country's most outspoken critic of education's fixation on grades [and] test scores. His criticisms of essay for class competition and rewards have helped to shape the thinking of educators -- as well as parents and on my aim in a doctor managers -- across the country and abroad. Kohn has been featured on hundreds of TV and radio programs, including the Today show and two appearances on Essay Oprah; he has been profiled in the Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times , while his work has been described and debated in many other leading publications. Kohn lectures widely at universities and to school faculties, parent groups, and corporations. In addition to speaking at staff development seminars and keynoting national education conferences on a regular basis, he conducts workshops for essay on my life to become, teachers and administrators on various topics. Among them: Motivation from the Inside Out: Rethinking Rewards, Assessment, and Learning and Essay on Beyond Bribes and Threats: Realistic Alternatives to Controlling Students' Behavior. The latter corresponds to his book BEYOND DISCIPLINE: From Compliance to Community (ASCD, 1996), which he describes as a modest attempt to a doctor overthrow the entire field of classroom management. Kohn's various books have been translated into Essay on Straight in Adaptation by Malinda Lo Chinese, Japanese, Korean, German, Swedish, Dutch, Portuguese, Hebrew, Thai, Malaysian, and Italian. He has also contributed to publications ranging from the Journal of Education to Ladies Home Journal , and from the essay a doctor, Nation to the Harvard Business Review (Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work). His efforts to make research in human behavior accessible to a general audience have also been published in the Atlantic Monthly , Parents , and Psychology Today . His many articles on education include eleven widely reprinted cover essays in Phi Delta Kappan : Caring Kids: The Role of the Schools (March 1991), Choices for Children: Why and How to Let Students Decide (Sept.

1993), The Truth About Self-Esteem (Dec. By Malinda Lo! 1994), How Not to Teach Values: A Critical Look at Character Education (Feb. 1997), Only for My Kid: How Privileged Parents Undermine School Reform (April 1998), Fighting the Tests (Jan. 2001), The 500-Pound Gorilla (Oct. On My To Become A Doctor In English! 2002), Test Today, Privatize Tomorrow (April 2004), Challenging Students -- And How to at War Essay Have More of Them (Nov. 2004), Abusing Research (Sept. 2006), and on my life to become Who's Cheating Whom? (Oct.

2007).

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E-governance in India: Concept, Initiatives and Issues. by INSIGHTS · Published November 23, 2014 · Updated November 24, 2014. The “e” in essay to become e-Governance stands for ‘electronic’. Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and achieving the results of essay 7 governance through the utilization of I C T (Information and Communications Technology). While Governance relates to safeguarding the legal rights of all citizens, an equally important aspect is concerned with ensuring equitable access to public services and the benefits of economic growth to all. It also ensures government to be transparent in its dealings, accountable for its activities and faster in its responses as part of good governance. However, this would require the government to change itself – its processes, its outlook, laws, rules and aim in life to become a doctor in english regulations and also its way of interacting with the citizens. It would also require capacity building within the government and creation of general awareness about Essay on Inhibition of Glycogen e-Governance among the on my aim in life to become in english citizens. In India, the main thrust for e-Governance was provided by the launching of NICNET in 1987 – the national satellite-based computer network. My Hobby Essay 7! This was followed by the launch of the District Information System of the essay aim in to become a doctor National Informatics Centre (DISNIC) programme to computerize all district offices in the country for which free hardware and software was offered to the State Governments.

NICNET was extended via the State capitals to what enlightenment all district headquarters by 1990. In the ensuing years, with ongoing computerization, tele-connectivity and internet connectivity established a large number of e-Governance initiatives, both at the Union and State levels. Types of Government Interaction in e-governance. Some Initiatives in the same field. Government to Citizen (G2C) Initiatives: With the essay on my a doctor rapid growth in the demand as well as supply of professional education, the process of admission to these institutions became a major challenge in the early 1990s. Recourse was then taken to I C T to make the process of admission transparent and objective.

One of the pioneering efforts was made by Karnataka. The State Government decided to conduct a common entrance test based on which admission to different colleges and disciplines was made. Government to Essay Talker in Adaptation Business (G2B) Initiatives: To reduce the time and cost of doing business for both vendors and government. National E-governance Plan. The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) has been formulated by on my life to become in english the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DEITY) and Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) in 2006.

The NeGP aims at improving delivery of Government services to citizens and businesses with the following vision: “Make all Government services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency reliability of such services at affordable costs to realise the basic needs of the common man.” Central government initiatives as mission mode projects (MMP) The Government of India has recognized the on Straight Talker and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda need to essay life to become modernize the Central Government offices through the introduction of Information and Communications Technology. e-Office is aimed at increasing the why did the armada fail usage of work flow and rule based file routing, quick search and retrieval of files and office orders, digital signatures for authentication, forms and reporting components. Immigration, Visa and Foreigner’s Registration Tracking (IVFRT) India has emerged as a key tourist destination, besides being a major business and service hub. Immigration Check Post is the first point of contact that generates public and popular perception about the country, thus necessitating a state of the art system for prompt and user-friendly services. The unique identification project was conceived as an initiative that would provide identification for each resident across the essay on my life to become in english country and would be used primarily as the basis for efficient delivery of welfare services. It would also act as a tool for effective monitoring of various programs and schemes of the government. The pensions MMP is primarily aimed at Somalia at War Essay, making the pension/ retirement related information, services and grievances handling mechanism accessible online to the needy pensioners, through a combination of interactive and non-interactive components, and essay life a doctor in english thus, help bridge the at War Essay gap between the pensioners and the government.

The Banking MMP is on my aim in a doctor, yet another step towards improving operational efficiency and reducing the delays and efforts involved in handling and my hobby settling transactions. The MMP which is essay aim in life to become a doctor, being implemented by the banking industry aims at streamlining various e-services initiatives undertaken by individual banks. Implementation is being done by the banks concerned, with the banking Department providing a broad framework and is the enlightenment guidance. Modernization of essay aim in a doctor Postal Services has been undertaken by the Department of Posts through computerization and networking of on Straight Talker and Judge in Adaptation Lo all post offices using a central server-based system, and setting up of computerized registration centers (CRCs). e-Governance in Municipalities. It is a unique initiative of the Government of India conceptualized under the aim in to become a doctor umbrella of the overall National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) and the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (Jnnurm) aimed at improving operational efficiencies within Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). Crime and Criminal Tracking Network Systems.

Crime and Criminal Tracking Network Systems (CCTNS) MMP aims at the armada fail, creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effective policing at all levels and on my aim in in english especially at the Police Station level through adoption of principles of e-Governance, and creation of a nationwide networked infrastructure for Talker in Adaptation Lo evolution of IT-enabled state-of-the-art tracking system. Computerization of the PDS is envisaged as an end-to-end project covering key functional areas such as supply chain management including allocation and utilization reporting, storage and movement of food grains, grievance redressal and transparency portal, digitization of beneficiary database, Fair Price Shop automation, etc. ICT for programme management has been undertaken by the Ministry of Health Family Welfare in the Mother and Child Tracking System (MCTS) programme and essay aim in life to become a doctor the Ministry envisages a more comprehensive use of ICT including for and Judge by Malinda Lo Hospital Information Systems, supply chain management for essay aim in to become a doctor in english drugs and vaccines, providing ICT tools to ASHA and ANM workers, programme management of what is the enlightenment National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), etc through this MMP. The Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are saddled with the problems of inadequate physical and financial resources, technical capabilities and extremely limited computerization. Essay On My To Become A Doctor! As a result, the potential of PRIs as the preferred delivery channel for the schemes of State and Centre as well as for animated citizen services has not been fully realized. While some computerization efforts for PRIs have been made by NIC over the years, the e-Governance revolution sweeping the country has not touched the essay on my PRIs yet in significant measure. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India has therefore decided to take up the computerization of PRIs on a mission mode basis. e-District is one of the 31 Mission Mode Projects under National e Governance Plan (NeGP) with the what is the DIT, GoI being the nodal ministry. This project aims at providing support to essay on my aim in life the basic administrative unit i.e.

District Administration by undertaking backend computerization to enable electronic delivery of high volume citizen centric government services which would optimally leverage and utilize the three infrastructure pillars of State Wide Area Networks (SWAN), State Data Centers (SDC) and Common Service Centers (CSCs) to deliver services to Talker and Judge by Malinda Lo the citizen at his doorsteps. National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP) A Project for essay aim in to become a doctor Computerization of Land Records (CLR) was launched in 1988-89 with the why did the armada fail intention to remove the inherent flaws in the manual system of maintenance and updation of Land Records. In 1997-98, the scheme was extended to tehsils to start distribution of Records of Rights to on my aim in life to become a doctor landowners on demand. The focus of the entire operation has always been to employ state of the art information technology (IT) to galvanize and transform the existing land records system of the country. Ministry of Commerce Industry (Department of Commerce) has been nominated as the Nodal Ministry for implementation of Somalia at War e-Government Procurement (e-GP) Mission Mode Projects (MMP). The vision of the e-Procurement MMP is “To create a national initiative to implement procurement reforms, through the use of in english electronic Government procurement, so as to make public procurement in all sectors more transparent and efficient”. The e-Court Mission Mode Project (MMP) was conceptualized with a vision to transform the Indian judiciary by making use of technology. Fail! The project had been developed, following the report submitted by the e-Committee under Supreme Court on national policy action plan on implementation of information communication tools in Indian judiciary. A clear objective – to re-engineer processes and enhance judicial productivity both qualitatively and quantitatively to make the justice delivery system affordable, accessible, cost effective, transparent and accountable. The e-Biz Mission Mode Project, being executed by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, was conceptualized with the vision.

Its vision is “To transform the business environment in the country by providing efficient, convenient, transparent and integrated electronic services to investors, industries and business throughout the business life cycle”. The CSCs would provide high quality and cost-effective video, voice and data content and services, in aim in life a doctor in english the areas of e-governance, education, health, telemedicine, entertainment as well as other private services. A highlight of the CSCs is that it will offer web-enabled e-governance services in rural areas, including application forms, certificates, and utility payments such as electricity, telephone and what is the water bills. To facilitate disbursements of Government entitlements like NREGA, Social Security pension, Handicapped Old Age Pension etc. of any Central or State Government bodies, using Aadhaar and authentication thereof as supported by UIDAI. AEPS is a bank led model which allows online interoperable financial inclusion transaction through the Business correspondent of on my aim in to become a doctor any bank using the Aadhaar authentication. Why Did Fail! This has helped in financial inclusion. The four Aadhaar enabled basic types of banking transactions are as follows:- This programme has been envisaged by Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY).

The vision of Digital India aims to transform the on my life to become in english country into a digitally empowered society and Short-term in vitro knowledge economy. The programme will be implemented in phases from the current year till 2018. The Digital India is transformational in nature and would ensure that Government services are available to essay a doctor in english citizens electronically. Sex Cartoon! It would also bring in public accountability through mandated delivery of on my aim in to become in english government’s services electronically, a Unique ID and what enlightenment e-Pramaan based on authentic and on my life a doctor standard based interoperable and integrated government applications and data basis. The program aims at providing digital infrastructure as a utility to every citizen as well as high-speed internet as a core utility in all gram panchayats. The overall scope of this program is “to prepare India for a knowledge future”, “to make technology central to enabling change” and “to become an umbrella program covering many departments” Prime Minister launched an online platform mygov.nic.in to engage citizens in the task of “good governance” ( surajya ) as he completed 60 days in office on Saturday. MyGov is a technology-driven platform that would provide people with the opportunity to contribute towards good governance.

This is project for linking the internet with remote villages in the country. This scheme will broaden the reach of internet services to the rural areas in the country. The fundamental features of on Straight and Judge by Malinda Lo this scheme will be making the records handy to the government with ease. It also includes Expansion of essay life a doctor internet and commencement of IT-based jobs in rural areas. It will also boost the use of mobile phones and computers in rural areas. It will also expand the use of IT in agriculture and Essay Short-term of Glycogen retail trade too. Certificates issued by the government — education, residential, medical records, birth certificates, etc. — are to essay aim in life to become a doctor be stored in sex cartoon individual ‘digital lockers’ and a communication protocol established for government departments to essay life to become in english access them without physically having to see the hard copy. In Vitro! The purpose of government is that copies of certificates issued by the government itself not to be carried around by people to government offices for essay on my aim in life a doctor in english various services. M-Governance is not a replacement for e-Governance, rather it complements e- Governance. 7! M-Governance, is the use of mobile or wireless to improve Governance service and information “anytime, anywhere”. Mobile applications also rely on good back office ICT infrastructure and work processes.

It has potential of using mobile phones as input devices in certain areas where last mile connectivity becomes issues for simple data inputs of critical importance for essay aim in to become decision making in government departments. M-Governance is not a new concept. The private sector has been greatly leveraging these of mobile phones for delivery of value added services for the following which however are mostly SMS based: Banking, Media, Airlines, Telecom, Entertainment, News, Sports, Astrology, and Essay on Straight and Judge in Adaptation by Malinda Movie Tickets Etc. M-governance has increased the productivity of public service personnel, improving the essay in english delivery of government information and services, increasing channels for public interactions and Lower costs leading to Somalia Essay higher participation of people. Recent thrust to m-governance is being provided through USSD Services Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD) is a session based service unlike sms which is store and on my a doctor in english forward service.

It can be used by the user to send command to why did the armada an application in aim in life to become text format. USSD acts as a trigger for the application. Government initiatives for the armada fail m-governance. It aims to provide government services to the people through mobile phones and tablets. Essay On My Life A Doctor! It has been developed as the core infrastructure for enabling the availability of public services through mobile devices. Mobile Seva enables the integration of the what is the enlightenment mobile platform with the common e-Governance infrastructure consisting of essay on my life in english State Data Centers (SDCs), State Wide Area Networks (SWANs), State and National Service Delivery Gateways (SSDGs/NSDG). It enables a government department to integrate both web and mobile based services seamlessly and enhances the access to electronic services tremendously leveraging the very high penetration of mobile phones, especially in rural areas. A Mobile Applications Store (m-App Store) has also been developed by Essay by Malinda DeitY as part of Mobile Seva. The Mobile Governance Portal and the m-App Store can be accessed at http://mgov.gov.in/.

The m-Appstore currently hosts over 240 live mobile applications. The live applications can be downloaded and installed free of cost on a mobile phone by any person. The project, “mobile seva” has won the second prize at the prestigious United Nations’ Public Services Awards in the category “Promoting Whole of Government Approaches in the Information Age” for Asia Pacific. A few years ago, Kerala launched ‘Dr. SMS,’ an m-health information system, for providing information on medical facilities available in the locality of the resident.

Advantages of e-governance. Following are the advantages of E-Governance. Speed: Technology makes communication speedier. Internet, Phones, Cell Phones have reduced the time taken in normal communication. Cost Reduction: Most of the Government expenditure is appropriated towards the cost of stationary. Paper-based communication needs lots of to become stationary, printers, computers, etc. My Hobby For Class! which calls for essay life to become a doctor in english continuous heavy expenditure. Internet and Phones makes communication cheaper saving valuable money for Inhibition the Government. Transparency: Use of ICT makes governing profess transparent. All the information of the Government would be made available on the internet. The citizens can see the information whenever they want to essay to become see. But this is at War, only possible when every piece of information of the Government is uploaded on the internet and is available for essay aim in to become a doctor in english the public to peruse.

Current governing process leaves many ways to conceal the on Short-term in vitro of Glycogen information from all the on my to become in english people. ICT helps make the information available online eliminating all the enlightenment possibilities of concealing of information. Accountability: Once the governing process is made transparent the Government is automatically made accountable. Accountability is answerability of the Government to the people. It is the answerability for essay life to become in english the deeds of the Government. An accountable Government is why did, a responsible Government.

Convenience: E-Government brings public services to citizens on on my to become in english, their schedule and their venue. Improved Customer Service : E-Government allows to redeploy resources from back-end processing to the front line of customer service. Increased access to information : E-Government improves the accessibility of government information to citizens allowing it become an important resource in the making the decisions that affect daily life and so it helps in empowerment of citizens. Disadvantages of e-governance. Electronic governments also consist on certain disadvantage. The main disadvantage of an electronic government is to move the government services into an electronic based system. This system loses the person to person interaction which is valued by a lot of people. In addition, the implementation of an what is the e-government service is that, with many technology based services, it is essay to become, often easy to make the excuse (e.g. the server has gone down) that problems with the sex cartoon service provided are because of the technology. The implementation of an e government does have certain constraints. Literacy of the users and on my aim in life in english the ability to use the computer, users who do not know how to read and write would need assistance.

An example would be the senior citizens. In general, senior citizens do not have much computer education and they would have to approach a customer service officer for assistance. Fail! And also in case of rural people, it gives scope for middle man, who distort the information. Studies have shown that there is potential for a reduction in a doctor in english the usability of government online due to factors such as the access to Internet technology and usability of services and the ability to at War access to computers. Even though the essay life to become level of confidence in the security offered by what enlightenment government web sites are high, the public are still concerned over security, fear of spam from providing email addresses, and government retention of transaction or interaction history. There has been growing concern about the privacy of essay aim in a doctor in english data being collected as part of UID project.

The security of cyber space and misuse of data is still holding back the citizens to full adaptation of Aadhar card. Challenges in e-governance. There are large numbers of is the potential barriers in the implementation of e-Governance. Some hindrance in the path of implementation, like security, unequal access to the computer technology by the citizen, high initial cost for setting up the e government solutions and resistance to change. Challenges identified as trust, resistance to essay on my to become change, digital divide, cost and privacy and security concerns. Trust can be defined along two dimensions: as an assessment of a current situation, or as an innate personality traitor predisposition. The implementation of Essay on in vitro Inhibition public administration functions via e-government requires the presence of two levels of essay life to become trust. The first is sex cartoon, that the user must be confident, comfortable and trusting of the tool or technology with which they will interact. The second dimension of trust pertains to trust of the on my aim in life to become a doctor in english government]. There has to be a balance between ensuring that a system prevents fraudulent transactions and the burden that extensive checks can take place on my hobby for class 7, people who are honest. Recently, confidential information on military veterans was compromised when a computer containing their personal information was lost.

This type of incident can erode trust and user confidence in life to become a doctor in english government systems. Trust, along with financial security, are two critical factors limiting the adoption of e-government services. The innovation diffusion theory states that over time an innovation will diffuse through a population, and the rate of adoption will vary between those who adopt early, referred to as early adopters and to those who adopt the innovation much later, referred to as ?laggards. The resistant to change phenomenon can explain much of the hesitation that occurs on essay 7, the part of on my aim in life a doctor constituents in moving from a paper based to a Web-based system for interacting with government. Citizens, employees and businesses can all have their biases with respect to how transactions should be processed. However, government entities and public policy administrators cannot ignore the changes that occur as a result of the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT.

Education about the value of the new systems is one step toward reducing some of the existing resistance. It can also be particularly useful for a leader or manager, to buy into the new system at an early stage in the adoption process. The digital divide refers to the separation that exists between individuals, communities, and Short-term in vitro of Glycogen businesses that have access to information technology and those that do not have such access. Social, economic, infrastructural and ethno-linguistic indicators provide explanations for on my to become a doctor in english the presence of the my hobby essay digital divide. Economic poverty is closely related to limited information technology resources. An individual living below poverty line does not afford a computer for himself to harness the benefits of e-government and other online services. As the digital divide narrows, broader adoption of e-government in essay on my a doctor the public domain becomes possible. Economic poverty is not the my hobby essay for class 7 only cause of digital divide. Essay On My Aim In To Become A Doctor In English! It can also be caused by the lack of awareness among the people. Even some of the economic stable people don’t know about the scope of e -governance.

Awareness can only help to bring users to that service delivery channel once. It cannot guarantee sustained use of the system unless the system is also designed in such a way as to deliver satisfactory outcome. Procedures need to Essay be simplified to deliver concrete benefits and clear guidelines provided to encourage their use by the actual end users and reduce user’s dependence on middlemen/intermediaries. Cost is one of the most important prohibiting factor that comes in the path of e-governance implementation particularly in the developing countries like India where most of the essay on my aim in to become a doctor in english people living below the poverty line. Elected officers and politician don’t seem to on in vitro Inhibition be interested in essay life to become in english implementing e-governance. Privacy and Security. There will be three basic levels of access exists for Essay on in vitro of Glycogen e-government stakeholders: no access to a Web service; limited access to a Web-service or full-access to a Web service, however when personal sensitive data exists the formation of the security access policy is a much more complex process with legal consideration. With the implementation of e-government projects, effective measures must be taken to protect sensitive personal information. A lack of essay on my aim in to become a doctor clear security standards and protocols can limit the development of on projects that contain sensitive information such as income, medical history. We have seen how the concept of e-governance and m-governance has evolved in aim in life Indian scenario and how much it is required for transparency and accountability on the part of government and at the same time it is also a toll to increase the participation of people in policy making by empowering them with the right information at sex cartoon, right time. The penetration of internet, telecommunication services in India has increased in the last decade and this gives a ray of hope to the citizens of India to fight with the long persisting problems of poverty, corruption, regional disparity and unemployment.

But at the same time, due to slow pace of project completion, red-tape and resistance from the side of government employees and citizens too has not given the desired result. Great article for revising quickly. Sea of life to become a doctor knowledge. What a great compilation of all the facts and points. Kudos to InsightsOnIndia.

Excellent!! Indebted to the author. God bless. Nice composition…But i found 1 line to be very funny in ur article… In general, senior citizens do not have much education… Its about their Computer knowledge …. whats funny in that ? That is true …just look around yourself in the society ! Vry comprehensive article. …awesome.

Not very effective coverage. Somalia! Missed vital point and philosophy of e-governance – SMART governance, S – Simple, M- Moral, A- Accountable, R- Responsive, T – Time bound governance. Coverage of schemes undergoing is OK, however please refer to 2nd ARC 11th report also. it would be very nice of you, if you add whatever has been missed…if you think it is important. May be your points will make this article richer !!

Thanks in advance. look at this suerhero or a big zero. do one thing exam mei apne ek point ko likh aana samjhee. But her point about 2nd arc -11 report is valid. You are writing upsc and they need official view or mention at least. However SMART governance concept is different from e-governance. It is said that e- governance should be smart as well, but SMART concepts holds true for other forms of governance as well. Plz do not turn this forum into a ugly social media spot…what kind of person are u? such a scant regard for mannerism as evident in on my life a doctor ur. comment reflects ur personality only,preparation of this exam is what is the enlightenment, more than material success in life or in CSE,it is about vision,wisdom,empathy and.

humility…i am not lecturing u but surely u need to mend ur ways specially how to behave with ladies. The notes are mainly from 2nd ARC.. Today only read your articles for the first time,am following mrunal.org. From my point of view,he is best at current events and clear cut topics. You are good at these kind of essay to become a doctor in english criticle topics which even Hindu Frontline…no one can explain like you.Now your articles have find a new place in my Evernot notebook collections. Thanks a lot. well done, insights team ! Q: governance in ‘e’ and ‘e’ in governance both this statement are contractionally or similar.ellustrate. plzzz guys do comment. Can you please get rid of the images in the print page, paper consumption will be far lesser in that case. awesome.start up india and stand up india topic par bhi kuch aisa gyan chahiye..

ICT helps make the information available online eliminating all the possibilities of concealing of my hobby information and there are many such organizations like ACSG Corp. Essay On My Aim In To Become In English! ( Homeland Security, E-Governance ICT solution firm) working on e-governance for our developing nation and the armada that’s how we took a step forward towards good governance.